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  • 1.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emerging selective enlightened self-interest trends in society: Consequences for demand and supply of renewable energy2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply has for a long time primarily been a question of central management with littlecommunication between producer and consumer. Heating, electricity and other services havebeen produced by public corporations with little room for alternative solutions. However, thishas started to change, through grassroots movements aimed at greater degrees of self-sufficiencyin energy production. The trend is clear in both Sweden and internationally.

    This study focuses on grassroots movements, to understand the determinants for up-scalingtowards greater self-sufficiency. We are interested in understanding the driving forces behinddifferent types of communities with high ambitions on sustainability and self-sufficiency. Thestudy was conducted in two phases. In phase one, we have studied a total of five communities inDenmark, Germany and the UK that have taken extensive measures to increase energy selfsufficiency,in order to understand how and why they were created and how they work today. Inphase two, we have conducted a web-based questionnaire to residents in the Swedish ecovillages,to understand the reasons for moving there and the experience of living in the villages.The overall aim of the study is to understand citizens' involvement in sustainable communitiesand analyse what this could mean regarding current supply and demand for sustainable energy.

    The results from phase one, where interviews were conducted with key stakeholders inrenewable communities, shows that these communities took their steps towards moresustainability due to either momentous events, such as the oil crises of the 1970s, or throughnational "energy competitions"; they started because of particular events. Of paramountimportance for successful projects was a close cooperation between municipalities and citizens,particularly through civic ownership. It created interest, transparency and security in the projects.The development also created new jobs, attracting new jobs to the communities because of theexpertise that were there. Although there are great advantages of the high degree civil activity ithas been proved to be more time consuming. In all cases they have managed to becomeessentially self-sufficient in renewable energy, in one case, they produce up to 500 percent oftheir electricity needs, but a further challenge has been to adapt the independent systems toexisting centralized systems, adapted to different conditions.

    The questionnaire in phase two was sent out to 17 ecovillages. We received a response rate ofapproximately 30 percent and the questions concerned for example motives moving to the ecovillage,environmental interest and perceived satisfaction with the accommodation. The resultsshowed that residents are well educated with a great interest in the environment and that,although in many cases it expressed that sacrifices must be made on the basis of theaccommodation, it is worth it. The replies expressed few social conflicts but that the technicalsystems resulted in work and discussions. In some cases it seems as the technical systems wereoff-gauge from the start and something that had to be handled a long time to come. The technicalsystem performance is something that is very important for whether residents feel comfortable invillage or not. The villages started as movements willing to do something different.

    The results from the two studies show, among other things, the importance of communicationand inclusion of residents. People are also willing to adapt to new situations as long as it does notaffect the comfort too much or if it is for a good cause. However, there is considerableknowledge among all these communities that should be utilised in other contexts.

  • 2.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dugand, Santiago Mejiá
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: An analysis of governmental initiatives from eight countries2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, E-ISSN 2211-4653, Vol. 17, p. 73-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Export represents a means for the diffusion of environmental technologies with potential socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, environmental technology providers experience export barriers which stifle export and thus several governments continue to formulate export promotion initiatives towards this sector. Although export promotion is identified as essential in the environmental technology policy literature, it is yet to receive attention as to which initiatives are available in different countries including their potential relevance for environmental sustainability. Such knowledge is fundamental for policy learning and transfer including identification of good practices.

    To address this knowledge gap, we use market failure and comparative public policy theories to analyse export promotion initiatives from export promotion and export credit agencies across eight countries in Asia, Europe, and North America. Three major conclusions emerge: (1) governmental initiatives to promote environmental technology export can be categorised under financial aid, information provision, education and training, and trade mobility programs; (2) policy choices regarding promotion initiatives are mediated by the institutional context and interests of policy actors (3) relevant aspects of such initiatives for environmental sustainability include the incorporation of particular environmental technology characteristics in initiative formulation, and the prioritisation between different technology and markets types for implementation.

  • 3.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejia-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental Technology Export Promotion: A study of governmental initiatives in selected countries2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction-This report is based on structured literature reviews and brainstorming sections on governmental export promotion initiatives for environmental technology in selected countries. It is intended to answer two fundamental questions: why governments intervene to promote environmental technology export and how this intervention is actually executed. These questions emerged in-light of two general challenges: 1) the lack of vivid scientific insights with robust theoretical underpinnings on governmental efforts to promote environmental technology export, 2) the necessity to diffuse environmental technology across borders based on the facts that some environmental technologies have a pressing demand in countries other than their home origin and that most emerging economies are now facing environmental challenges which have long existed in many developed countries.

    Approach-A structured literature review which covered public export promotion agencies and export credit agencies in the top three environmental technology exporting countries (Germany, USA, and Japan); Scandinavian environmental technology competitors to Sweden (Finland, Denmark, Norway); other European competitor (Austria) and China as an emerging exporter was employed to identify governmental export promotion initiatives. For a deeper insight Austria, Denmark and Sweden were purposively selected for an analysis into their public ‘‘action’’ plans to promote environmental technology including exports. The empirical findings were then discussed in brainstorming sections using theories and best practices to come out with conclusions, some recommendations and further questions.

    Findings-The economic justification for government involvement in export promotion is based on the theory of asymmetric information and other market failures. The market has so far not shown enough signs of inherently diffusing environmental technologies to the desired societal level, thus the need for government intervention. Governmental intervention for environmental technology export promotion are organised by one or a combination of the following in the reviewed countries: by prioritized target countries; by prioritized environmental technologies; by alternative services (information, financial, training and education, trade and mobility related programs); by firm size (large vs. small) and by firm stage in internationalization. With regards to specific action plans, crosscutting focus remains on support for small and medium enterprises; strategies in Austria and Denmark to promote environmental technologies in aggregation focus on policy information provision to enterprises whiles technology and business development is given priority in Sweden.

    Concluding remarks-The report concludes with some remarks and further questions to stir up the debate and understanding on governmental initiatives for environmental technology export promotion. Highlights include 1) the recommendation for the provision of more detailed market information to export oriented firms recognizing the importance of externalities involved in gathering such information by private firms, 2) the need for mutual collaboration between governmental export promotion agencies and their initiatives which could be confusingly large within a country and  3) a hybridization of focus on policy instruments and technology & business development in-line with the complex ecosystem of interactions between market information and the innovation of environmental technologies.

    Further questions-Several questions remain to be answered. Among them include: 1) Which theories could be used to justify governmental intervention through export promotion of environmental technologies? 2) What, When and How to measure the effectiveness of such governmental export promotion initiatives and 3) How the inherent characteristics of environmental technologies have (or should) influence their export promotion remain to be answered.

  • 4.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid international and widespread diffusion of environmental technologies remains an essential requirement within the framework of sustainable development. Export offers a desired means for technology diffusion due to its strategic flexibility compared to other means such as foreign direct investment and aid. However, the export of environmental technologies is stifled by market failures. Among other reasons and as a response to such market failures, several governments are formulating initiatives to promote the export of environmental technologies. Although diffusion promotion is highlighted as an important research focus, a systematic overview of governmental initiatives that aim to promote environmental technology export is not available in the literature. This gap in the literature makes it difficult to analyse program effectiveness, and identify best practices. Using documentation from export promotion and export credit agencies in eight selected countries across Asia, Europe, and North America, we discuss governmental initiatives that aim to promote the export of environmental technologies. Our synthesis reveals that governmental promotion can be categorised according to alternative promotional services and is applied across target country(ies), environmental technology type(s), firm size(s),  and firm involvement in export. In addition, using theories from market failure and diffusion studies, we discuss similarities and differences between country initiatives. Trends indicate a focus on support for small and medium sized environmental technology exporters but interesting differences emerge with the choice of target markets, technologies, and the specific export promotion services.

  • 5.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejiá Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental technology exports: Analyzing Swedish government and firms' initiatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries have historically relied to a great extent on exports as an important component of theireconomic system. With the current globalization trends and increased competitiveness, promotingexports has therefore become a common strategy in order to boost economic growth. Exports ofenvironmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and acontribution to global sustainability. For this objective, governments provide different initiativesaimed at promoting foreign commerce among firms. The aim of this article is to assess the perceptionof the effectiveness of governmental initiatives for export promotion among Swedish environmentaltechnology firms. In addition, the article addresses firms’ internal initiatives to reach potential foreignmarkets through the use of modern communication channels. Data about 728 Swedish environmentaltechnology companies was collected and analyzed by using a combination of desktop research and aweb-based survey. The findings show a relatively high export orientation among the respondentcompanies. However, a majority of the respondents claim not to be aware of governmental initiativesthat fit their particular needs. Those who do show a high level of participation in such initiatives, butmost could not relate this participation to successful businesses abroad. From the firms’ perspective,presence on the Internet was considered to be a plausible indicator of their internal initiatives tocapture potential foreign customers. An analysis of the companies’ web sites, their languagecustomization options and the information they provide was undertaken. Results show that a largenumber of companies have functional web sites. However, the percentage of web sites with languagecustomization options was relatively low.The findings suggest that governmental initiatives have to consider the particular composition andneeds of the environmental technology sector in order to be more effective. On the other hand,although companies show to be proactive in the use of the Internet for increasing their outreach,language customization must be addressed as an important component when using such a tool. Bothgovernmental and firms’ initiatives remain important contributions to export success. In this regard,collaboration and communication between governmental export promotion agencies and firmsrepresents an important first step.

  • 6.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

  • 7.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving energy and material flows: a contribution to sustainability in megacities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As cities have become home for 50% of the world‟s population, urban systems have definitely caught public attention. The urban metabolism can be improved by transforming their linear behavior into a more circular one. This paper is based on a project initiated by the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping university, financed by Vinnova: Megatech. The aim is to study the megacities of Cairo and Mexico City in order to understand some of the problems they are facing. By improving their energy and material flows behavior, these megacities can benefit from the reduction of their dependence on fossil fuels and virgin materials; the protection of part of their social, economic and productive systems from external factors (e.g. political drawbacks, shortage/distribution problems, international prices); an increased effectiveness of their planning activities–as they would be based to a large extent on their own resources–and the reduction of their environmental burden. An in situ study will take place with the participation of local stakeholders. Information about environmental problems will be collected and potential solutions will be analyzed and suggested. A tentative model is presented, showing how the reinsertion of the outflows into the urban system could benefit these cities‟ overall environmental performance.

  • 8.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Megacities: turning ten million faces at Swedish environmental technology2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing a tremendous challenge with its current urbanization trend. In particular, two types of cities–i.e. emerging and transitional–are of interest given their rapid population growth and the subsequent pressure put on its infrastructure and logistics and on its surrounding environment. This can represent huge business opportunities for companies in Sweden, where population growth has stabilized and a lot of these problems have been already addressed. At the same time, the host city can benefit from the solution of some of their problems and a push towards a more sustainable development. In this article, the key dynamics for successful up-scaling and diffusion of environmental technologies in emerging markets are analyzed based on a case-study. The identification of key local stakeholders, such as governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs), intermediary institutions, industry representatives and academia was the raw material for a first round of interviews. The latter, provided an insight of what are the barriers to success, having in mind the specific social and economic context of the venue and its inhabitants/government’s perceptions of their current environmental situation.

  • 9.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analyzing international city networks for sustainability: A study of five major Swedish cities2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 134, no part A, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies five Swedish cities, their membership in international city networks, the different motivations for such membership, and their administrations’ expected and perceived benefits. Particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such network membership. This study is motivated by the fact that city networks can potentially contribute to global sustainability goals by accelerating the diffusion of innovations, giving members access to bidirectional information flows, improving the user-producer relationship, and providing legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes.

    The study relies on a documentation review, the collection of data from the websites of the studied cities and numerous international city networks, and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks. It was found that four of the five studied cities are active members of international networks for sustainability, but also that there are large gaps between the two largest cities and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical outreach they have through the networks they belong to.

    Some city officials claim that it is easier to be active in national networks than in international networks, due to time requirements and coordination among so many members. However, city officials see benefits for their municipal companies when they are members of international networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that it is difficult to measure direct benefits from network membership, and link improvements in the studied cities to participation in a particular network (with the exception of groups created for a specific infrastructure project, reported as “networks” by the administrations). In addition, there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies. However, the administrations expect indirect benefits such as gaining legitimacy and access to milieus where they can share information and best practices, which could lead to the improvement of both local and global environmental conditions.

  • 10.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A city’s utility company as an axis for its sustainable development: A case study of EPM of Medellín, ColombiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the central role that a utility company can play in the sustainable development of a city by studying the case of EPM of Medellín, Colombia. After presenting a brief history of the development of public services in Colombia, the article discusses the company’s management model, the local laws and regulations affecting it, the direct and indirect benefits for the city and the risks that come along with the power it has acquired. It is claimed that early decisions to maintain public ownership of key assets and provide the company with administrative autonomy have allowed it to remain competitive, despite the liberalization of the utilities market in the 1990s. This in turn has allowed the city to dramatically increase its municipal revenue and thus its spending on social projects. This case promises to contribute to the discussion on entrepreneurial cities looking to increase their citizens’ well-being through municipally-owned corporations that are commercial and social at the same time. It also contributes to the debate about operational efficiency between the private and the public sectors, and the central role that utility providers play in the construction of more sustainable cities. Ultimately, this case study can contribute with good practices from countries of which Academia knows so little.

  • 11.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diffusion of Environmental Technology in a Megacity - A case study of Mexico City2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world recently declared urban, each day technology plays a more important role in society. A majority of people seem to believe in technology not only for solving everyday problems and for supporting the current production and economic systems, but also for the redress of environmental problems that are caused to a large extent by the same technology that has driven society to the current standards. In this direction, megacities (i.e. cities with more than ten million inhabitants) represent a valuable example of both the problems caused by high urbanization rates and the possibility of solving them using technology. However, the mere development of technology does not guarantee its immediate adoption and successful implementation by a given society.

    In this thesis, one of the largest megacities in the world (i.e. in terms of population) was chosen as a case study for the analysis of the adoption and diffusion of environmental technology. Mexico City is studied through a set of interviews with local stakeholders from academia, government, industry and other external organizations such as non-profit organizations and international institutions. This approach resulted in the identification of different obstacles to the adoption and implementation of technologies, but also led to a successful case of technology adoption that allowed for the understanding of important traits that facilitated not only such adoption, but also the subsequent diffusion and spread to other cities.

    Although the thesis has a strong focus on the demand side (in this case Mexico City), the supply side (in this case the Swedish environmental technology sector) is also considered and analyzed. By using statistical data of common enterprise and economic nature, the composition of the sector was described and analyzed with the intention to identify important areas and behavioral traits that could give insight into the hindrances that the sector faces when exporting its offerings. Given the interest that the Swedish government has put in the sector for contributing to the country’s economic growth, the different studies commissioned for the assessment of the sector are also discussed in this thesis. The different conclusions and suggestions made by the different agencies entrusted with this task are shown and analyzed.

    Conclusions are drawn regarding the need for designing strategies that consider local conditions, that are flexible and adaptive to a highly dynamic environment and that pay particular attention to the development of strong demonstration projects that facilitate overcoming the distrust normally created when new technologies are introduced in a society.

    List of papers
    1. Megacities: turning ten million faces at Swedish environmental technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Megacities: turning ten million faces at Swedish environmental technology
    2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing a tremendous challenge with its current urbanization trend. In particular, two types of cities–i.e. emerging and transitional–are of interest given their rapid population growth and the subsequent pressure put on its infrastructure and logistics and on its surrounding environment. This can represent huge business opportunities for companies in Sweden, where population growth has stabilized and a lot of these problems have been already addressed. At the same time, the host city can benefit from the solution of some of their problems and a push towards a more sustainable development. In this article, the key dynamics for successful up-scaling and diffusion of environmental technologies in emerging markets are analyzed based on a case-study. The identification of key local stakeholders, such as governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs), intermediary institutions, industry representatives and academia was the raw material for a first round of interviews. The latter, provided an insight of what are the barriers to success, having in mind the specific social and economic context of the venue and its inhabitants/government’s perceptions of their current environmental situation.

    Keywords
    Megacities, Environmental technology, Sustainable development, Emerging markets
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67601 (URN)
    Conference
    The R&D Management Conference 2011, 28-30 June, Norrköping, Sweden
    Projects
    Megatech
    Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2011-04-19 Last updated: 2013-02-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Lessons from the spread of Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lessons from the spread of Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 50, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Technological transitions and governance theories are employed for the analysis of the dissemination behavior of Bus Rapid Transit systems in Latin America. This process presents interesting characteristics and traits that seem to facilitate the overcoming of barriers and act as catalysts for the adoption of innovation. The present study uses a systems perspective to explore the dynamics of Bus Rapid Transit's adoption by different cities in the region and to follow its geographical dissemination, relying on historical data collected on numerous implemented projects.

    The resulting analysis provides an insight on the determinants and key points for the concept's expansion, which may be useful for the study of the dissemination of environmental technologies in cities. Contextualized, solid demonstration projects and incremental innovations, it is here argued, facilitated the adoption of new ways and promoted the dissemination of this urban mobility solution within a homogenous group of cities. A description of the Bus Rapid Transit system's approach to barriers that are also found to hinder the dissemination of environmental technologies provides a learning basis for future dissemination strategies.

    Keywords
    Transitions; Innovative urban solutions; Technology spreading; Urban transformation; BRT Systems
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85513 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.11.028 (DOI)000320490600008 ()
    Funder
    Vinnova
    Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Diffusion of environmental technology: an analysis of export strategies in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diffusion of environmental technology: an analysis of export strategies in Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the composition of the Swedish environmental technology sector and describes the reasons behind the more or less recent interest of the government in relying on environmental technology exports to contribute to economic growth. Common enterprise information (i.e. number of companies, turnover and exports) and the sector’s performance in export activities (i.e. exports as a share of turnover) are shown over the last decade. The sector’s behavior is discussed, along with possible explanations and the highlighting of important traits that could be considered when designing and deploying export promotion strategies and plans. Particular environmental areas (as defined by Sweden’s Statistics Agency) are identified as having a significant weight on turnover generation, exports and employment in absolute terms, but do not necessarily perform that well when exports are analyzed as part of their total turnover. This may indicate the influence of these areas’ composition and ownership, as well as the legal constraints and possibly the incentives they have to export their offerings.In addition, the agencies commissioned to assess the sector and its companies – the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities that the sector has to expand into foreign markets, and the conclusions they reached – are shown and discussed. Governance and Diffusion of Innovation theories are used for the analysis of the strategies developed thus far by the government and for the suggestion of other approaches considering the particular characteristics of some markets.

    Keywords
    Environmental Technology Exports, Governmental Initiatives, Environmental Technology Sector, Diffusion of Innovations
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88012 (URN)
    Funder
    Vinnova
    Available from: 2013-02-04 Created: 2013-01-28 Last updated: 2013-02-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Environmental technology exports: Analyzing Swedish government and firms' initiatives
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental technology exports: Analyzing Swedish government and firms' initiatives
    2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries have historically relied to a great extent on exports as an important component of theireconomic system. With the current globalization trends and increased competitiveness, promotingexports has therefore become a common strategy in order to boost economic growth. Exports ofenvironmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and acontribution to global sustainability. For this objective, governments provide different initiativesaimed at promoting foreign commerce among firms. The aim of this article is to assess the perceptionof the effectiveness of governmental initiatives for export promotion among Swedish environmentaltechnology firms. In addition, the article addresses firms’ internal initiatives to reach potential foreignmarkets through the use of modern communication channels. Data about 728 Swedish environmentaltechnology companies was collected and analyzed by using a combination of desktop research and aweb-based survey. The findings show a relatively high export orientation among the respondentcompanies. However, a majority of the respondents claim not to be aware of governmental initiativesthat fit their particular needs. Those who do show a high level of participation in such initiatives, butmost could not relate this participation to successful businesses abroad. From the firms’ perspective,presence on the Internet was considered to be a plausible indicator of their internal initiatives tocapture potential foreign customers. An analysis of the companies’ web sites, their languagecustomization options and the information they provide was undertaken. Results show that a largenumber of companies have functional web sites. However, the percentage of web sites with languagecustomization options was relatively low.The findings suggest that governmental initiatives have to consider the particular composition andneeds of the environmental technology sector in order to be more effective. On the other hand,although companies show to be proactive in the use of the Internet for increasing their outreach,language customization must be addressed as an important component when using such a tool. Bothgovernmental and firms’ initiatives remain important contributions to export success. In this regard,collaboration and communication between governmental export promotion agencies and firmsrepresents an important first step.

    Keywords
    Export Promotion, Perceived Effectiveness, Firm-level analysis, Web site analysis.
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85936 (URN)
    Conference
    Greening of Industry Network (GIN) 2012, 22-24 October 2012, Linköping, Sweden
    Funder
    Vinnova
    Available from: 2012-12-05 Created: 2012-12-03 Last updated: 2013-02-15Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental Technology and its Role in the Search for Urban Environmental Sustainability: The Dynamics of Adaptation2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the role that environmental technology plays in the solution of environmental problems in cities, and discuss models and conditions that can facilitate the processes of selection, implementation and use of environmental technologies in and by cities.

    The technological component is perhaps one of the most important characteristics of modern cities. The dependence of humans on technology is in most cases a given, something that is not ignored in the sustainability debate. The development and implementation of new, “better” technologies is however hindered by the inertia that modern societies have and the influence of the dominant systems (e.g. economic systems based on growth, extraction of natural resources and environmental disturbance). So-called environmental technologies are not always able to efficiently compete against other technologies that are embedded in societies by lock-in mechanisms, e.g. learning by doing and using, scale economies, subsidies, and network externalities.

    Even with the “right” technologies, an exclusively techno-centered approach to sustainability can result in other problems, and it might reduce the sustainability debate and the cities’ role in it to discussions of an administrative nature. The actual role of local actors and their agency must be also considered in the models and frameworks directed at understanding sustainability transition processes. It is thus important to analyze the dynamics of technology selection, implementation, use and diffusion in cities from a stakeholders’ perspective as well.

    Not only is the availability of technology of interest for understanding the impact it has on the environment, but also the intensity of its use. This has resulted in increased attention from politicians and scholars on the so-called global cities (e.g. London, New York, Tokyo), which are characterized by their intense use of e.g. transport, security and surveillance, and information and communication. Paradigmatic models of sustainability can however be contested when the role of local actors, power and agency are considered in detail and not isolated from the context. Some authors recognize the need to address what they call “ordinary cities”, since focusing on the cities’ comparative level of development (be it political, economic or technological) hinders the possibility of bidirectional learning. In the end, sustainability is a “collective good,” which means that it is in everyone’s interest to coordinate efforts and learn from the best practices, regardless of where they come from.

    This thesis focuses on “ordinary cities,” and promises to offer conclusions that can contribute to a better understanding of how societies can learn from each other and how environmental technologies can have deeper and better results when implemented in different contexts than the ones where they were developed. Two questions related to the process of environmental-technology adaptation are addressed in this thesis: How do technology adaptation processes for the solution of urban environmental problems take place in cities? And how do cities benefit from environmental technologies?

    It is found that environmental technology is not only seen as a solution to environmental problems in cities, but every day more as a component of strategies to attract attention and compete for resources in national and international markets. Cities have different adaptation and learning strategies. This means that technological solutions have to be flexible and adaptive to local conditions, and allow for vernacular knowledge and past experiences to enrich their performance by facilitating their connection to existing systems. Learning between cities is important and necessary for global sustainability transitions. When it comes to environmental technology, this process is facilitated by strong proof-of-concept projects. Such projects are not only expected to be able to show their technical ability to solve a problem, but must also offer contextual connections to the problems faced by interested cities or potential implementers.

    List of papers
    1. Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Environmental technology, Technology diffusion, Market failures, Perceived effectiveness, Firm-level analysis
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102196 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.013 (DOI)000356194300023 ()
    Projects
    Megatech
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Lessons from the spread of Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lessons from the spread of Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 50, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Technological transitions and governance theories are employed for the analysis of the dissemination behavior of Bus Rapid Transit systems in Latin America. This process presents interesting characteristics and traits that seem to facilitate the overcoming of barriers and act as catalysts for the adoption of innovation. The present study uses a systems perspective to explore the dynamics of Bus Rapid Transit's adoption by different cities in the region and to follow its geographical dissemination, relying on historical data collected on numerous implemented projects.

    The resulting analysis provides an insight on the determinants and key points for the concept's expansion, which may be useful for the study of the dissemination of environmental technologies in cities. Contextualized, solid demonstration projects and incremental innovations, it is here argued, facilitated the adoption of new ways and promoted the dissemination of this urban mobility solution within a homogenous group of cities. A description of the Bus Rapid Transit system's approach to barriers that are also found to hinder the dissemination of environmental technologies provides a learning basis for future dissemination strategies.

    Keywords
    Transitions; Innovative urban solutions; Technology spreading; Urban transformation; BRT Systems
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85513 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.11.028 (DOI)000320490600008 ()
    Funder
    Vinnova
    Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Protecting socio-technical regimes for advancing urban sustainability transitions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protecting socio-technical regimes for advancing urban sustainability transitions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the importance of central actors that coordinate activities at the meso level and protect the stability of socio-technical regimes in search of collective goals for sustainability. An analysis of how technology, in the form of large technical systems, has helped the city of Medellín (Colombia) to achieve substantial improvements in its social, economic and environmental conditions is presented, with a particular emphasis on its municipal utility company. The article describes and discusses how the city has managed to protect stability, maintain the direction traced in the past, and rely on the use of technology to promote further advancement in other aspects of city life. The definition of collective goals from an early stage in the city and the emergence of mechanisms that would ensure good coverage, the further development of its utilities, and access to resources for the improvement of its social and environmental conditions, have guaranteed regime stability. In turn, such stability has made it possible for the city to promote the emergence of urban innovations and face economic, social and environmental challenges. We claim that the notion of external pressure on the sociotechnical regimes as an unmissable opportunity to exert change contradicts the public nature of sustainability goals and obviates the role of actors that struggle to protect the socio-technical regimes from external disruptions.

    Keywords
    Socio-Technical Configurations; Urban Governance; Environmental Technology, Windows of Opportunity; Intermediaries
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117943 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. A city’s utility company as an axis for its sustainable development: A case study of EPM of Medellín, Colombia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A city’s utility company as an axis for its sustainable development: A case study of EPM of Medellín, Colombia
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the central role that a utility company can play in the sustainable development of a city by studying the case of EPM of Medellín, Colombia. After presenting a brief history of the development of public services in Colombia, the article discusses the company’s management model, the local laws and regulations affecting it, the direct and indirect benefits for the city and the risks that come along with the power it has acquired. It is claimed that early decisions to maintain public ownership of key assets and provide the company with administrative autonomy have allowed it to remain competitive, despite the liberalization of the utilities market in the 1990s. This in turn has allowed the city to dramatically increase its municipal revenue and thus its spending on social projects. This case promises to contribute to the discussion on entrepreneurial cities looking to increase their citizens’ well-being through municipally-owned corporations that are commercial and social at the same time. It also contributes to the debate about operational efficiency between the private and the public sectors, and the central role that utility providers play in the construction of more sustainable cities. Ultimately, this case study can contribute with good practices from countries of which Academia knows so little.

    Keywords
    Sustainable Urban Development; Key Assets; Administrative Autonomy; Popular Control; Entrepreneurial City; Public Ownership, Operational Efficiency
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117944 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    5. Exporting the Swedish Model for Sustainable Urban Development: What has Changed?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exporting the Swedish Model for Sustainable Urban Development: What has Changed?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, some of the obstacles for translating urban imaginaries and urban sustainability concepts based on technological interventions are analyzed. This analysis is built on experiences from the World Urban Forum 7 in Medellín, Colombia held in April 2014, and uses previous attempts to explore the production of imaginaries at play in the performance of SymbioCity, an urban development concept with a symbiosis tint created by the Swedish Trade Council. Through documenting the role of physical and non-physical messages from the Swedish delegation and its exhibition, along with numerous interviews with key actors at the conference and from the city’s administration, an analysis of the current strategies used to promote the tool is provided. The claim that induced idealized urban futures sap energy and result in poor achievement of the goals is used to suggest that context and current conditions influence the ability to understand and adopt technological solutions. The conclusions are centered on the fact that SymbioCity, for the most part, is trying to sell products or services that are difficult to see and understand from the perspective of citiescustomers. It is argued that there are contextual and historical conditions that are crucial for the decision to implement them that are, at least implicitly, expressed by the targeted cities-customers, and that the SymbioCity concept, or at least the way it is communicated in these fora, has undergone a change, in the sens  that it has become more flexible and allowed for bottom-up considerations to enter the discourse.

    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117945 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exporting the Swedish Model for Sustainable Urban Development: What has Changed?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, some of the obstacles for translating urban imaginaries and urban sustainability concepts based on technological interventions are analyzed. This analysis is built on experiences from the World Urban Forum 7 in Medellín, Colombia held in April 2014, and uses previous attempts to explore the production of imaginaries at play in the performance of SymbioCity, an urban development concept with a symbiosis tint created by the Swedish Trade Council. Through documenting the role of physical and non-physical messages from the Swedish delegation and its exhibition, along with numerous interviews with key actors at the conference and from the city’s administration, an analysis of the current strategies used to promote the tool is provided. The claim that induced idealized urban futures sap energy and result in poor achievement of the goals is used to suggest that context and current conditions influence the ability to understand and adopt technological solutions. The conclusions are centered on the fact that SymbioCity, for the most part, is trying to sell products or services that are difficult to see and understand from the perspective of citiescustomers. It is argued that there are contextual and historical conditions that are crucial for the decision to implement them that are, at least implicitly, expressed by the targeted cities-customers, and that the SymbioCity concept, or at least the way it is communicated in these fora, has undergone a change, in the sens  that it has become more flexible and allowed for bottom-up considerations to enter the discourse.

  • 14.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Evolution of Sweden's Urban Sustainability Marketing Tool: A Comparative Study of Two Major International Events2016In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 65-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, some of the obstacles for translating urban imaginaries and urban sustainability concepts based on technological interventions are analyzed. This analysis is built on experiences from the World Urban Forum 7 in Medellín, Colombia held in April 2014 and uses previous attempts to explore the production of imaginaries at play in the performance of SymbioCity, an urban development concept with a symbiosis tint created by the Swedish Trade Council. Through documenting the role of physical and non-physical messages from the Swedish delegation and its exhibition, along with numerous interviews with key actors at the conference and from the city's administration, an analysis of the current strategies used to promote the tool is provided. The claim that induced idealized urban futures sap energy and result in poor achievement of the goals is used to suggest that context and current conditions influence the ability to understand and adopt technological solutions. The conclusions are centered on the fact that SymbioCity, for the most part, is trying to sell products or services that are difficult to see and understand from the perspective of cities-customers, since most of these consist of invisible (i.e., energy), or hidden loops (i.e., waste and water). It is argued that there are contextual and historical conditions that are crucial for the decision to implement them that are, at least implicitly, expressed by the targeted cities-customers, and that the SymbioCity concept, or at least the way it is communicated in these fora, has undergone a change, in the sense that it has become more flexible and allowed for bottom-up considerations to enter the discourse.

  • 15.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diffusion of environmental technology: an analysis of export strategies in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the composition of the Swedish environmental technology sector and describes the reasons behind the more or less recent interest of the government in relying on environmental technology exports to contribute to economic growth. Common enterprise information (i.e. number of companies, turnover and exports) and the sector’s performance in export activities (i.e. exports as a share of turnover) are shown over the last decade. The sector’s behavior is discussed, along with possible explanations and the highlighting of important traits that could be considered when designing and deploying export promotion strategies and plans. Particular environmental areas (as defined by Sweden’s Statistics Agency) are identified as having a significant weight on turnover generation, exports and employment in absolute terms, but do not necessarily perform that well when exports are analyzed as part of their total turnover. This may indicate the influence of these areas’ composition and ownership, as well as the legal constraints and possibly the incentives they have to export their offerings.In addition, the agencies commissioned to assess the sector and its companies – the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities that the sector has to expand into foreign markets, and the conclusions they reached – are shown and discussed. Governance and Diffusion of Innovation theories are used for the analysis of the strategies developed thus far by the government and for the suggestion of other approaches considering the particular characteristics of some markets.

  • 16.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainable business and clean technology markets in megacities: an explorative research of their dynamics in Cairo and Mexico City2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a research project on environmental technology diffusion and the dynamics of business arenas within the sector, with two megacities as case studies: Mexico City and Cairo. The term “environmental technologies” is used in a broad sense, referring to technological solutions that contribute to the improvement of the environmental performance of cities. With this in mind, a focus on the demand side (i.e. the cities) is the point of departure, and a bottom-up approach to urban sustainability is one of the most important methodological choices. This means that local actors belonging to selected (but representative) societal sectors were interviewed and their views and opinions considered for subsequent discussions about the important conditions to keep in mind when thinking of exploring these markets.

    A subsequent exploration of the supply side (i.e. Swedish environmental technology suppliers) is presented with the intention to show the sector’s composition and to describe and analyze the interactions among the main actors, the current strategies for the sector’s promotion in foreign markets and the conditions promoting or hindering further advancement.

    Transition Management theories are used as a theoretical basis to support the analysis and the methodological choices. Conclusions and recommendations are given regarding the current state of the cities and the suppliers, the strategic choices made by the government and some of the conditions that must be considered by the government and companies in order to successfully deploy their plans. Such conclusions and recommendations can be useful for policy makers, entrepreneurs and researchers in the field of technology diffusion and urban environmental studies:

    • Megacities are looking for adaptive and flexible offerings. Technological solutions that align with local structures (social, political, cultural and physical) and can adapt to actual needs (cf. apparent needs), might overcome more easily the initial unrest and distrust that new concepts bring along.
    • The micro and macro levels in the city deserve each a different language. Solutions and their implications must be translated according to the needs and expectations of actors in each level.
    • Legitimacy and trust are gained more easily with the help of strong demonstration (proof-of-concept) projects. Even better, providing graspable (i.e. contextualized), full-working examples of solutions operating within homogeneous groups helps to overcome resistance and lubricates the implementation.
    • Holistic solutions represent an interesting opportunity but face significant difficulties. This is due to their nature of being tightly tied to context and location and the complications that they must overcome under sometimes diametrically opposite milieus.
  • 17.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ríos, Ramiro Alberto
    Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, USA.
    Lessons from the spread of Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 50, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological transitions and governance theories are employed for the analysis of the dissemination behavior of Bus Rapid Transit systems in Latin America. This process presents interesting characteristics and traits that seem to facilitate the overcoming of barriers and act as catalysts for the adoption of innovation. The present study uses a systems perspective to explore the dynamics of Bus Rapid Transit's adoption by different cities in the region and to follow its geographical dissemination, relying on historical data collected on numerous implemented projects.

    The resulting analysis provides an insight on the determinants and key points for the concept's expansion, which may be useful for the study of the dissemination of environmental technologies in cities. Contextualized, solid demonstration projects and incremental innovations, it is here argued, facilitated the adoption of new ways and promoted the dissemination of this urban mobility solution within a homogenous group of cities. A description of the Bus Rapid Transit system's approach to barriers that are also found to hinder the dissemination of environmental technologies provides a learning basis for future dissemination strategies.

  • 18.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Protecting socio-technical regimes for advancing urban sustainability transitionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the importance of central actors that coordinate activities at the meso level and protect the stability of socio-technical regimes in search of collective goals for sustainability. An analysis of how technology, in the form of large technical systems, has helped the city of Medellín (Colombia) to achieve substantial improvements in its social, economic and environmental conditions is presented, with a particular emphasis on its municipal utility company. The article describes and discusses how the city has managed to protect stability, maintain the direction traced in the past, and rely on the use of technology to promote further advancement in other aspects of city life. The definition of collective goals from an early stage in the city and the emergence of mechanisms that would ensure good coverage, the further development of its utilities, and access to resources for the improvement of its social and environmental conditions, have guaranteed regime stability. In turn, such stability has made it possible for the city to promote the emergence of urban innovations and face economic, social and environmental challenges. We claim that the notion of external pressure on the sociotechnical regimes as an unmissable opportunity to exert change contradicts the public nature of sustainability goals and obviates the role of actors that struggle to protect the socio-technical regimes from external disruptions.

  • 19.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analyzing city networks for the diffusion of environmental innovations: A study of five major Swedish cities2014In: Conference Proceedings, ERSCP 2014, 14-16 October 2014, Portorož, Slovenia / [ed] Rebeka Kovačič Lukman, Peter Glavič, Damijan Koletnik, Peter Virtič and Boris Horvat, Maribor: Nigrad d.d. , 2014, p. 197-206Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies five Swedish municipalities, their memberships in international city networks, the different motivations to be members of them, and the expected and perceived benefits from doing so. A particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such memberships. This study is motivated by the fact that networks have been reported by literature to accelerate the diffusion of innovation, give members access to two-way information flows, improve the user-producer relationship and provide legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes. Using a documentation review and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks, the conclusions relate to the active participation of the studied cities in international networks, but also to the large gaps between the two largest ones and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical reach they have through the networks they belong to. Also, cities see benefits for their municipal companies when they belong to such networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that the benefits from belonging to international networks are difficult to monitor and measure objectively, and that there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies.

1 - 19 of 19
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