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  • 1.
    Jiang, Ke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Security-Driven Design of Real-Time Embedded Systems2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time embedded systems (RTESs) have been widely used in modern society. And it is also very common to find them in safety and security critical applications, such as transportation and medical equipment. There are, usually, several constraints imposed on a RTES, for example, timing, resource, energy, and performance, which must be satisfied simultaneously. This makes the design of such systems a difficult problem.

    More recently, the security of RTESs emerges as a major design concern, as more and more attacks have been reported. However, RTES security, as a parameter to be considered during the design process, has been overlooked in the past. This thesis approaches the design of secure RTESs focusing on aspects that are particularly important in the context of RTES, such as communication confidentiality and side-channel attack resistance.

    Several techniques are presented in this thesis for designing secure RTESs, including hardware/software co-design techniques for communication confidentiality on distributed platforms, a global framework for secure multi-mode real-time systems, and a scheduling policy for thwarting differential power analysis attacks. 

    All the proposed solutions have been extensively evaluated in a large amount of experiments, including two real-life case studies, which demonstrate the efficiency of the presented techniques.

  • 2.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Batina, Lejla
    Institute for Computing and Information Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robustness Analysis of Real-Time Scheduling Against Differential Power Analysis Attacks2014In: IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 450-455Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems (ESs) have been a prominent solution for enhancing system performance and reliability in recent years. ESs that are required to ensure functional correctness under timing constraints are referred to as real-time embedded systems (RTESs). With the emerging trend of utilizing RTESs in safety and reliability critical areas, security of RTESs, especially confidentiality of the communication, becomes of great importance. More recently, side-channel attacks (SCAs) posed serious threats to confidentiality protection mechanisms, namely, cryptographic algorithms. In this work, we present the first analytical framework for quantifying the influence of real-time scheduling policies on the robustness of secret keys against differential power analysis (DPA) attacks, one of the most popular type of SCAs. We validated the proposed concept on two representative scheduling algorithms, earliest deadline first scheduling (EDF) and rate-monotonic scheduling (RMS), via extensive experiments.

  • 3.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eles, Petru Ion
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Power-Aware Design Techniques of Secure Multimode Embedded Systems2016In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 6-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, embedded systems have been widely used in all types of application areas, some of which belong to the safety and reliability critical domains. The functional correctness and design robustness of the embedded systems involved in such domains are crucial for the safety of personal/enterprise property or even human lives. Thereby, a holistic design procedure that considers all the important design concerns is essential. In this article, we approach embedded systems design from an integral perspective. We consider not only the classic real-time and quality of service requirements, but also the emerging security and power efficiency demands. Modern embedded systems are not any more developed for a fixed purpose, but instead designed for undertaking various processing requests. This leads to the concept of multimode embedded systems, in which the number and nature of active tasks change during runtime. Under dynamic situations, providing high performance along with various design concerns becomes a really difficult problem. Therefore, we propose a novel power-aware secure embedded systems design framework that efficiently solves the problem of runtime quality optimization with security and power constraints. The efficiency of our proposed techniques are evaluated in extensive experiments.

  • 4.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Design Framework for Dynamic Embedded Systems with Security Constraints2013In: The 12th Swedish System-on-Chip Conference (SSoCC 2013), Ystad, Sweden, May 6-7, 2013 (not reviewed, not printed)., 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Co-Design Techniques for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems with Communication Security Constraints2012In: Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE12), Dresden, Germany, March 12-16, 2012., IEEE , 2012, p. 947-952Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider distributed real-time embedded systems in which confidentiality of the internal communication is critical. We present an approach to efficiently implement cryptographic algorithms by using hardware/software co-design techniques. The objective is to find the minimal hardware overhead and corresponding process mapping for encryption and decryption tasks of the system, so that the confidentiality requirements for the messages transmitted over the internal communication bus are fulfilled, and time constraints are satisfied. Towards this, we formulate the optimization problems using Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), which returns optimal solutions. However, CLP executions are computationally expensive and, hence, efficient heuristics are proposed as an alternative. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed heuristic approaches.

  • 6.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimization of Message Encryption for Distributed Embedded Systems with Real-Time Constraints2011In: 14th IEEE Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS11), Cottbus, Germany, April 13-15, 2011., IEEE, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider distributed embedded systems in which privacyor confidentiality of the internal communication is critical, andpresent an approach to optimizing cryptographic algorithms under stricttiming constraints. We have developed a technique to search for the bestsystem-affordable cryptographic protection for the messages transmittedover the internal communication bus. Towards this, we formulate theoptimization technique in Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), whichreturns optimal results. However, CLP executions are computationallyexpensive and hence, we propose an efficient heuristic as analternative. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficiency of theproposed heuristic approach.

  • 7.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimization of Secure Embedded Systems with Dynamic Task Sets2013In: Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE 2013), IEEE , 2013, p. 1765-1770Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we approach embedded systems design from a new angle that considers not only quality of service but also security as part of the design process. Moreover, we also take into consideration the dynamic aspect of modern embedded systems in which the number and nature of active tasks are variable during run-time. In this context, providing both high quality of service and guaranteeing the required level of security becomes a difficult problem. Therefore, we propose a novel secure embedded systems design framework that efficiently solves the problem of run-time quality optimization with security constraints. Experiments demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed techniques.

  • 8.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance Comparison of Simulated Annealing and Tabu Search on Block Cipher Optimization in Distributed Embedded Systems2011In: The 11th Swedish System-on-Chip Conference, Varberg, Sweden, May 2-3, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider distributed embedded systems in which privacy or confidentiality of the internal communication is critical, and present an approach to optimize cryptographic algorithms under strict timing constraints. We have developed a technique searching for the best system-affordable cryptographic protection for the messages transmitted over the internal communication bus. On account of the complexity of the problem, finding the optimal solution is only feasible for very small systems. Therefore, we formulate the technique in two efficient metaheuristics, and study their performance from extensive experiments.

  • 9.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Power-Aware Design Techniques of Secure Multimode Embedded Systems2016In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 15, p. 6:1-6:29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, embedded systems have been widely used in all types of application areas, some of which belong to the safety and reliability critical domains. The functional correctness and design robustness of the embedded systems involved in such domains are crucial for the safety of personal/enterprise property or even human lives. Thereby, a holistic design procedure that considers all the important design concerns is essential.

    In this article, we approach embedded systems design from an integral perspective. We consider not only the classic real-time and quality of service requirements, but also the emerging security and power efficiency demands. Modern embedded systems are not any more developed for a fixed purpose, but instead designed for undertaking various processing requests. This leads to the concept of multimode embedded systems, in which the number and nature of active tasks change during runtime. Under dynamic situations, providing high performance along with various design concerns becomes a really difficult problem. Therefore, we propose a novel power-aware secure embedded systems design framework that efficiently solves the problem of runtime quality optimization with security and power constraints. The efficiency of our proposed techniques are evaluated in extensive experiments.

  • 10.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chattopadhyay, Sudipta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Batina, Lejla
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    SPARTA: A scheduling policy for thwarting differential power analysis attacks2016In: 2016 21ST ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC), IEEE Press, 2016, p. 667-672Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems (ESs) have been widely used in various application domains. It is very important to design ESs that guarantee functional correctness of the system under strict timing constraints. Such systems are known as the real-time embedded systems (RTESs). More recently, RTESs started to be utilized in safety and reliability critical areas, which made the overlooked security issues, especially confidentiality of the communication, a serious problem. Differential power analysis attacks (DPAs) pose serious threats to confidentiality protection mechanisms, i.e., implementations of cryptographic algorithms, on embedded platforms. In this work, we present a scheduling policy, SPARTA, that thwarts DPAs. Theoretical guarantees and preliminary experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the SPARTA scheduler.

  • 11.
    Jiang, Ke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lifa, Adrian Alin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jiang, Wei
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu.
    Energy-Aware Design of Secure Multi-Mode Real-Time Embedded Systems with FPGA Co-Processors2013In: Proceedings of the 21st International conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems / [ed] Michel Auguin, Robert de Simone, Robert Davis, Emmanuel Grolleau, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, p. 109-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We approach the emerging area of energy efficient, secure real-time embedded systems design. Many modern embedded systems have to fulfill strict security constraints and are often required to meet stringent deadlines in different operation modes, where the number and nature of active tasks vary (dynamic task sets). In this context, the use of dynamic voltage/frequency scaling (DVFS) techniques and onboard field-programmable gate array (FPGA) co-processors offer new dimensions for energy savings and performance enhancement. We propose a novel design framework that provides the best security protection consuming the minimal energy for all operation modes of a system. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficiency of our techniques.

  • 12.
    Jiang, Wei
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China.
    Jiang, Ke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ma, Yue
    School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China.
    Resource Allocation of Security-Critical Tasks with Statistically Guaranteed Energy Constraint2012In: International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2012), Seoul, Korea, August 19-22, 2012., IEEE , 2012, p. 330-339Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are interested in resourceallocation for energy constrained and security-criticalembedded systems. Tasks in such systems need to besuccessfully executed under certain energy budget and berobust against serious security threatens. Different to formerenergy minimal scheduling problem, we introduce a newoptimization problem for a set of tasks with energyconstraint and multiple security choices. We present adynamic programming based approximation algorithm tominimize the security risk of the system while statisticallyguaranteeing energy consumption constraints for givenenergy slack ratio. The proposed algorithm is very efficientin both time and space dimensions, and achieves goodsolutions. Extensive simulations demonstrate the superiorityof our algorithm over other approaches.

  • 13.
    Jiang, Wei
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China School of Information and Software Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China .
    Jiang, Ke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Xia
    School of Information and Software Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China .
    Ma, Yue
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, United States .
    Energy Aware Real-Time Scheduling Policy with Guaranteed Security Protection2014In: 2014 19TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 317-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we address the emerging scheduling problem existed in the design of secure and energy-efficient real-time embedded systems. The objective is to minimize the energy consumption subject to security and schedulability constraints. Due to the complexity of the problem, we propose a dynamic programming based approximation approach to find the near-optimal solutions with respect to predefined security constraint. The proposed technique has polynomial time complexity which is about half of traditional approximation approaches. The efficiency of our algorithm is validated by extensive experiments.

  • 14.
    Jiang, Wei
    et al.
    University of Elect Science and Technology China, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Ke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Xia
    University of Texas Dallas, TX 75230 USA.
    Ma, Yue
    University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.
    Energy Optimization of Security-Critical Real-Time Applications with Guaranteed Security Protection2015In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 282-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing energy-efficient applications has become of critical importance for embedded systems, especially for battery-powered systems. Additionally, the emerging requirements on both security and real-time make it much more difficult to produce ideal solutions. In this work, we address the emerging scheduling problem existed in the design of secure and energy-efficient real-time embedded systems. The objective is to minimize the system energy consumption subject to security and schedulability constraints. Due to the complexity of the problem, we propose a dynamic programming based approximation approach to find efficient solutions under given constraints. The proposed technique has polynomial time complexity which is half of existing approximation approaches. The efficiency of our algorithm is validated by extensive experiments and a real-life case study. Comparing with other approaches, the proposed approach achieves energy-saving up to 37.6% without violating the real-time and security constraints of the system.

  • 15.
    Zhang, Xia
    et al.
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu.
    Zhan, Jinyu
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu.
    Jiang, Wei
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu.
    Ma, Yue
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu.
    Jiang, Ke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design Optimization of Energy- and Security-Critical Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems2013In: 15th Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Computational Models (APDCM 2013), Boston, USA, May 20, 2013., IEEE Press, 2013, p. 741-750Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we approach the design of energy- and security-critical distributed real-time embedded systems from the early mapping and scheduling phases. Modern Distributed Embedded Systems (DESs) are common to be connected to external networks, which is beneficial for various purposes, but also opens up the gate for potential security attacks. However, security protections in DESs result in significant time and energy overhead. In this work, we focus on the problem of providing the best confidentiality protection of internal communication in DESs under time and energy constraints. The complexity of finding the optimal solution grows exponentially as problem size grows. Therefore, we propose an efficient genetic algorithm based heuristic for solving the problem. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  • 16.
    Zhang, Xia
    et al.
    University of Electronic Science and Technology, China.
    Zhang, Jinyu
    University of Electronic Science and Technology, China.
    Jiang, Wei
    University of Electronic Science and Technology, China.
    Ma, Yue
    University of Electronic Science and Technology, China.
    Jiang, Ke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design Optimization of Security-Sensitive Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Embedded Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are interested in securitysensitive mixed-criticality real-time systems. Existing researches on mixed-criticality systems usually are safety-oriented, which seriously ignore the security requirements. We firstly establish the system model to capture security-critical applications in mixed-criticality systems. Higher security-criticality protection always results in significant time and energy overhead in mixedcriticality systems. Thus, this paper proposes a system-level design framework for energy optimization of security-sensitive mixed-criticality system. Since the time complexity of finding optimal solutions grows exponentially as problem size grows, a GA based efficient heuristic algorithm is devised to address the system-level optimization problem. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique, which can obtain balanced minimal energy consumption while satisfying strict security and timing constraints.

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