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  • 1.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uhrig, Emily J.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Favati, Anna
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlblom, Josefin
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, Svante
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The influence of rearing on behavior, brain monoamines and gene expression in three-spined sticklebacks2018Data set
    Abstract [en]
    1. The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences.
    2. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression.
    3. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and increased serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior.
    4. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.
  • 2.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Favati, A.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlbom, J.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, S.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks2018In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks <i>(Gasterosteus aculeatus)</i> under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, P
    et al.
    Swedish University Agriculture Science.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Swedish University Agriculture Science.
    White, D
    Marwell Wildlife, Winchester.
    Westander, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, M
    Swedish University Agriculture Science.
    Current Husbandry of Red Pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in Zoos2010In: ZOO BIOLOGY, ISSN 0733-3188, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 732-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. Sixty-nine zoos, mainly from Europe but also from North America and Australia/New Zealand, responded to our survey. The results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. The average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum size recommended by the management guidelines, although seven zoos have smaller enclosures. About half the zoos do not follow the guidelines concerning visitor access and number of nest boxes. Other issues that may compromise animal welfare include proximity of neighboring carnivore species and placement of nest boxes. Zoo Biol 29: 732-740, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 4.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thorpe, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The ontogeny of personality traits in the redjunglefowl, Gallus gallus2016In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 484-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistent behavioral differences among individuals, that is, personality, are described in numerous species. Nevertheless, thedevelopment of behavioral consistency over ontogeny remains unclear, including whether the personality of individuals is consistentthroughout life, and if adult personality can be predicted already at young age. We investigated the ontogeny of personality in thered junglefowl (Gallus gallus) by scoring personality of hatchlings at 5 time points through adulthood, including before and after themajor developmental stages of becoming independent and sexual mature. We use the conceptual framework laid out by Stamps andGroothuis (2010a) to holistically investigate the observed changes in behavioral response over ontogeny. We demonstrate that meanvalues of behavioral responses changed across ontogeny and stabilized after independence. Rank-order consistencies of behavioralresponses were overall low across independence and sexual maturation. Only in 1 case could low rank-order consistencies potentiallybe explained by different phenotypes displaying different amounts of change in behavior; more explorative individuals decreased inexploration after independence, while less explorative individuals remained so. Correlations among behavior varied across ontogenyand weakened after sexual maturation. Our results demonstrate that both absolute values and consistency of behavioral traits maychange across ontogeny and that individual developmental trajectories and adult personality only to some extent can be predictedearly in life. These results have implications for future studies on personality, highlighting that the life stage at which individuals arescored affects the observed consistency of behavioral responses.

  • 5.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Minderman, Jeroen
    University of Stirling, Scotland.
    Bunnefeld, Nils
    University of Stirling, Scotland.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mansson, Johan
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Managing landscapes for multiple objectives: alternative forage can reduce the conflict between deer and forestry2014In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 97-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deer (Cervidae) cause considerable damage to forest plantations, crops, and protected habitats. The most common response to this damage is to implement strategies to lower population densities. However, lowering deer density may not always be desirable from hunting, recreational, or conservation perspectives. Therefore, knowledge is needed about additional factors beyond deer density that affect damage levels, and management actions that consider competing management goals. We studied the relationships between levels of bark-stripping by red deer (Cervus elaphus) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and (1) relative deer density indices (pellet group count and deer harvest data), (2) availability of alternative natural forage (cover of forage species) and (3) proportion forest in the landscape, both at a forest stand scale and at a landscape scale. Extensive variation in damage level was evident between the six study areas. On a stand scale, the proportion of spruce damaged was positively related to pellet group density, indicating the importance of local deer usage of stands. In addition, available alternative forage in the field layer within spruce stands and proportion forest surrounding stands was negatively related to damage level. On the landscape scale, damage level was negatively related to availability of forage in the field and shrub layers and proportion forest, but was not related to any of the relative deer density indices. Increasing alternative forage may thus decrease damage and thereby reduce conflicts. Additionally, the proportion of forest in the landscape affects damage levels and should thus be considered in landscape planning and when forecasting damage risk. The relationship between local deer usage of stands and damage level suggests that future studies should try to separate the effects of local deer usage and deer density.

  • 6.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berneheim, Christina
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    A cry for help: female distress calling during copulation is context dependent2014In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 92, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to selection for increased mating propensity, males often expose females to sexual harassment.Consequently, females may evolve counterstrategies to retain control of mating. Females can do thisdirectly by resisting copulations, or indirectly by manipulating other males to intervene and prevent thecopulation. Uttering copulation calls may be one indirect method for females to trigger male intervention.Copulation calls are commonly observed in mammals, primarily in primates, and also in some birds.Female fowl, Gallus gallus, sometimes utter calls during copulation, particularly in forced copulationswith low-ranking males. These loud calls, called distress calls, attract other males and can result indisruption of the copulation, and subsequent mating with the intervening male if he is high ranking.Consequently, uttering such calls can act both to abort a coerced copulation and to generate novel opportunitiesfor females to copulate with higher-ranking males. Nevertheless, uttering loud calls can carrycosts, such as attracting predators. Females are therefore predicted to utter copulation calls primarilywhen doing so offers benefits, which for female fowl requires the presence of another high-ranking male.We tested this prediction by altering the social environment of female domestic fowl, G. g. domesticus.We found that females uttered copulation calls more frequently during copulations in the presence ofdominant ‘observer’ males than in their absence. Thus, we provide evidence of context-dependent utteranceof female calls during copulations in a bird. This type of female vocalization is rarely investigatedin nonprimate vertebrates, but increased research in this field offers potential to improve understandingof female mate choice strategies and the dynamics of sexual selection.

  • 7.
    Sorato, Enrico
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Garnham, Laura
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wilson, Alastair
    Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, UK.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heritabilities and co-variation among cognitive traits in red junglefowl2018In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 373, no 1756, article id 20170285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural selection can act on between-individual variation in cognitive abilities, yet evolutionary responses depend on the presence of underlying genetic variation. It is, therefore, crucial to determine the relative extent of genetic versus environmental control of these among-individual differences in cognitive traits to understand their causes and evolutionary potential. We investigated heritability of associative learning performance and of a cognitive judgement bias (optimism), as well as their covariation, in a captive pedigree-bred population of red junglefowl (Gallus gallusn > 300 chicks over 5 years). We analysed performance in discriminative and reversal learning (two facets of associative learning), and cognitive judgement bias, by conducting animal models to disentangle genetic from environmental contributions. We demonstrate moderate heritability for reversal learning, and weak to no heritability for optimism and discriminative learning, respectively. The two facets of associative learning were weakly negatively correlated, consistent with hypothesized trade-offs underpinning individual cognitive styles. Reversal, but not discriminative learning performance, was associated with judgement bias; less optimistic individuals reversed a previously learnt association faster. Together these results indicate that genetic and environmental contributions differ among traits. While modular models of cognitive abilities predict a lack of common genetic control for different cognitive traits, further investigation is required to fully ascertain the degree of covariation between a broader range of cognitive traits and the extent of any shared genetic control.

  • 8.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet Anim Ecol, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Husby, Arild
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Biosci, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hayward, Alexander
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Buechel, Severine D.
    ETH, Inst Integrat Biol IBZ, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparative support for the expensivetissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlatedwith smaller gut and greater parentalinvestment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 263, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirementsof encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerninghow energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and (1) investment intoother costly tissues, (2) overall metabolic rate, and (3) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly beentested in homeothermic animals and the existing data are inconclusive. However, there are good reasons to believe that energeticlimitations might play a role in large-scale patterns of brain size evolution also in ectothermic vertebrates. Here, we test thesehypotheses in a group of ectothermic vertebrates, the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. After controlling for the effect of sharedancestry and confounding ecological variables, we find a negative association between brain size and gut size. Furthermore, wefind that the evolution of a larger brain is accompanied by increased reproductive investment into egg size and parental care. Ourresults indicate that the energetic costs of encephalization may be an important general factor involved in the evolution of brainsize also in ectothermic vertebrates.

  • 9.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Evolutionary Biology Centre, Department of Ecology and Genetics/Animal Ecology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Department of Zoology/Ethology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hayward, Alexander
    Department of Zoology/Ethology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Buechel, Severine Denise
    Department of Zoology/Ethology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Department of Zoology/Ethology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evolution of brain-body allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 1559-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size is strongly associated with body size in all vertebrates. This relationship has been hypothesized to be an important constraint on adaptive brain size evolution. The essential assumption behind this idea is that static (i.e., within species) brain-body allometry has low ability to evolve. However, recent studies have reported mixed support for this view. Here, we examine brain-body static allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We found considerable variation in the static allometric intercept, which explained the majority of variation in absolute and relative brain size. In contrast, the slope of the brain-body static allometry had relatively low variation, which explained less variation in absolute and relative brain size compared to the intercept and body size. Further examination of the tempo and mode of evolution of static allometric parameters confirmed these observations. Moreover, the estimated evolutionary parameters indicate that the limited observed variation in the static allometric slope could be a result of strong stabilizing selection. Overall, our findings suggest that the brain-body static allometric slope may represent an evolutionary constraint in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

  • 10.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The relationship between personality and cognition in the fowl, Gallus gallus2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with a changing environment, animals have traditionally been considered to behave adaptively to each situation faced. Yet, individual behavioural responses can both differ widely within populations, and show between-individual consistency (i.e. describing variation in animal personality). In this thesis, I focus on individual differences in animal personality and cognition (i.e. how animals perceive, process, store and act on environmental stimuli), and explore the possibility that they are interlinked. I use domestic- and red junglefowl (Gallus gallus ssp.), a species that is cognitively, behaviourally and socially complex, to explore these aspects of behaviour, through a series of studies.

    Animal personality and coping styles are frequently used terms to describe within- and between-individual differences in behaviour, which are consistent over time and across various situations. The terms are often used as synonyms, even though they differ in some respects. In paper I, I show that animal personality and coping styles can be measured in red junglefowl, and that behavioural flexibility might be an important aspect for both. Further, I show that the terms should not be used as synonyms since they describe different aspects of behavioural variation.

    In paper II, I observe large individual variation in both personality traits and learning speed in both chicks and adult red junglefowl. Interestingly, learning performance does not correlate across tasks, contrasting what has been found in humans and rodents. Thus, individuals that learn rapidly in one task are not necessarily fast learners in another task. I observe a relationship between personality and cognition that is task- and age-dependent, in which exploration relates to learning speed, but in opposite directions for chicks compared to adult females. In paper III, I show that red junglefowl chicks that are more behaviourally flexible have a stronger preference for new generalised stimuli, than less behaviourally flexible chicks. Behavioural flexibility was associated with fearfulness, indicating variation in reactive-proactive coping styles. In paper IV, I show that early cognitive stimulation to some extent can affect adult personality, thus showing a causal relationship between personality and cognition. Not all personality traits were affected, which might depend on the type of cognitive stimulation chicks were exposed to.

    Important cognitive processes like perception and decision-making, can contain biases. One such bias is called judgment bias, which describes how individuals interpret ambiguous stimuli on a scale from positive to negative (optimism to pessimism). In paper V, I show that alteration of emotional state can influence such biases. Here, unpredictable stress influence judgment bias negatively, when individuals are housed in simpler, but not in complex environments, suggesting that there is an effect of additive stress that lead to reduced optimism. Complexity instead seems to buffer against negative effects of stress, since individuals in complex environments remained optimistic after stress exposure. Furthermore, increased dopamine activity was associated with optimism in chicks. In paper VI, I find that aspects of personality associate with how chicks judge ambiguity. Highly active individuals are more likely to approach cues than less active individuals, and when approaching, individuals that are slow to approach ambiguous cues are more vigilant when assayed in personality assays. Vigilant individuals might be more worried and reactive, which suggest that emotional traits can influence responses in a judgment bias task.

    Taken together, I show consistent behavioural differences among individuals describing personality and coping styles, and variation in cognition. I show that these traits are related, and that there is an interplay between them, in which cognition can influence personality, and vice versa. I further show that judgment may be affected by the individual’s current affective state and personality. Thus, I show a complex relationship between personality and cognition that in combination with environmental effects can help explain behavioural variation.

    List of papers
    1. A comparison of animal personality and coping styles in the red junglefowl
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison of animal personality and coping styles in the red junglefowl
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    2017 (English)In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 130, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased focus in biology on consistent behavioural variation. Several terms are used to describe this variation, including animal personality and coping style. Both terms describe between individual consistency in behavioural variation; however, they differ in the behavioural assays typically used, the expected distribution of response variables, and whether they incorporate variation in behavioural flexibility. Despite these differences, the terms are often used interchangeably. We conducted experiments using juvenile and adult red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, as subjects to explore the degree to which animal personality and coping styles overlap. We demonstrate that animal personality and coping styles can be described in this species, and that shyer individuals had more flexible responses, as expected for coping styles. Behavioural responses from both personality and coping style assays had continuous distributions, and were not clearly separated into two types. Behavioural traits were not correlated and, hence, there was no evidence of a behavioural syndrome. Further, behavioural responses obtained in personality assays did not correlate with those from coping style tests. Animal personality and coping styles are therefore not synonymous in the red junglefowl. We suggest that the terms animal personality and coping style are not equivalent and should not be used interchangeably. (C) 2017 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
    Keywords
    boldness e; xploration; Gallus gallus; individual differences; stress coping
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139903 (URN)10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.024 (DOI)000406939400022 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Swedish Research Council; ERC (Advanced Research Grant Genewell); LiU programme for Future research leaders; Swedish research council Formas

    Available from: 2017-08-24 Created: 2017-08-24 Last updated: 2017-09-13
    2. Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: a role for cognitive stimulation?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: a role for cognitive stimulation?
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    2017 (English)In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 134, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation as adults were more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Developmental plasticity, Boldness, Exploration, Gallus gallus, Juvenile learning, Neophobia, Vigilance
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131304 (URN)10.1016/j.beproc.2016.06.003 (DOI)000392893600011 ()27329431 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
  • 11.
    Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Campderrich, Irene
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Neiker-Tecnalia, Department of Animal Production, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
    Jansson, Emilie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wichman, Anette
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, Svante
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Keeling, Linda
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Environmental complexity buffers against stress-induced negative judgement bias in female chickens2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 5404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive processes are often biased by emotions. In humans, affective disorders are accompanied by pessimistic judgement, while optimistic judgement is linked to emotional stability. Similar to humans, animals tend to interpret ambiguous stimuli negatively after experiencing stressful events, although the long-lasting impact on judgement bias has rarely been investigated. We measure judgement bias in female chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) after exposure to cold stress, and before and after exposure to additional unpredictable stressors. Additionally, we explore if brain monoamines can explain differences in judgement bias. Chicks exposed to cold stress did not differ in judgement bias compared to controls, but showed sensitivity to additional stressors by having higher motivation for social reinstatement. Environmental complexity reduced stress-induced negative judgement bias, by maintaining an optimistic bias in individuals housed in complex conditions even after stress exposure. Moreover, judgement bias was related to dopamine turnover rate in mesencephalon, with higher activity in individuals that had a more optimistic response. These results demonstrate that environmental complexity can buffer against negative effects of additive stress and that dopamine relates to judgement bias in chicks. These results reveal that both internal and external factors can mediate emotionally biased judgement in animals, thus showing similarities to findings in humans.

  • 12.
    Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fåglars Luktsinne2012In: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 107, no 4, p. 26-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scent of the enemy: behavioural responses to predator faecal odour in the fowl2012In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 547-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical communication is used by diverse organisms in a variety of contexts and can have strong fitness consequences for the individuals involved. However, despite the extensive use of birds as models for many research areas in biology, avian olfaction has been poorly investigated. Studies on bird species that lack well-developed olfactory organs and those investigating responses to predator odours are particularly scarce. We investigated behavioural responses of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, a ground-living species with intermediate olfactory bulb size, to several predator and nonpredator faecal odours. We found that the birds spent less time foraging and were more vigilant when exposed to predator faecal odour compared with nonpredator faecal odour. Individuals showed a similar response when exposed to increased amounts of faeces. Taken together, our results demonstrate that domestic fowl can distinguish between herbivore and predator faecal odour, and respond to predator olfactory cues alone, without prior experience. Our results have implications for the understanding of predator-prey interactions and responses to olfactory cues in general, and for chemical communication in avian species more specifically.

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