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  • 1.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

  • 2.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Cement production is one of the largest contributors to global CO2-emissions. However, the context and characteristics of the production and the cement products vary a lot. A significant part of the production must be characterized as rather linear, for example, to a large extent based on fossil fuels and involving material flows that are not closed. But there are also much more synergistic examples, involving industrial by-products, renewable energy, etc. Clearly, there are opportunities for improvement within the cement industry and it is interesting to analyze to what extent increased industrial symbiosis can lead to improved climate performance. This has been done by studying the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products produced within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX. The methodology is mostly based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate.

    Purpose

    The overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The climate impact is assessed for “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where the by-product granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is utilized to a large extent, substituting cement clinker. It is also shown how the climate performance of the West Cluster has changed from 1997 until 2009 (the main year of study), and investigated how further industrial symbiosis measures could improve the performance.

    Theoretical framework

    To a large extent this project has been based on mapping and analysis of relevant flows of material and energy, where LCA methodology has played an important part. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis have played an important role. The findings are discussed in relation to some of the key ideas within these fields. The paper generates insight into the methodological challenge of quantifying environmental performance of different production approaches and basically what CO2 improvement potential cement industry has by taking industrial symbiosis measures.

    Results

    The results showed that the cement clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag. For example, the CO2-eq emissions were estimated to be 65 percent lower for the best product compared to “ordinary cement”.

    Conclusions

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 3.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feizaghaii, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement production: Final report of the CEMEX-Linköping University industrial ecology project, 20112011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains information about a research project lead by researchers from Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University in Sweden. It has been conducted in cooperation with staff from the global cement company CEMEX. The study has been focused on three cement plants in the western parts of Germany, referred to as CEMEX Cluster West. They form a kind of work alliance, together producing several intermediate products and final products. One of the plants is a cement plant with a kiln, while the other two can be described as grinding and mixing stations.

    The overall aim has been to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. An important objective was to systematically assess different cement sites, and production approaches, from a climate perspective, thereby making it easier for the company to analyze different options for improvements. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Industrial Symbiosis (IS) have played an important role.

    A common way of making cement is to burn limestone in a cement kiln. This leads to the formation of cement clinker, which is then grinded and composes the main component of Ordinary Portland Cement. One very important phase of the production of clinker is the process of calcination, which takes place in the kiln. In this chemical reaction calcium carbonate decomposes at high temperature and calcium oxide and carbon dioxide are produced. The calcination is of high importance since it implies that carbon bound in minerals is transformed to CO2. A large portion of the CO2 emissions related to clinker production is coming from the calcination process.

    Both clinker and Ordinary Portland Cement (CEM I 42.5) were studied. However, there are other ways of making cement, where the clinker can be substituted by other materials. Within Cluster West, granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry is used to a large extent as such a clinker substitute. This slag needs to be grinded, but an important difference compared to clinker is that it has already been treated thermally (during iron production) and therefore does not have to be burned in a kiln. With the purpose to include products with clearly different share of clinker substitutes, the project also comprised CEM III/A 42.5 (blended cement, about 50% clinker) and CEM III/B 42.5 N-. (blended cement, about 27% clinker). To sum up, this means that the study involved “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where a byproduct is utilized to a large extent instead of clinker.

    The methodology is mostly based on Life Lycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate, using the SimaPro software. This means that the cement products have been studied from the extraction of raw materials until they were ready for delivery at the “gate” of Cluster West. The functional unit was 1 tonne of product. A lot of data was collected regarding flows of material and energy for the year of 2009. In addition, some information concerning 1997 was also acquired. Most of the used data has been provided by CEMEX, but to be able to cover upstream parts of the life cycle data from the Ecoinvent database has also been utilized.

    The extensive data concerning 2009 formed the base for the project and made it possible to study the selected products thoroughly for this year. However, the intention was also to assess other versions of the product system – Cluster West in 1997 and also a possible, improved future case. For this purpose, a conceptual LCA method was developed that made it possible to consider different products as well as different conditions for the product system. Having conducted the baseline LCA, important results could be generated based on knowledge about six key performance indicators (KPIs) regarding overall information about materials, the fuel mix and the electricity mix. The conceptual LCA method could be used for other products and versions of Cluster West, without collecting large amounts of additional specific Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data. The developed conceptual LCA method really simplified the rather complex Cluster West production system. Instead of having to consider hundreds of parameters, the information about the six KPIs was sufficient to estimate the emissions from different products produced in different versions of the production system (Cluster West).

    The results showed that the clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag, mainly since it reduces the emissions accounted related to calcination. For example, the CO2-eq emissions related to CEM III/B product were estimated to be 65 percent lower than those for CEM I.

    A framework for identifying and evaluating options for improvement has been developed and applied. Based on that framework the present production system was analyzed and illustrated, and different measures for reducing the climate impact were shown and evaluated. Two possible scenarios were defined and the conceptual LCA model used to estimate their climate performance.

    The authors’ recommendation is for CEMEX to continue to increase the share of CEM III (the share of good clinker substitutes), and to make efforts to shift the focus on the market from clinker and cement plants to different types of cement (or concrete) or even better to focus on the lifecycle of the final products such as buildings and constructions.

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 4.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Planning and Uncovering Industrial Symbiosis: Comparing the Rotterdam and Östergötland regions2011In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 428-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial ecology is defined as the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems and as such may focus on a geographic area, resource and/or industry sector. In these types of setting, industrial ecology is also often known as industrial symbiosis (IS). The proximity of companies in industrial estates facilitates the linking of utilities and the exchange of wastes and by-products, which may eventually be useful inputs for adjacent industrial processes. The typical model that has been applied in several regions of the world is one where an anchor-tenant organization with energy and by-product linkages is connected to companies physically located nearby. In the case of biomass symbiosis, however, the resource chains are not explicitly arranged by their industrial setting and the supply of waste and by-products is able to be organized in a more scattered way.

    In this article, the role of industrial symbiosis is analyzed in respect of the planned industrial symbiosis activities in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex in the Netherlands and in the application of renewable energy in the Östergötland region in Sweden.

    The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences between the planned industrial symbiosis activities in Rotterdam and the unplanned biomass and industrial symbiosis activities in the Östergötland region. By presenting this knowledge in this article, it is anticipated that further development of industrial symbiosis application processes may be achieved. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

  • 5.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Planning and Unfolding Eco-Industrial Parks: Reflections on Synergy2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Ecology (IE) in industrial estates has a geographic, resource, and/or industry sector focus. In such geographic and/or industry sector settings IE is often labelled as Industrial Symbiosis (IS), for instance by linking utilities and waste/by-product exchange, the organization of a resource chain such as in the case of biomass, or of linkages around a key-organization.

    The role of industrial symbiosis is analyzed in the planned industrial symbiosis activities in the Rotterdam Harbor and Industry complex and the application process of renewable energy in the Östergötland region in Sweden.

    The objective of this paper is to discuss a synthesis between the planned activities in Rotterdam and to unfold current industrial symbiosis activities in the Östergötland. Such knowledge can help further developing the application process of industrial symbiosis in Eco-Industrial Parks in China.

  • 6.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Planning and Unfoldning Industrial Symbiosis: Reflections on cases in Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Challenge of Industrial Ecology for a Sustainable Economy in China2011In: The Green Economy and Its Implementation in China / [ed] Manhong Mannie Liu; David Ness; Huang Haifeng, Enrich Professional Publishing, 2011, 1, p. 7-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    China’s enormous economic growth has earned a spotlight on the global stage, but it comes at a great cost to the environment, both ecologically and financially. In response to this challenge, the Ecological Development Union International hosted a series of conferences on China’s ecological development and highlighted the environmental economy at the China-Europe Forum held in 2010. This book collects the essays and papers presented by more than 30 internationally acclaimed experts from Australia, Canada, China, Europe, and the United States. Providing unprecedented insight into an important topic, this in-depth review also serves to put forth feasible resolutions as concern for the future of the Green Economy grows.

  • 8.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards a 100% renewable energy region on the basis of industrial symbiosis2010In: Greening of Industry Conference 2010: Climate Change & Green Growth: Innovating for Sustainability, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utilizing excess heat: from possibility to realization on the basis of industrial symbiosis2012In: Energy Delta Institute Quarterly, ISSN 2212-9669, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    One of the unintended “products” of intensive energy using production processes is excess heat, also called waste heat. Excess heat can for instance be found in the chemical, cement, iron and steel making, and the pulp and paper industry. The constantly growing demand for energy and resulting climate change effects are reinforcing interest in the application of excess heat, while increasing knowledge about industrial symbiosis makes facilitation easier. The growing costs of energy and the big loss of waste heat is the basis for the fact that recovering of waste heat is the most promising and cost effective option to reduce the world-wide amount of industrial energy consumption (International Energy Agency 2010). Waste recovery and reuse also provide financial savings, reduction of CO2 and NOx, and innovation by quality improvement of processes and products. Besides the single company’s internal improvement of excess heat recovery, the concept of industrial symbiosis provides a basis for waste heat exchange between companies as examples in the Netherlands and Sweden illustrate.

  • 10.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östergötland: Towards a sustainable region on the basis of industrial symbiosis and renewable energy2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of industrial symbiosis is analyzed in the application process of renewable energy in the Östergötland region in Sweden.

    The care for nature has a long history in Sweden. The related forestry industry’s tradition of integrated diversification for efficient resource use fits in that mode. Uncovering and mimicking existing symbioses seems to fit better in the Swedish business concept than intended developments to eco-industrial parks.

    It is concluded that the strong link between the industry, government and academia with respect to innovative approaches for applying renewable energy and industrial symbiosis plays a strong role at the macro level in the Östergötland community.

  • 11.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Clean water by clean production illustrations from the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden1990In: La gestion de l’eau / [ed] Valiron, F, Paris: Presses de l'école nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC) , 1990, 1, p. 615-622Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    et al.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
    van der Belt, M.
    Huisingh, D.
    Neumann, F.
    Cleaner production: what some companies are doing and what all governments can do to promote sustainability1992In: European Water Pollution Control, ISSN 0925-5060, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 10-25Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas jr., Leenard
    Dutch Ophthalmic Research Centre B.V., Zuidland, the Netherlands.
    Ophthalmic Medical Devices and Sustainability: a Dialogue for R & D2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the practice of research and design of ophthalmic medical devices and the confrontation with sustainability questions. The ophthalmic medical devices industry sector is far away from sustainability innovations currently. The confrontation is developed on the basis of a scientific dialogue between the two authors about their respectively daily R&D practices and sustainability research.

    The strong regulation rules and the risk-elimination in safety policy determine a small playing field for changes on the basis of sustainability. The regulation is even different per country. That means that changes have to be tested in several regulatory situations and cultural settings.

    The strict requirements in the medical sector also mean that a starting sustainability dialogue needs to follow the theory about the introduction and dissemination of new concepts: information sharing, awareness raising, recognition, acknowledgement, commitment, education, assessment of opportunities, demonstration projects, evaluation, and continuous improvement. Such emerging sustainability dialogue in an industrial sector often meets reluctance from companies and resistance to start an assessment process. When there is a medical professional market, the demands and needs of medical staff are strongly determining the R&D space. Risk-elimination in the health treatment of patients is a major component of safety policy in the medical sector.

    In general however, leading companies foresee growing environmental pressures and want to explore the opportunities of new sustainability business models. In such context, medical product R & D can consider aspects such as product waste prevention, energy use, cleaning, maintenance, recycling, reuse (in developing countries), and leasing.

    The paper dialogues conceptual thinking about eco-design of ophthalmic medical devices on the basis of both practical R & D experience in the ophthalmic medical devices company D.O.R.C. International in the Netherlands as well as academic sustainability research.

  • 14.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Support your future today: enhancing sustainable transitions by experimenting at academic conferences2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major societal changes which challenge societal functions and actors activities are needed to enhance sustainable development. Thus sustainable transitions research emphasizes co-evolutionary approaches involving a multitude of actors including the business sector, the government, and academia. Academic research can catalyse sustainable transitions by critically analyse current societal trends to develop and disseminate new knowledge. At research conferences, researchers and practitioners meet to network and discuss recent research findings providing arenas for testing and evaluating ideas to enhance sustainable transitions. This however requires some modifications of the standard design of a research conference. Here we report learning outcomes from experimenting at the 18th international Greening of Industry Network conference during 21-24 October 2012 in Linkoping, Sweden. The conference was a combination of a traditional conference structure with different interactive elements such as sustainability jam-sessions to discuss future challenges of six companies and clusters of companies at their site. The intention of doing so was to enhance learning outcomes both for visiting conference delegates and among actors in the host region. This was perceived by the participants as an innovative approach fostering both problem solving and creation of new ideas. Four out of the six companies continued dialogues about sustainable production fields or bio-refineries with Linkoping University. In addition we introduce and summarize research findings presented at the conference which were further developed into research articles. The essence of these articles covers sustainable industry management; cleaner production; industrial ecology; cooperation between industry, governments and academics; dissemination of concepts and technologies; methods and tools for modelling and measuring of industrial symbiosis, CO2 performance and eco-efficiency.

  • 15.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Korevaar, Gijsberg
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Eco-Industrial Parks in the Netherlands: the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex2010In: Sustainable Development in the Process Industries: Cases and Impact / [ed] Jan Harmsen & Joe Powell, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 59-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the growing interest among petroleum, recycling, and other industries, sustainability is central to chemical engineers and students. Sustainable Development in the Process Industry not only explores but also demonstrates practical solutions for using sustainable technologies, focusing on three major points: people, prosperity, and planet. Rather than presenting theories, the text provides examples and cases studies ranging from the petroleum industry to the water processing industry. With a collection of international authors, the text is suitable for any chemical engineer or student interested in achieving a more sustainable world.

  • 16.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial ecology looks at landfills from another perspective2011In: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to go beyond the currently established view on landfills as final deposits for waste and analyse their potential as future resource reservoirs. We analyse whether the application of the industrial ecology concept can contribute in realising the approach of landfill mining as an alternative strategy for extraction of valuable material and energy resources. In doing so, an analytical approach involving three main steps was applied. Firstly, state-of-the-art research on landfill mining is reviewed in order to identify critical barriers for why this promising approach not yet has been fully realised. Then, some of the main constituents of industrial ecology research were briefly summarised with special emphasis on how they relate to landfills. The third and final step involved a synthesis aiming to conclude in what way industrial ecology could contribute in addressing the identified challenges for implementation of landfill mining. We conclude the systems view of industrial ecology provides both a comprehensive view on environmental potential and impacts as well as new public/private partnerships for landfill mining activities for mutual benefits.

  • 17.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emerging selective enlightened self-interest trends in society: Consequences for demand and supply of renewable energy2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply has for a long time primarily been a question of central management with littlecommunication between producer and consumer. Heating, electricity and other services havebeen produced by public corporations with little room for alternative solutions. However, thishas started to change, through grassroots movements aimed at greater degrees of self-sufficiencyin energy production. The trend is clear in both Sweden and internationally.

    This study focuses on grassroots movements, to understand the determinants for up-scalingtowards greater self-sufficiency. We are interested in understanding the driving forces behinddifferent types of communities with high ambitions on sustainability and self-sufficiency. Thestudy was conducted in two phases. In phase one, we have studied a total of five communities inDenmark, Germany and the UK that have taken extensive measures to increase energy selfsufficiency,in order to understand how and why they were created and how they work today. Inphase two, we have conducted a web-based questionnaire to residents in the Swedish ecovillages,to understand the reasons for moving there and the experience of living in the villages.The overall aim of the study is to understand citizens' involvement in sustainable communitiesand analyse what this could mean regarding current supply and demand for sustainable energy.

    The results from phase one, where interviews were conducted with key stakeholders inrenewable communities, shows that these communities took their steps towards moresustainability due to either momentous events, such as the oil crises of the 1970s, or throughnational "energy competitions"; they started because of particular events. Of paramountimportance for successful projects was a close cooperation between municipalities and citizens,particularly through civic ownership. It created interest, transparency and security in the projects.The development also created new jobs, attracting new jobs to the communities because of theexpertise that were there. Although there are great advantages of the high degree civil activity ithas been proved to be more time consuming. In all cases they have managed to becomeessentially self-sufficient in renewable energy, in one case, they produce up to 500 percent oftheir electricity needs, but a further challenge has been to adapt the independent systems toexisting centralized systems, adapted to different conditions.

    The questionnaire in phase two was sent out to 17 ecovillages. We received a response rate ofapproximately 30 percent and the questions concerned for example motives moving to the ecovillage,environmental interest and perceived satisfaction with the accommodation. The resultsshowed that residents are well educated with a great interest in the environment and that,although in many cases it expressed that sacrifices must be made on the basis of theaccommodation, it is worth it. The replies expressed few social conflicts but that the technicalsystems resulted in work and discussions. In some cases it seems as the technical systems wereoff-gauge from the start and something that had to be handled a long time to come. The technicalsystem performance is something that is very important for whether residents feel comfortable invillage or not. The villages started as movements willing to do something different.

    The results from the two studies show, among other things, the importance of communicationand inclusion of residents. People are also willing to adapt to new situations as long as it does notaffect the comfort too much or if it is for a good cause. However, there is considerableknowledge among all these communities that should be utilised in other contexts.

  • 18.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bio-resource production on the basis of Industrial Ecology in four European harbours, harbour cities and their region2015In: Économie Circulaire et Écosystémes Portuaires (Circular Economy and Port Ecosystems) / [ed] Yann Alix, Nicolas Mat, Juliette Cerceau, Paris: Foundation Sefacil , 2015, 1, p. 223-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter re ects the design and starting performance of the Symbiotic bio- Energy Port Integration with Cities by 2020 project (EPIC 2020). The EPIC 2020 project is coordinated by the city of Malmö and is performed in four harbour cities: Malmö in Sweden, Mantova in Italy, Navipe-Akarport in Greece, and Wismar (including Rostock) in Germany. A number of expert organisations and energy companies also take part in the project.

    The overall objectives of EPIC 2020 are to build operational and strategic capacity and know-how to promote ef cient use of available bioenergy resources, ef cient conversion technologies and interactions between different biomass supply chains. EPIC 2020 targets the untapped bioenergy resource potential of ports and port regions and the challenge of generating urban economic growth based on bioenergy resources. The project applies the industrial symbiosis approach to achieve its overall objectives.

    Ports provide crossing points between transport modes of goods and resources, with connections to hinterland and on-site industrial activities and a nearby urban setting. This means that ports, despite their limited areal footprint, have access to signi cant quantities of bio wastes, surrounding bioenergy resources, biomass from crossing supply chains and energy from intensive activities. The aim is to create platforms for the transformation of port areas to ef cient and carbon-neutral urban-integrated energy systems, where residual bio and energy resources and linear biomass supply chains are utilized as local and network resources.

    The EPIC 2020 project is halfway the 3-year performance framework. Re ection to primary results is provided. 

  • 19.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Cleaner Production and Industrial Ecology: Dynamic Aspects of the Introduction and Dissemination of New Concepts in Industrial Practice2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the awareness-raising processes related to the development and dissemination of new concepts such as pollution prevention, cleaner production and industrial ecology. The concepts of Cleaner production and Pollution prevention can both be described as: `the continuous application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy to both processes and products to reduce risks to humans and the environment’. Industrial ecology is described as: `an integrated system, in which the consumption of energy and materials is optimised and the effluents of one process serve as the raw material(s) or energy for another process’.

  • 20.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    et al.
    Erasmus Centre for Sustainable Development and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Boons, F. A.
    Erasmus Centre for Sustainable Development and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    An industrial ecology project in practice: exploring the boundaries of decision-making levels in regional industrial systems2004In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 12, no 8-10, p. 1073-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial ecology is a label under which many linkages between production and consumption processes are grouped. This article is based on a social science approach, ranging from organisational learning to the analysis of industrial districts, in reflection to the techno-economic approach of the developments in the industrial ecology projects ‘INES 1994–1997 and INES Mainport 1999–2002’ in the Rotterdam harbour and industry complex. In relation to the growing attention for regional types of industrial ecology, the article aims to provide a useful social science analytical framework for investigating regional industrial ecology, and to develop a prescriptive approach that can stimulate such industrial ecology. Regional industrial ecological systems meet with static and dynamic issues as a result of specific system boundaries of their decision-making levels. The analytical framework provides insight into these issues through a focus on three phases of (regional) industrial ecology, the production of collective goods, and governance mechanisms. We find that the INES Mainport project is still in the first phase of industrial ecology. To go beyond this phase, the Rotterdam harbour and industry region faces the limits of system boundaries of the decision-making levels within the regional management.

  • 21.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    et al.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Dieleman, J. P. C.
    Cleaner Technologies and the river Rhine: state of the art1990In: Clean Technology and Risk Management / [ed] S. Maltezou & Metri, London/New York, 1990, p. 139-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    et al.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Dieleman, J. P. C.
    Opportunities and hindrances for Pollution Prevention in medium and small sized companies1989In: Milieu en innovatie: (book written in dutch, english title:Environment and Innovation) / [ed] H. Vollebergh, Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff , 1989, p. 177-195Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    et al.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Duffy, N.
    Ryan, B.
    Spinardi, G.
    Williams, R.
    Petro-chemical Sector1999In: Policies for Cleaner Technology: A new Agenda for Government and Industry / [ed] Clayton, A., G. Spinardi & R. Williams, London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1999, p. 73-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Baas, Leenard. W
    et al.
    Erasmus University, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, The Netherlands.
    Huisingh, D.
    Erasmus University, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, The Netherlands.
    Hafkamp, W. A.
    Erasmus University, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, The Netherlands.
    Four years of experience with Erasmus University's “International Off-Campus PhD programme on cleaner production, cleaner products, industrial ecology and sustainability”2000In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 425-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the first four years' experiences with Erasmus University's “International Off-Campus PhD Programme on Cleaner Production, Cleaner Products, Industrial Ecology and Sustainability.” The proposal for this innovative, off-campus programme was made in 1992, in response to expanding needs for providing environmental professionals the opportunity to continue their employment and to simultaneously work toward fulfilling the requirements of a PhD.

    After receiving approval and initial financial support from the Board of Deans of Erasmus University, the first INTENSIVE (INTENSIVE is the term used to describe the annual, two-week long training programme within which the new PhD candidates, as well as those who have been in the programme for a year or more, meet to learn more about the rapidly evolving areas addressed by the programme and to report on progress made in each candidate's PhD thesis research. The Erasmus faculty and invited supportive co-advisors and other visiting scholars contribute to the scholarly input and candidate guidance.) of the new International PhD Programme was held in October 1995. Since then the programme has expanded and progressed. As of the academic year 1998/1999, twenty-one PhD candidates from eleven countries in five continents were actively pursuing their PhD research and thesis development within the Programme. Six new candidates were admitted during the November 1999 INTENSIVE.

  • 25.
    Baas, Leo
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    An Integrated Approach to Cleaner Production1996In: Clean Production: Environmental and Economic Perspectives / [ed] K. B. Misra, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag New York, 1996, p. 211-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Baas, Leo
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    Cleaner production and industrial ecosystems, a Dutch experience1998In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 6, no 3-4, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article opens briefly with the recent discussions about the effectiveness of pollution prevention. As pollution prevention and cleaner production are important elements of industrial ecology, the different definitions and approaches of industrial ecology as a term also need clarity. The major part of this article reflects the first results of the cleaner production and industrial ecology concepts, applied in an industrial ecosystem project (INES) in the Rotterdam harbour area. In this industrial area with many refineries and (petro)chemical facilities, the possibilities for companies to reuse waste streams, by-products and energy from each other was researched. The project was initiated by an industrial association. Sixty-nine members of the industrial association joined the INES project and provided confidential information about their resources, products and waste streams to the research team. Based on this information, 15 projects were designed. The selected three projects for further feasibility studies showed the potency to reduce the use of energy, water and bio sludge significantly.

  • 27.
    Baas, Leo
    Erasmus Center for Studies in Sustainable Development & Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Developing an Industrial Ecosystem in Rotterdam: Learning by … What?2000In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 4-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Baas, Leo
    Erasmus Centre for Sustainable Development and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Dissemination Models for Cleaner Production and Industrial Ecology2005In: International Journal of Performability Engineering, ISSN 0973-1318, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaner Production and Industrial Ecology are challenging new preventive concepts that can improve the environmental and economic performance of industry. In this paper, the author sketches the conditions to challenge the experienced reluctance to change routines in many dissemination projects of these concepts. Organizational learning processes are needed to go beyond limited results such as some good housekeeping practices and waste exchange links.A dilemma for the dissemination of new concepts in general is that pilot studies never meet the full conditions that are needed. The disseminator is often restricted through resistance to change and many organisational management obstacles. The organisation that is willing to co-operate with an assessment, is often not really interested in the implementation of the results. The funds for research are bounded to the limits of the vision of the funding public or private organisations.In this article a change process that might generate more radical approaches, is promoted. The steps of this dissemination process within and between organizations are: 1. Bringing information about a new concept for the start of a process of awareness-raising and commitment building; 2. After that, educating the concept to provide the knowledge for the assessments of the concept and strategic discussions in interaction processes with the key-actorswithin and between organizations to generate a basis for implementation; 3. Evaluating the learning processes to stimulate continuous improvement programmes; 4. The above-mentioned actions can be better embedded in organizations when asurroundings and an organizational analysis for the dissemination of the new concept is performed and the results are included in the approach.

  • 29.
    Baas, Leo
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus Centre for Sustainability and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Industrial symbiosis in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex: reflections on the interconnection of the techno-sphere with the social system2008In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 330-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial ecology is a concept that is known worldwide; however, its dissemination and implementation is not an easy process. Industrial routines are embedded in unsustainable practices that are difficult to change. The complexity and uncertainties of new concepts are often approached with ignorance and misperceptions. Nevertheless, the integration of economic, environmental and social dimensions in industrial activities is increasingly perceived as a necessary condition for a sustainable society. This paper reflects upon the relevance of theories of capabilities, embeddedness and transformation for providing guidance in understanding the practical experiences of industrial symbiosis, processes and results in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex. The conclusion is that, despite sustainability learning processes leading to radical applications of waste heat in regional housing areas and a seafood farm, the elaboration of sustainability approaches is still dominantly techno-centred.

  • 30.
    Baas, Leo
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus Centre for Sustainability and Management, The Netherlands.
    To make zero emissions technologies and strategies become a reality, the lessons learned of cleaner production dissemination have to be known2007In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, no 13-14, p. 1205-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With respect to the philosophy of the preventive approach, the bottom line has often been illustrated with the saying: ‘…a gram of prevention is better than a kilogram of cure…’ But you cannot manage a problem that you do not know. In case of cleaner production, the approach is not to solve the problem but to prevent it. This is a deduction in two ways. Firstly, a new problem has to be present in order to be recognised, also for prevention. Secondly, the problem that has to be prevented is connected to the life-cycle of the capital and technology investments in production processes, products and services. A dilemma for new concepts in general is that pilot studies never meet the full conditions that are needed. When the obstacles of routines are overcome, often the momentum for fully conditioned approaches is passed and watered-down definitions and applications are introduced.

  • 31.
    Baas, Leo
    et al.
    Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Boons, Frank
    Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Inventing the intervention: how organizations deal with alternative approaches to eco-management2000In: Eco-Management and Auditing, ISSN 0968-9427, E-ISSN 1099-0925, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of translation captures the essence of the way in which innovative ideas diffuse to organizations: rather than being transplanted in the same way in every organization, the idea is reformulated into a shape that fits the adapting organization. For instance, pollution prevention, which consists of a conceptual framework as well as a set of organizational routines, is an idea that is translated by adopting organizations into shapes that can differ substantially.

    When intervening in organizations to implement the idea of pollution prevention, the intervention strategy should be sensitive to this translation process. In this paper, we will present the cases of two chemical firms who participated in an action research project aimed at diffusing the concept of pollution prevention. The way in which members from each of these organizations (re)acted in this process reveals some important points about organizational change, organizational culture and interventions.

    • In the translation process, organizational members reframe an outside idea into concepts and routines that fit with existing practices. Thus, introducing a radically new concept can result in piecemeal organizational change or even no change at all.

    • Differences in the translation process are not determined by the technologies employed by an organization; it is the organizational culture that seems to be more important.

    • Involving governmental agencies in the intervention strategy complicates the translation process: in addition to the firm, the agencies seek to shape the idea of pollution prevention into concepts and routines that fit their own existing practices.

  • 32.
    Baas, Leo
    et al.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus Centre for Sustainability and Management, The Netherlands.
    Boons, Frank
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus Centre for Sustainability and Management, The Netherlands.
    The introduction and dissemination of the industrial symbiosis projects in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex2007In: International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, ISSN 1466-2132, E-ISSN 1741-511X, Vol. 7, no 5-6, p. 551-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissemination and implementation of the Industrial Symbiosis projects in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex can be characterised by break-through projects on the basis of long-term industrial ecology projects. The first 4-year Industrial Symbiosis programme started in 1994 and generated the basis for 15 projects that were further developed in a second 4-year programme that started in 1999 and merged into a 8-years Sustainable Enterprises programme in 2003. This development at the system level is created through the activities of individual organisation in a dynamic, loosely coupled network. The concept of sustainability capabilities is used to analyse the way in which these activities lead to the development of the system.

  • 33.
    Baas, Leo
    et al.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bouma, Jan Jaap
    Hafkamp, Win
    Kritisch Akteure und Umweltmanagement in den Niederlanden1997In: Handbuch Umweltschutz und Organisation: Okölogisierung- Organisationswandel - Mikropolitik / [ed] Martin Birke, Carlo Burschel, Michael Schwarz, R. Oldenbourg Verlag , 1997, p. 497-519Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Baas, Leo W.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Cleaner Production: beyond projects1995In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 55-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research has revealed that, despite the positive results of many Cleaner Production case studies, in practice relatively little spontaneous spreading of the application of Cleaner Production approaches occurs. A new paradigm must replace the one used over the past 25 years of environmental protection activities, which focused upon carrying on the 'normal' ways of production and adding 'cleaning' technologies later, as needed. In many companies, this 'normal' practice still goes on today, while the new Cleaner Production awareness, which demands new practices and a new paradigm, has not been accepted by them or by most government officials. This paper reflects on the developments in Cleaner Production and Products research within the past few years.

  • 35. Boons (ed.), Frank
    et al.
    Baas, Leo
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bouma, Jan Jaap
    de Groene, Anja
    Le Blansch, Kees
    The Changing Nature of Business: Institutionalisation of Green Organisational Routines in the Netherlands 1986-19952000Book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Boons, F. A. A.
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Policy and Organization Sciences, Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Baas, L. W.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Types of industrial ecology: The problem of coordination1997In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial ecology initiatives have in common the fact that they cross company boundaries, necessitating the coordination of the activities of several economic actors. This article focusses on this coordination problem. Based on organizational sociological concepts, four types ofindustrial ecology activities are distinguished. Each has its own characteristic coordination problem. From this typology, conclusions are drawn concerning the way in which industrial ecology initiatives can, and should, be stimulated.

  • 37.
    Boons, Frank
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Baas, Leo
    Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bouma, Jan Jaap
    Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    De Groene, Anja
    Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Le Blansch, Kees
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Trajectories of greening: The diffusion of green organizational routines in the Netherlands, 1986-19952000In: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, E-ISSN 1558-0911, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 18-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Netherlands. there has been an ongoing effort by business firms and government organizations to deal with the ecological impact of industrial activities. Over the years. the set of organizational routines that firms employ to deal with their ecological impact is changing. In this article, we analyze first of all the change in this set of routines in the period 1986-1995. Then we address the question by what mechanisms these changes are brought about. Institutional theory provides us with three possible mechanisms (i.e., forms of isomorphism) by which such changes occur. Our analysis suggests that, in addition to these three forms, there are two distinct mechanisms of change. We also suggest that each mechanism leads to a certain kind of organizational change. We thus develop the concept of trajectories of change.

  • 38.
    Boons, Frank
    et al.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Spekkink, Wouter
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Isenmann, Ralf
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brullot, Sabrina
    Institut Charles Delaunay, France.
    Deutz, Pauline
    University of Hull, UK.
    Gibbs, David
    University of Hull, UK.
    Massard, Guillaume
    Université de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Romero Arozamena, Elena
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Ruiz Puente, Carmen
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Verguts, Veerle
    Flemish Land Agency, Belgium.
    Davis, Chris
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Korevaar, Gijsbert
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Costa, Inês
    3Drivers.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Comparing industrial symbiosis in Europe: towards a conceptual framework and research methodology2015In: International perspectives on industrial ecology / [ed] Pauline Deutz, Donald I Lyons, Jun Bi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 69-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) continues to raise the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Individual and haphazard attempts to increase linkages among co-located firms have been complemented by concerted efforts to stimulate the development of industrial regions with intensified resource exchanges that reduce environmental impact. Additionally, there are examples of both spontaneous and facilitated linkages between two or more firms involving flows of materials/energy waste. A striking feature of IS activities is that they are found across diverse social contexts and vary considerably in form (Lombardi et al., 2012); there are substantial differences in the ways in which IS manifests itself. Equally diverse are the activities of policy makers to stimulate such linkages. Such diversity can already be found within Europe, as became apparent in a first meeting among some of the present authors in 2009 (Isenmann and Chernykh, 2009). Researchers present there decided to create a network of European researchers on IS, with the explicit aim to develop a comparative analysis. We can thus provide insight to the relationship between the style of IS and its context and thereby the potential for policy makers in different contexts to learn from each other. Policy learning can be a tempting route to IS, but is fraught with difficulties if the influence of context is not appreciated (e.g., Wang et al., Chapter 6, this volume).

  • 39.
    Carlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a concept for creating arenas where expertise from certain branches of industry can interact with sustainability professionals and researchers to address and solve sustainability challenges. The concept Sustainability Jam Session (SJS) builds upon the idea of conducting creative meetings between professionals in “jam sessions,” similar to those associated primarily with music and improvisation. Approaches such as these have been used in the IT sector over the past decades, but this is the first attempt to apply it in the area of sustainability. SJS's were tested at the 2012 Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN2012) and here we report our experiences from arranging six SJS's at the conference.

    A typical process of an SJS includes a preparatory phase, the actual jam, and documentation and follow up. The preparatory phase mainly involves identifying hosts and topics to be addressed at the SJS, followed by attracting participants. The jam is started by an introduction of the topics, a technical visit (if appropriate), and a problem-solving workshop, ending with a wrap-up reporting. Thorough documentation is necessary for following up the results of the SJS and preparing for implementation of the identified solutions.

    We conclude that skill, structure, setting, and surrender of control, as well as finding “red and hot” topics for the jams are the key factors for successful SJS's.

    Based on our experiences from GIN2012, we recommend other research conferences in the sustainability field use SJS's if the intention is to boost the interaction between the conference and the host region or non-academic organizations in general. We also suggest that a similar approach can be used in regional development for creating an infrastructure for learning and transformation towards sustainability and initiatives for open innovation.

  • 40.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry: a case study of a German cement production cluster2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Industrial activities such as cement production are among the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and there are ongoing efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions attributed to them. In order to effectively improve climate performance of cement production, it is essential to systematically identify, classify, and evaluate various improvement measures and implement the most effective and feasible measures.

    This has been done in this article by developing an assessment framework based on concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis which creates an structure for seeking and evaluating the performance and feasibility of various CO2 improvement measures. The developed framework has a wide system perspective, takes a wide range of CO2 improvement measures, and treats all material, and energy flows within the industry as potentially useful resources. This framework is applied in practice for assessing the most feasible measures to apply within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX.

    Purpose

    Use the concepts of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis and develop an assessment framework for aggregating, categorizing, and evaluating various CO2 improvement measures for a given production system. In addition, apply this framework on an actual cement production system and summarize the results both in qualitative and quantitative terms.

    Theoretical framework

    The assessment framework developed in this article is based on the concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis: (1) study of the flows of material and energy in production systems is important, (2) emphasizing on the importance of studying industrial systems in integration with their surrounding systems, not as isolated entities, and (3) in an industrial ecosystem no material and energy stream should be treated as waste and all material and energy streams are potentially useful inputs for other industrial processes.

    Results

    The result is an assessment framework which can be used to systematically gather, classify and evaluate different CO2 improvement measures for cement production. This framework consists of two parts: (1) generic assessment and (2) site-specific assessment of CO2 improvement measures. The first part considers general aspects of the measures such as level of Industrial Symbiosis (i.e. degree of connectedness which is required for their implementation), the potential of each measure for reducing CO2 emissions, and their technological maturity. The second part assesses the feasibility of the measures regarding the conditions of a specific cement producing system. Aspects such as organizational applicability, technical and infrastructural applicability, and the existing level of implementation of each measure are considered.

    The framework is also applied on three cement plants in Germany (owned by CEMEX) referred to as the Cluster West and the results of the assessment are summarized.

    Conclusions

    As demonstrated in the case of Cluster West, the assessment framework developed in this article can be used by a cement producing companies such as CEMEX in order to systematically assess hundreds of measures and identify the most feasible and applicable ones for implementing on each of their cement production plants.

    Lessons learned during development of this assessment framework, may be used when approaching industrial systems other than cement production.

  • 41.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

  • 42.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

  • 43.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Utilizing LCA and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry: a case study of a cement production cluster in Germany2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with a rather linear production to more synergistic alternatives where byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    This article has two main aims, where the first is to carry out a LCA and compare three different cement products, involving both linear and synergistic ones to further explore this issue. This has been done from cradle to gate, focusing on climate impact, where the case is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany. The second aim is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to assess additional production alternatives based on the information of a few parameters.

    The more comprehensive LCA showed that cement products with a high share of byproducts, in this case granulated blast furnace slag from the steel industry, had the best climate performance. The difference between the best (CEM III/B) and worst (CEM I) cement product, regarding global warming potential, was about 66%. A simplified LCA model was developed and the research team could apply it to compare the present production with the situation in 1997 and also with possible future production systems. This simplified LCA model was based on 6 key performance indicators, instead of more than 50 parameters, which was the case for the comprehensive LCA model. For example, the simplified model showed that the CO2 emission related to a virtual average product of the production cluster was reduced about 49 % in the period from 1997 to 2009.

  • 44.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Händelö area in Norrköping, Sweden Does it fit for Industrial Symbiosis development?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The overall aim of the current paper is to demonstrate an Industrial Symbiosis development in the Händelö area of Norrköping city in the Östergötland county of Sweden. It is part of a research program called “Sustainable Norrköping” focusing on developing links between the industrial and the urban part of the city. As analysis of the current situation is important for understanding the future development, the paper tries to map the current industrial symbiosis links and symbiotic network to identify potentials exist. To achieve this, paper gives a general view of how this area has been developed, constructed, and grown. The next stage is devoted to an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, and companies, their processes and relationships in the form of energy, materials and by-products exchanges, flows and streams into and out of the Händelö area considering the Händelö/Norrköping as system boundaries. In addition, by describing different tools, elements and approaches of industrial symbiosis and considering and applying two main key tools as industrial inventories and input/output matching the paper also tries to show that whether the already industrial activities formed inside the Händelö fits for an industrial symbiosis development.

  • 45. Hirschhorn, J.
    et al.
    Jackson, Tim
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Toward prevention – the Emerging Environmental management Paradigm1993In: Clean Production Strategies: developing Preventive Environmental management in the Industrail Economy / [ed] T. Jackson, Boca Rotan, Florida: Lewis Publishers , 1993, p. 125-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46. Klemmensen, B.
    et al.
    Baas, Leenard W.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Duffy, N.
    Steen Hansen, B.
    Ryan, B.
    Spinardi, G.
    Williams, R.
    Refinery Sector1999In: Policies for Cleaner Technology: A new Agenda for Government and Industry / [ed] Clayton, A., G. Spinardi & R. Williams, London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1999, p. 52-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Getting serious about mining the technosphere: a review of recent landfill mining and urban mining research2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 1-9Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews the articles in a special volume of Journal of Cleaner Production on urban mining and landfill mining, identifying what is seen as relevant for exploring the feasibility of such approaches and which societal changes and research areas are essential for their further dissemination. In doing so, we put the articles in relation to previous research and a modified resilience model displaying dimensions of relevance for socio-ecological transitions, i.e., Metabolic flows, Governance andamp; knowledge, Business dynamics and Infrastructure andamp; markets. The main contributions of the articles in the special volume are in regards to metabolic issues (e.g. characterization of technospheric material stocks and societal impacts of landfill mining) and business dimensions (e.g. economics, organizational issues and management tools). Two articles also provide original contributions by conceptualizing these emerging approaches and defining what makes them different from existing recycling strategies and practices. We conclude that urban mining and landfill mining show high potential but that state-of-the-art is theoretical, implying a need for applied approaches to develop applicable methods and technology and to assess performance of such activities in practice. However, realization of these approaches faces interdisciplinary and long-term challenges, which apart from technology and facts also needs to address non-technical conditions in terms of governance, market dynamics and organizational structures and cultures.

  • 48.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving energy and material flows: a contribution to sustainability in megacities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As cities have become home for 50% of the world‟s population, urban systems have definitely caught public attention. The urban metabolism can be improved by transforming their linear behavior into a more circular one. This paper is based on a project initiated by the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping university, financed by Vinnova: Megatech. The aim is to study the megacities of Cairo and Mexico City in order to understand some of the problems they are facing. By improving their energy and material flows behavior, these megacities can benefit from the reduction of their dependence on fossil fuels and virgin materials; the protection of part of their social, economic and productive systems from external factors (e.g. political drawbacks, shortage/distribution problems, international prices); an increased effectiveness of their planning activities–as they would be based to a large extent on their own resources–and the reduction of their environmental burden. An in situ study will take place with the participation of local stakeholders. Information about environmental problems will be collected and potential solutions will be analyzed and suggested. A tentative model is presented, showing how the reinsertion of the outflows into the urban system could benefit these cities‟ overall environmental performance.

  • 49.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Megacities: turning ten million faces at Swedish environmental technology2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing a tremendous challenge with its current urbanization trend. In particular, two types of cities–i.e. emerging and transitional–are of interest given their rapid population growth and the subsequent pressure put on its infrastructure and logistics and on its surrounding environment. This can represent huge business opportunities for companies in Sweden, where population growth has stabilized and a lot of these problems have been already addressed. At the same time, the host city can benefit from the solution of some of their problems and a push towards a more sustainable development. In this article, the key dynamics for successful up-scaling and diffusion of environmental technologies in emerging markets are analyzed based on a case-study. The identification of key local stakeholders, such as governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs), intermediary institutions, industry representatives and academia was the raw material for a first round of interviews. The latter, provided an insight of what are the barriers to success, having in mind the specific social and economic context of the venue and its inhabitants/government’s perceptions of their current environmental situation.

  • 50.
    Mejia-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    University of Los Andes, Colombia.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Public utility companies in liberalized markets - The impact of management models on local and regional sustainability2017In: Utilities Policy, ISSN 0957-1787, E-ISSN 1878-4356, Vol. 49, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how publicly-owned utility companies can remain competitive in liberalized markets. We study EPM, a utility company from Medellin, Colombia. We discuss the companys management model, local laws and regulations affecting it, direct and indirect benefits for the city, and risks resulting from the power it has acquired. It is claimed that early decisions to maintain public ownership of key assets and provide the company with administrative autonomy helped it remain competitive, despite the liberalization of the market. This has allowed the city to increase its revenue and, as a result, its spending on social and environmental projects. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-05-16 14:47
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