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  • 1.
    Abongo, D. A.
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, S. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, I. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    University of Wageningen and Research Centre, Netherlands.
    Naziriwo, B. B.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, V. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, G. A.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Nkedi-Kizza, P.
    University of Florida, FL USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. North West University, South Africa.
    Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015Inngår i: African Journal of Aquatic Science, ISSN 1608-5914, E-ISSN 1727-9364, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 373-392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A baseline study was conducted of the occurrence of macroinvertebrates at 26 sites in the Nyando River catchment in 2005-2006. A total of 13 orders and 16 families of Arthropoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes and Annelida were collected, with the order Ephemeroptera being most abundant in the up- and mid-stream reaches, followed by Hemiptera and Plecoptera respectively. The downstream sections of the river were dominated by Hirudinea and tubificids, as the water quality deteriorated mainly due to local land use, raw sewage effluent discharge and annual floods. Insects and annelids were the main invertebrates found and the extent of pollution increased from mid-section (Site 15) downwards as the river flowed into the Winam Gulf. Stringent management measures are required to safeguard the environment and ecosystems of Lake Victoria.

  • 2.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014Inngår i: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 3.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi. Kenya.
    Jumba, Isac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Nazariwo, Betty
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, Godfrey
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nkedi-Kizza, Peter
    University of Florida, USA.
    Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015Inngår i: Africa Journal of Physical Sciences, ISSN 2313-3317, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 18-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil samples were collected from six locations representative of the Nyando River catchment area of the Lake Victoria over a period of two years. Sampling was done four times in the year in February, May, September and December 2005 and 2006 in farms where maize, tea, sugar cane, coffee, rice and vegetables have been grown over the years. This coincided with the effects of different seasons and farming activities on residue levels of the pesticides in use. The objective was to investigate levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides that have either been banned or are restricted for use in Kenya. Organochlorine pesticides investigated were DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin, endosulfan (both α- and β- isomers and endosulfan sulphate), the sum is called “total” or Σendosulfan and methoxychlor. Prior to the ban or restriction in use, these pesticides had found wide applications in public health for control of disease vectors and in agriculture for control of crop pests. The analysis revealed presence of all the targeted pesticides with the highest mean concentrations for methoxychlor 140 ± 1.5 μg/kg, Σendosulfan (30 ± 2.1 μg/kg), aldrin (18 ± 0.28 μg/kg), respectively. The results show the presence of these pesticides in soils in the basin and this could be impacting negatively on the ecosystem health of the area.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ashiq, Muhammad Jamshaid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Shoeb, Mohammad
    Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Evaluating gas chromatography with a halogen-specific detectorfor the determination of disinfection by-products in drinking water2019Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, s. 7305-7314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has become an issue of concern during the past decades. The DBPs pose health risks and are suspected to cause various cancer forms, be genotoxic and have negative developmental effects. The vast chemical diversity of DBPs makes comprehensive monitoring challenging. Only few of the DBPs are regulated and included in analytical protocols. In this study, a method for simultaneous measurement of 20 DBPs from five different structural classes (both regulated and non-regulated) was investigated and further developed for 11 DBPs using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a halogen specific detector (XSD). The XSD was highly selective towards halogenated DBPs, providing chromatograms with little noise. The method allowed detection down to 0.05 µg/L and showed promising results for the simultaneous determination of a range of neutral DBP classes. Compounds from two classes of emerging DBPs, more cytotoxic than the “traditional” regulated DBPs, were successfully determined using this method. However, haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be analyzed separately as some HAA methyl esters may degrade giving false positives of trihalomethanes (THMs). The method was tested on real water samples from two municipal waterworks where the target DBP concentrations were found below the regulatory limits of Sweden.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harir, Mourad
    Helmholtz Zentrum München, Germany.
    Gonsior, Michael
    University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, USA.
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    Helmholtz Zentrum München, Germany.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
    Helmholtz Zentrum München, Germany.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ashiq, Muhammad Jamshaid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lavonen, Elin
    Norrvatten, Kvalitet och Utveckling.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    VA SYD.
    Pettersson, Ämma
    Nodra.
    Stavklint, Helena
    Tekniska verken i Linköping.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Waterworks-specific composition of drinking water disinfection by-products2019Inngår i: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1419, nr 5, s. 861-872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactions between chemical disinfectants and natural organic matter (NOM) upon drinking water treatment result in formation of potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs). The diversity of DBPs formed is high and a large portion remains unknown. Previous studies have shown that non-volatile DBPs are important, as much of the total toxicity from DBPs has been related to this fraction. To further understand the composition and variation of DBPs associated with this fraction, non-target analysis with ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was employed to detect DBPs at four Swedish waterworks using different types of raw water and treatments. Samples were collected five times covering a full year. A common group of DBPs formed at all four waterworks was detected, suggesting a similar pool of DBP precursors in all raw waters that might be related to phenolic moieties. However, the largest proportion (64–92%) of the assigned chlorinated and brominated molecular formulae were unique, i.e. were solely found in one of the four waterworks. In contrast, the compositional variations of NOM in the raw waters and samples collected prior to chemical disinfection were rather limited.This indicated that waterworks-specific DBPs presumably originated from matrix effects at the point of disinfection, primarily explained by differences in bromide levels, disinfectants (chlorine versus chloramine) and different relative abundances of isomers among the NOM compositions studied. The large variation of observed DBPs in the toxicologically relevant non-volatile fraction indicates that non-targeted monitoring strategies might be valuable to ensure relevant DBP monitoring in the future.

  • 6.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Chlorine cycling and fates of 36Cl in terrestrial environments2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine-36 (36Cl), a radioisotope of chlorine (Cl) with a half-life of 301,000 years, is present in some types of nuclear waste and is disposed in repositories for radioactive waste. As the release of 36Cl from such repositories to the near surface environment has to be taken into account it is of interest to predict possible fates of 36Cl under various conditions as a part of the safety assessments of repositories for radioactive waste. This report aims to summarize the state of the art knowledge on Cl cycling in terrestrial environments. The view on Cl cycling in terrestrial environments is changing due to recent research and it is clear that the chloride ion (Cl) is more reactive than previously believed. We group the major findings in three categories below according to the amount of data in support of the findings.

    From the result presented in this report it is evident that:

    • There is an ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems.
    • The abundance of naturally formed chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) frequently exceeds the abundance of Cl, particularly in soils. Thereby Clorg in many cases dominates the total Cl pool.
    • This has important implications for Cl transport. When reaching surface soils Cl will not be a suitable tracer of water and will instead enter other Cl pools (Clorg and biomass) that prolong residence times in the system.
    • Cl dominates import and export from terrestrial ecosystems while Clorg and biomass Cl can dominate the standing stock Cl within terrestrial ecosystems.
    • Both Cl and Clorg pools have to be considered separately in future monitoring programs addressing Cl cycling.

    Further, there are also indications (in need of confirmation by additional studies) that:

    • There is a rapid and large uptake of Cl by organisms and an accumulation in green plant parts. A surprisingly large proportion of total catchment Cl (up to 60%) can be found in the terrestrial biomass.
    • Emissions of total volatile organohalogens could be a significant export pathway of Cl from the systems.
    • Some of the Clorg may be very persistent and resist degradation better than average organic matter. This may lead to selective preservation of some Clorg (with associated low bioavailability).
    • There is a production of Clorg in tissues of e.g. plants and animals and Cl can accumulate as
    • chlorinated fatty acids in organisms.

    Most other nevertheless important aspects are largely unknown due to lack of data. Key unknowns include:

    • The development over time of major Cl pools and fluxes. As long as such data is lacking we cannot assess net changes over time.
    • How the precesses behind chlorination, dechlorination and transport patterns in terrestrial systems are regulated and affected by environmental factors.
    • The ecological roles of the chlorine cycling in general.
    • The ecological role of the microbial chlorination in particular.
    • The chlorine cycling in aquatic environments – including Cl and Clorg pools in sediment and water, are largely missing.

    Given the limited present information available, and particularly the lack of data with a temporal dimension and the lack of process understanding, predictive models are challenging. We also summarize currently available methods to study Cl in the environment.

  • 7.
    Benskin, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Institute for Coastal Research, Geesthacht, Tyskland.
    Muir, Derek
    Environment Canada, Kanada.
    Scott, Brian
    Environment Canada, Kanada.
    Spencer, Christine
    Environment Canada, Kanada.
    Rosenberg, Bruno
    Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
    Tomy, Gregg
    Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lohmann, Rainer
    University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Martin, Jonathan
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Manufacturing Origin of Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Seawater2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 677-685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which different manufacturing sources and long-range transport pathways contribute to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in the world’s oceans, particularly in remote locations, is widely debated. Here, the relative contribution of historic (i.e., electrochemically fluorinated) and contemporary (i.e., telomer) manufacturing sources was assessed for PFOA in various seawater samples by an established isomer profiling technique. The ratios of individual branched PFOA isomers were indistinguishable from those in authentic historic standards in 93% of the samples examined, indicating that marine processes had little influence on isomer profiles, and that isomer profiling is a valid source apportionment tool for seawater. Eastern Atlantic PFOA was largely (83−98%) of historic origin, but this decreased to only 33% close to the Eastern U.S. seaboard. Similarly, PFOA in the Norwegian Sea was near exclusively historic, but the relative contribution decreased to ∼50% near the Baltic Sea. Such observations of contemporary PFOA in coastal source regions coincided with elevated concentrations, suggesting that the continued production and use of PFOA is currently adding to the marine burden of this contaminant. In the Arctic, a spatial trend was observed whereby PFOA in seawater originating from the Atlantic was predominantly historic (up to 99%), whereas water in the Archipelago (i.e., from the Pacific) was predominantly of contemporary origin (as little as 17% historic). These data help to explain reported temporal and spatial trends from Arctic wildlife biomonitoring, and suggest that the dominant PFOA source(s) to the Pacific and Canadian Arctic Archipelago are either (a) from direct emissions of contemporary PFOA via manufacturing or use in Asia, or (b) from atmospheric transport and oxidation of contemporary PFOA-precursors.

  • 8.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    et al.
    University of Alberta, Canada .
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Environm Canada, Canada .
    Scott, Brian F.
    Environm Canada, Canada .
    Spencer, Christine
    Environm Canada, Canada .
    De Silva, Amila O.
    Environm Canada, Canada .
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    University of Alberta, Canada .
    Morris, Adam
    University of Guelph, Canada .
    Lohmann, Rainer
    University of Rhode Isl, RI 02882 USA .
    Tomy, Gregg
    Department Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada .
    Rosenberg, Bruno
    Department Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada .
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute Adv Ind Science and Technology, Japan .
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute Adv Ind Science and Technology, Japan .
    Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Oceans2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 11, s. 5815-5823Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here on the spatial distribution of C-4, C-6, and C-8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, C-6-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, including previously unstudied coastal waters of North and South America, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were typically the dominant perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in Atlantic water. In the midnorthwest Atlantic/Gulf Stream, sum PFAA concentrations (Sigma PFAAs) were low (77-190 pg/L) but increased rapidly upon crossing into U.S. coastal water (up to 5800 pg/L near Rhode Island). Sigma PFAAs in the northeast Atlantic were highest north of the Canary Islands (280-980 pg/L) and decreased with latitude. In the South Atlantic, concentrations increased near Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay; 350-540 pg/L Sigma PFAAs), possibly attributable to insecticides containing N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, or proximity to Montevideo and Buenos Aires. In all other southern hemisphere locations, Sigma PFAAs were less than210 pg/L. PFOA/PFOS ratios were typically greater than= 1 in the northern hemisphere, similar to 1 near the equator, and less than= 1 in the southern hemisphere. In the Canadian Arctic, Sigma PFAAs ranged from 40 to 250 pg/L, with perfluoroheptanoate, PFOA, and PFOS among the PFAAs detected at the highest concentrations. PFOA/PFOS ratios (typically greater thangreater than1) decreased from Baffin Bay to the Amundsen Gulf; possibly attributable to increased atmospheric inputs. These data help validate global emissions models and contribute to understanding of long-range transport pathways and sources of PFAAs to remote regions.

  • 9.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    Kucklick, John
    Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC, USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North–West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Letcher, Robert
    Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wong, Fiona
    Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Canada.
    A review of halogenated natural products in Arctic, Subarctic and Nordic ecosystems2019Inngår i: Emerging Contaminants, ISSN 2405-6650, E-ISSN 2405-6642, Vol. 5, s. 89-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Halogenated natural products (HNPs) are organic compounds containing bromine, chlorine, iodine, andrarely fluorine. HNPs comprise many classes of compounds, ranging in complexity from halocarbons tohigher molecular weight compounds, which often contain oxygen and/or nitrogen atoms in addition tohalogens. Many HNPs are biosynthesized by marine bacteria, macroalgae, phytoplankton, tunicates,corals, worms, sponges and other invertebrates. This paper reviews HNPs in Arctic, Subarctic and Nordicecosystems and is based on sections of Chapter 2.16 in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program(AMAP) assessment Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern (AMAP, 2017) which deal with the highermolecular weight HNPs. Material is updated and expanded to include more Nordic examples. Much ofthe chapter is devoted to “bromophenolic” HNPs, viz bromophenols (BPs) and transformation productsbromoanisoles (BAs), hydroxylated and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs, MeO-BDEs) andpolybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), since these HNPs are most frequently reported. Othersdiscussed are 2,20-dimethoxy-3,30,5,50-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,20-dimethoxy-BB80), polyhalogenated 10-methyl-1,20-bipyrroles (PMBPs), polyhalogenated 1,10-dimethyl-2,20-bipyrroles (PDBPs), polyhalogenatedN-methylpyrroles (PMPs), polyhalogenated N-methylindoles (PMIs), bromoheptyl- and bromooctylpyrroles, (1R,2S,4R,5R,10E)-2-bromo-1-bromomethyl-1,4-dichloro-5-(20-chloroethenyl)-5-methylcyclohexane (mixed halogenated compound MHC-1), polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives(PBHDs) and polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCs). Aspects of HNPs covered are physicochemicalproperties, sources and production, transformation processes, concentrations and trends in the physicalenvironment and biota (marine and freshwater). Toxic properties of some HNPs and a discussion of howclimate change might affect HNPs production and distribution are also included. The review concludeswith a summary of research needs to better understand the role of HNPs as “chemicals of emergingArctic concern”.

  • 10.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Kucklick, John
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Letcher, Robert
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Halogenated Natural Products2017Inngår i: AMAP Assessment 2016: Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern, Oslo, Norway: AMAP , 2017, s. 243-267Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Kucklick, John
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, South Carolina, USA.
    Letcher, Robert
    National Wildlife Research Centre, Canada.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN IN THE ARCTIC: AN ASSESSMENT OF HALOGENATED NATURAL PRODUCTS2016Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, s. 193-196, artikkel-id 8.4010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan
    Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Armitage, James
    University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Brown, Tanya
    University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    Danon Schaffer, Monica
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Canada.
    Hung, Haley
    Meteorological Services Canada .
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Li, Yi-Fan
    Environment, Canada.
    Loock, Daniela
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Luttmer, Carol
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Ma, Jianmin
    Lanzhou University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Macdonald, Robie
    Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
    Mackay, Don
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
    Reid, Liisa
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
    Reimer, Ken
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Chapter 2: Properties, sources, global fate and transport2013Inngår i: Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report III 2013: Persistent Organic Pollutants in Canada’ s North / [ed] Derek Muir, Perihan Kurt-Karakus and Peter Stow, Ottawa: Northern Contaminants Program, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada , 2013, s. 19-146Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Part II of the second Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR-II) began with a section on “Physicochemical Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants”, which identified key physicochemical (pchem) properties, provided the rationale for their measurement or prediction and tabulated literature citations for chemicals that are of concern to the NCP (Bidleman et al. 2003). The section also discussed temperature dependence of pchem properties and their applications to describing partitioning in the physical environment.

    There is, and will continue to be, emphasis on predictive approaches to screening chemicals for persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic (PB&T)properties, as well as long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) potential (Brown and Wania 2008, Czub et al. 2008, Fenner et al. 2005, Gouin andWania 2007, Howard and Muir 2010, Klasmeier et al. 2006, Matthies et al. 2009, Muir and Howard 2006). This has created the need for determining pchem properties of new and emerging chemicals of concern.

    Predicting gas exchange cycles of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and new and emerging chemicals of concern places a high demand on the accuracy of pchem properties, particularly the air/water partition coefficient, KAW. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Arctic Ocean surface waters are close to air-water equilibrium, with excursions toward net volatilization or deposition that vary with location and season (Hargrave et al. 1993, Jantunen et al. 2008a, Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) while hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) and some current use pesticides (CUPs) (Wong et al. 2011) are undergoing net deposition. The predicted Arctic Contamination Potential (ACP) for persistent organic chemicals is strongly influenced by ice cover due to its effect on air-water gas exchange (Meyer and Wania 2007).

    Many advances have taken place and numerous papers have been published since CACAR-II, which present new measurements and predictions of pchem properties. This section does not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the field, or to compile pchem properties from the many studies. The approach taken is to highlight the reports which are most relevant to polar science, particularly in areas of improving reliability of pchem properties for POPs, improving experimental techniques and comparing predictive methods. The section ends with a discussion of polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs), which goes beyond partitioning descriptions based on single pchem properties by taking into account specific chemical interactions that can take place in airsurface and water-surface exchange processes. A detailed list of chemical names and nomenclature are provided in the Glossary.

  • 13.
    Bouwman, Henk
    et al.
    Northwest University, South Africa.
    Bornman, Riana
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    van den Berg, Henk
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    DDT: Fifty years since silent spring2013Inngår i: Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation, Copenhagen: European Environment Agency , 2013, , s. 291s. 272-291Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    'There was a strange stillness. The birds for example — where had they gone? Many people spoke about them, puzzled and disturbed. The feeding stations in the backyards were deserted. The few birds seen anywhere were moribund: they trembled violently and could not fly. It was a spring without voices ... only silence lay over the fields and woods and marsh.'

    The book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson is mainly about the impacts of chemicals (in particular in particular dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane also known as DDT) on the environment and human health. Indeed, the close association between humans and birds remains very apt. Representing the only two warm-blooded groups of life on Earth, mammals and birds share the same environments and threats.

    Carson's claim that she lived in 'an era dominated by industry, in which the right to make a dollar at whatever cost is seldom challenged' still resonates strongly with the problems that societies face all over the world. One chapter heading, 'The obligation to endure', derived from the French biologist and philosopher Jean Rostand's famous observation that, 'the obligation to endure gives us the right to know'. United States President John F. Kennedy responded to the challenge posed by Carson by investigating DDT, leading to its complete ban in the US. The ban was followed by a range of institutions and regulations concerned with environmental issues in the US and elsewhere, driven by public demand for knowledge and protection.

    DDT was the primary tool used in the first global malaria eradication programme during the 1950s and 1960s. The insecticide is sprayed on the inner walls and ceilings of houses. Malaria has been successfully eliminated from many regions but remains endemic in large parts of the world. DDT remains one of the 12 insecticides — and the only organochlorine compound — currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), and under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, countries may continue to use DDT. Global annual use of DDT for disease vector control is estimated at more than 5 000 tonnes.

    It is clear that the social conscience awakened by Rachel Carson 50 years ago gave momentum to a groundswell of actions and interventions that are slowly but steadily making inroads at myriad levels. Chapter 17 of her book, 'The other road' reminds the reader of the opportunities that should have been seized much earlier. With more than 10 % of bird species worldwide now threatened in one way or another, it is clear that we missed early warnings or failed to act on them. Will we continue to miss signposts to 'other roads'? Are our obligations to endure met by our rights to know? As Carson said 50 years ago: 'The choice, after all, is ours to make.'

  • 14.
    Bouwman, Henk
    et al.
    Nort-West University, South Africa.
    Krátká, M
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Choong Kwet Yive, Nee Sun
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Klanova, Jana
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Do POPs Transfer from Plastic Marine Debris to Coral on Tropical Islands?2014Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, s. 1352-1355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Bouwman, Henk
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Louette, Michel
    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium.
    Using ringing data to update the continental distributions of the subspecies of the Lesser Black-Backed Gull2012Inngår i: Afring News, ISSN 2222-341X, Vol. 41, s. 13-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Bouwman, Henk
    et al.
    North-Wast University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sereda, Barbara
    Plant Protection Research Institute, South Africa.
    Bornman, Rianna
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    DDT IN BREAST MILK: INTAKE, GENDER, AND DURATION OF LACTATION2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Bouwman, Henk
    et al.
    North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    van den Berg, Henk
    Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Letter: DDT Paradox: Bouwman et al. Respond2011Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 119, nr 10, s. A424-A425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 18.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North-West Uniersity, South AFrica.
    Evans, Steven
    University of Venda, South Africa.
    Cole, Nik
    Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Isles, UK.
    Choong Kwer Yive, Nee Sun
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The flip-or-flop boutique: Marine debris on the shores of St Brandon’s Rock, an isolated tropical atoll in the Indian Ocean2016Inngår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 114, s. 58-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolated coral atolls are not immune from marine debris accumulation. We identified Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent, and the countries on the Arabian Sea as most probable source areas of 50 000 items on the shores of St. Brandon’s Rock (SBR), Indian Ocean. 79% of the debris was plastics. Flip-flops, energy drink bottles, and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) were notable item types. The density of debris (0.74 m-1 shore length) is comparable to similar islands but less than mainland sites. Intact CFLs suggests product-facilitated long-range transport of mercury. We suspect that aggregated marine debris, scavenged by the islands from currents and gyres, could re-concentrate pollutants. SBR islets accumulated debris types in different proportions suggesting that many factors act variably on different debris types. Regular cleaning of selected islets will take care of most of the accumulated debris and may improve the ecology and tourism potential. However, arrangements and logistics require more study.

  • 19.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bornman, Riana
    University of PRetoria, South Africa.
    ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF DDT USED IN SOUTH AFRICAFOR MALARIA CONTROL2016Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, s. 1015-1017, artikkel-id 2.4001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bornman, Riana
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Is Indoor Residual Spraying broken and what should be fixed?2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Toxicology Symposium in Africa, 2015, s. 2-3Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been and is still a very successful method to controlmalaria. We are concerned that not enough research attention is given to improvingIRS and that most funding goes towards modern but seemingly still ineffectualmethods. We believe that there is ample scope for improving IRS, while reducinginsecticide exposure

  • 21.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North West University, South Africa .
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sereda, Barbara
    Plant Protect Research Institute, South Africa .
    Bornman, Riana
    University of Pretoria, South Africa .
    High levels of DDT in breast milk: Intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender2012Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 170, s. 63-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean Sigma DDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest Sigma DDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more Sigma DDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk - requiring further investigation.

  • 22.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North West University, South Africa .
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sun Choong Kwet Yive, Nee
    Mauritian Wildlife Fdn, Mauritius .
    Loken, Katharina
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    Utne Skaare, Janneche
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    First report of chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic Indian Ocean island2012Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 118, s. 53-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report for the first time levels of persistent organic pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic island in the Indian Ocean, the worlds third largest ocean. Ten eggs each of the Common Noddy, also known as the Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), and Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata) were collected from Ile Cocos off the coast of the island of Rodrigues, located 560 km east of the island of Mauritius. Sigma PCBs had the highest levels (2.2 and 2.6 ng/g wm, wet mass; 20 and 19 ng/g lm, lipid mass) for common Noddy and Sooty Tern, respectively (and following), then Sigma DDT (1.9 and 3.1 ng/g wm; 17 and 23 ng/g lm), and mirex (0.96 and 0.69 ng/g wm; 8.7 and 5.0 ng/g lm). Sigma Chlordanes (0.094 and 0.15 ng/g wm; 0.48 and 0.73 ng/g lm) and Sigma toxaphenes (0.26 and 0.61 ng/g wm; 2.4 and 5.9 ng/g lm) are rare data for these compounds from this ocean. Brominated flame retardants were low (0.08 and 0.07 ng/g wm; 0.7 and 0.7 ng/g lm). Multivariate analyses indicated different contamination patterns in the prey items as Sooty Terns had significantly higher levels of mean Sigma chlordanes and Sigma toxaphenes, as well as CB105, -108 and -157. p,p-DDE had an association with thinner eggshells in the Sooty Tern. Although the contaminant levels were in all respects low, industrialisation, development on the periphery, commercial exploitation of the marine environment, and pollutants transferred over long distances by marine debris is likely to add to chemical pressure in this region. Monitoring changes in background levels of pollutants in remote regions will indicate such trends, and marine bird eggs from Rodrigues would be an excellent site.

  • 23.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    van den Berg, Henk
    Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox2011Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 119, nr 6, s. 744-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT.

    Objective: We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities.

    Discussion: Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT “good”? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is “good” because it saves lives, and “not safe” because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction.

    Conclusions: There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives.

  • 24.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    et al.
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Ghavanini, Ali Alavian
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Cederbrant, Karin
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Forsby, Anna
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Förare, Jonas
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Åke
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Hellmond, Heike
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Johan
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Lupu, Diana
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Rüegg, Joelle
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Tang, Mandy
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Öberg, Mattias
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Jin
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Swetox.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Swetox.
    Lindh, Christian
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    UMR CNRS/ MNHN 7221 Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris France.
    Knudsen, Lisbeth
    Department of Public Health, Section of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Pyriproxifen and microcephaly: an investigation of potential ties to the ongoing "Zika epidemic"2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the Swetox mission to react to emerging concerns in chemical health and environmental safety, a preliminary litterature investigation was undertaken to gather all readily available scientific information on PPF with respect to safety assessment, in order to better understand potential links between chemical exposure and the devopment of microcephaly in affected areas. Therefore the contents of the report do not constitute an attempt at either questioning the use of existing regulatory data in the manner prescribed by international regulatory proceedures, or as a new risk assessment, based on the scientific information and concepts discussed. Here we report our findings, with particular emphasis on exisiting regulatory information, potential for lack of translation of results from regulatory animal testing to humans, lack of human exposure data and suggestions on plausible mode(s) of action of PPF in human neurodevelopmental adversities such as microcephaly.

  • 25.
    Dickhut, Rebecca
    et al.
    Virginia Institute for Marine Science, USA.
    Cincinelli, Alessandra
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italien.
    Cochran, Michel
    Virginia Institute for Marine Science, USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Aerosol-Mediated Transport and Deposition of Brominated Diphenyl Ethers to Antarctica2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 6, s. 3135-3140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE47, 99, 100, and 209) were measured in air, snow and sea ice throughout western Antarctica between 2001 and 2007. BDEs in Antarctic air were predominantly associated with aerosols and were low compared to those in remote regions of the northern hemisphere, except in Marguerite Bay following the fire at Rothera research station in Sept 2001, indicating that this event was a local source of BDE209 to the Antarctic environment. Aerosol BDE47/100 reflects a mixture of commercial pentaBDE products; however, BDE99/100 is suggestive of photodegradation of BDE99 during long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) in the austral summer. BDEs in snow were lower than predicted based on snow scavenging of aerosols indicating that atmospheric deposition events may be episodic. BDE47, -99, and -100 significantly declined in Antarctic sea ice between 2001 and 2007; however, BDE209 did not decline in Antarctic sea ice over the same time period. Significant losses of BDE99 and -100 from sea ice were recorded over a 19 day period in spring 2001 demonstrating that seasonal ice processes result in the preferential loss of some BDEs. BDE47/100 and BDE99/100 in sea ice samples reflect commercial pentaBDE products, suggesting that photodegradation of BDE99 is minimal during LRAT in the austral winter.

  • 26.
    du Preez, Marinus
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Govender, Danny
    South African National Parks, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Metallic elements in Nile Crocodile eggs from the Kruger National Park, South Africa2018Inngår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 148, s. 930-941Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nile Crocodile is the largest predator on the African continent. Recent mass mortalities in the Kruger National Park (KNP) raised concerns about possible influence of pollution. We analysed eggs and their eggshells collected from nests inside the KNP and from a crocodile farm for metallic elements. We found that mercury, selenium, and copper occurred at levels of concern. Eggshells had very high concentrations of iron. Apart from toxicological implications associated with elevated concentrations in eggs, we found iron possibly contributing towards thicker eggshells. Thicker shells may act as a barrier to gas and water exchange, as well as possibly increasing the effort required for the hatchling to emerge from tightly packed shells under sand. Pollutants are transported into the KNP via rivers, and possibly via air. Mercury and copper pollution are waste-, industrial- and mining-related; ecotoxicological concern should therefore be extended to all areas where the four African crocodile species occur. Reptiles are under-represented in ecotoxicological literature in general, and especially from Africa. We know of only one previous report on metals and metalloids in crocodile eggs from Africa (Zimbabwe), published 30 years ago. Reduced fitness, endocrine disruption and effects on behaviour are other possible sub-lethal effects associated with metallic elements that may only become apparent decades later in a long-lived species such as the Nile Crocodile. In the face of habitat destruction, pollution, human population increases, and climate change, further research is needed regarding pollutant concentrations and effects in all African reptiles . The rivers that carry water from outside the park sustain its aquatic life, but also transport pollutants into the KNP. Therefore, improved source mitigation remains an important task and responsibility for all involved.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2019-12-19 15:57
  • 27.
    Evans, Stephen
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa; University of Venda, South Africa.
    Cole, Nick
    Durrel Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands;Mauritian Wildlife Foundation, Mauritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. North-West University, South Africa.
    Choong Kwet Yive, Nee Sun
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Tatayah, Vikash
    Mauritian Wildlife Foundation, Mauritius.
    Merven, Jacques
    Raphaël Fishin Corp., Mauritius.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Protection of marine birds and turtles at St Brandon’s Rock, Indian Ocean,requires conservation of the entire atoll2016Inngår i: African Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1814-232X, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 317-327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of seabirds and turtles at St Brandon’s Rock, 400 km north of Mauritius, was undertaken in 2010. We estimated that 1.1 million seabirds comprising seven breeding species and excluding non-breeders were present at the archipelago and we counted 279 turtle tracks and nesting pits of green turtles Chelonia mydas. Hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata were also present. Analyses of 30 different islets that make up the atoll showed that the seabird species mostly partitioned their use of islets based on islet size, with four species preferring larger islets and two species preferring smaller islets. Alien species introduced historically are still present and other threats, such as shipwrecks, remain. We propose conservation and other measures that should adequately protect the birds, turtles and coral reef by treating the atoll as a system.

  • 28.
    Gurjazkaite, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Djamali, Morteza
    Univ Avignon, France.
    Vaezi, Alireza
    Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Poher, Yoann
    Univ Avignon, France.
    Beni, Abdolmajid Naderi
    Iranian Natl Inst Oceanog and Atmospher Sci, Iran.
    Tavakoli, Vahid
    Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vegetation history and human-environment interactions through the late Holocene in Konar Sandal, SE Iran2018Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 194, s. 143-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Jiroft valley, situated on banks of the Halil Rud developed as an important agricultural and trading center during the Early Bronze Age. Known for its famous steatite sculptures and clay pottery, the first settlement in Konar Sandal collapsed around 3rd millennium BCE. A second shorter, but major phase of occupation in the settlement occurred towards the end of 2nd millennium BCE. A 250-cm long peat sequence near the archaeological complex at Konar Sandal was investigated to reconstruct the human environment history using palynological, sedimentological and geochemical data. With a basal age of 4 ka, the core traces the hydroclimatic changes and human activities that started just after large scale abandonment of Konar Sandal and extends from the late Bronze Age to the Mongol invasion. The results show that Jiroft had an arid dry climate dominated by the Saharo-Sindian open pseudo-savanna vegetation. However, due to human clearance and intensified agro-sylvo-pastoral activities, and climatic factors, the land-cover shifted from open xeric scrublands to a more open degraded landscape. The principal human occupation was cereal cultivation and herding. However, it is likely that during the more arid periods, communities retreated and abandoned agriculture, facilitating successional processes. Such droughts occurred around 4.0-3.8 ka and 3.4-2.8 ka and are related to the Siberian Anticyclonic system. Declining Artemisia and shrubs indicate milder climates ca. 3.8-3.4 ka and 2.8-0.6 ka. The latter period that started with the rule of the Persian empires (550-650 BCE), and continued through the Islamic era, coincides with intensive human activities, and the highest degradation of vegetation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Hellström, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Nilsson, Marie-Louise
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Current-use and Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Biodegradable Fraction of Source Separated Household Waste, Compost and Anaerobic Digestate2011Inngår i: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0007-4861, E-ISSN 1432-0800, Vol. 86, nr 1, s. 60-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several current-use (≤80 ng g−1 dry weight) and organochlorine pesticides (≤15 ng g−1 dry weight) and polychlorinated biphenyls (≤18 ng g−1 dry weight) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and/or anaerobic digestate. The degradation rates of individual compounds differ depending on the treatment. Dieldrin and pentachloroaniline, e.g., degrade more rapidly than the waste is mineralized and accumulates in the products after all treatments. Many organochlorines degrade at the same rate as the waste and have the same concentrations in the waste and products. Chlorpyrifos degrades slower than the waste and accumulates in all products and ethion during anaerobic digestion. The polychlorinated biphenyls and some pesticides show different degradations rates relative the waste during different processes. Understanding the degradation of the contaminants under different conditions is necessary to develop quality criteria for the use of compost and digestate.

  • 30.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    et al.
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Stockholm University.
    Gawor, Anya
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada.
    Stern, Gary
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Strachan, William
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Burniston, Deborah
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå University.
    20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 23, s. 13844-13852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air−water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water−air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air−surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  • 31.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Alla auktoriteter är inte onda - men vilka kan vi lita på?2018Inngår i: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, nr 2, s. 46-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har skådat i ”Mörkrets hjärta”. För tio år sedan bad WWF om hjälp med miljö­övervakning i Kongo. Som andra besök i länder med dåligt fungerande demokrati gav det mig anledning att fundera över auktoriteter, politiska och vetenskapliga. Det finns utmärkta forskare i u-länder, men många hämmas av en svår brist på infrastruktur och materiel. Men akademierna, liksom politiken, lider framför allt av ”big men” med ”naturgiven” bestämmanderätt. Jo, det har blivit bättre med åren, och visst finns det sådana personer även i vår akademi....

  • 32.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    At-sea observation of the spring migration and pair bonding of ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea) around Svalbard and East Greenland.2011Inngår i: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 30, nr 6421, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of logistical constraints little previous information exists on ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea) in the waters around Svalbard and the east coast of Greenland in late winter/early spring. The Swedish Arctic Ocean 2002 expedition investigated these areas at that time of year and in this paper I report on the observations of ivory gulls made during the expedition. The ivory gull was essentially absent from open waters but was the most common seabird in areas with pack ice, showing behavioural differences depending on local conditions. Generally, the number of ivory gulls was low when there was little plankton in the water. Ivory gulls followed the ship depending on the availability of food items in the wake and also depending on competition from other species, particularly glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Although ivory gulls were present in most of Fram Strait and the northern part of the East Greenland Current during 6 and 19 May, sightings were few and correlated to the amount of plankton in the water. Aggregations of several hundred were seen on the ice where copulation and other social interaction took place. A previously undescribed pair bonding behaviour during which females seemed to select between two competing males was observed north of Svalbard on 30 April - 1 May. Off Scoresby Sound on 25 May, more than 700 birds were seen migrating north, while farther south along the Greenland coast on 30 May there was little indication of migration although many ivory gulls were seen.

  • 33.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Birds and mammals off the northern coast of Argentina: first report of an association between birds and a feeding Pygmy Right Whale Caperea marginata2013Inngår i: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 23, nr 3-4, s. 117-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When the icebreaker Oden passed between 39°36’S, 57°46’W and 39°59’S, 58°11’W on 20 November 2007, an extraordinary observation was made. A feeding Pygmy Right Whale Caperea marginata, a species rarely seen, was attended by eight Grey Phalaropes Phalaropus fulicarius, two Slender-billed Prions Pachyptila belcheri, and four Wilson’s Storm Petrels Oceanites oceanicus. The birds returned to feed around the head of the whale every time it surfaced, presumably copepod plankton straining out between the baleen. The site is off Rio de la Plata estuary where nutrient rich freshwater meets cold water of the Malvinas (Falkland) Current, creating a hotspot with high levels of plankton food. The conditions were extraordinarily favourable for observation with a calm sea, no wind and only a very weak swell. Six multispecies feeding groups were seen with a total of 42 species of birds, eleven species of whales, dolphins and porpoises, and three species of seals. Dusky Dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Great Shearwaters Puffinus gravis were predominant in the groups.

  • 34.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Birds off Scoresby Sound, Eastern Greenland, in the spring of 2002: Fåglar utanför Scoresbysund, Östgrönland, våren 20022006Inngår i: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 16, s. 164-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the expedition "Arcitc Ocean 2002" the expedition ship, Oden, spent a few days drifting in the pack ice of the East Greenland Currnet off Scorsby Sound, Greenland. Birds and bird movements observed om 25 May 2005 are reported.

  • 35.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Buller inte orsak till talgoxens ändrade sång2019Inngår i: Vår Fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, nr 3, s. 58-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 36.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Det var allmänt känt att lämlarna förr från himlen2017Inngår i: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, nr 3, s. 48-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 37.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Finns det slemsvampar i havet?2013Inngår i: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 108, nr 1, s. 9-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hypotesdriven forskning: inte enda alternativet2018Inngår i: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, nr 7, s. 44-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Intervju, Morgon i P4 Östergötlande med Cia Sivertsdotter2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 40.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Juvenile Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla with deformed bills and clubfeet in the Barents Sea2005Inngår i: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 15, s. 149-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Juvenile Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla with deformed bills and feet were observed in the Barents Sea in 1996, first while passing between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya on 21–24 July (at least 10 birds) and then off the West Coast of Svalbard 20–21 September (at least 2 birds). Deformities were manifest as prolonged upper or lower mandible, hooked or crocked upper mandible, crossed bill and clubfeet. This paper reports the circumstances of the observations and discusses possible causes. Among the possible causes are nutritional deficiencies, epizootic events, environmental pollutants (persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals or radioactivity), or combinations of these.

  • 41.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra nesting in Sri Lanka?2002Inngår i: Oriental Bird Club. Bulletin, ISSN 0268-9634, Vol. 36, s. 73-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations indicating that Kashmir Flycatchers may nest in Sri Lanka are reported. This species normally nests in the north-eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, and winter in Sri Lanka.

  • 42.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Klinkans klimatskräck sätter dagens debatt i perspektiv2017Inngår i: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, nr 7, s. 44-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Korndådran i Blistorp - beståndsutveckling under ett halvt sekel2016Inngår i: Botaniska Notiser, ISSN 1650-3767, Vol. 149, nr 4, s. 27-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The population develoipment of ball mustard, Neslia paniculata, at a locality in Scania, southern Sweden, since the 1950s is discussed in relation to land use development.

  • 44.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lemming lamentations2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This text is a reflection on "modern" vs. traditional knowledge and their respective usefulness in surviving off the land in the Arctic.

  • 45.
    Kylin, Henrik
    SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Några intressanta svenska fynd av slemsvampar (myxomyceter)1998Inngår i: Jordstjärnan, ISSN 0280-5057, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 19-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As first finds from Sweden are reported the slime moulds Reticularia splendens MORGAN, Comatricha longa PECK, Stemonitis lignicola NANN.-BREMEK., and Physarella oblonga (BERK. & M. A. CURTIS) MORGAN.

  • 46.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Några intressanta svenska myxomycetfynd1997Inngår i: Windahlia: Journal of Mycology, ISSN 0282-082X, Vol. 22, s. 29-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Five species of myxomycetes are reported as new to Sweden viz. Badhamia affinis Rost., B. dubia Nann.-Bremek., Licea biforis Morgon, Physarum cf. stramimpes A. Lister and Physarum cf. mortomi Macbride. Three additional species rarely found in Sweden, Colloderma occulatum (Lippert) G. Lister, Dianema corticatum A. Lister and Macbrideola cornea (G. Lister & Gran) Alexopoulos, are reported from new localities.

  • 47.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pipkrake - före tjälen2012Inngår i: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, Vol. 19, nr 73, s. 4-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris forage in Grey Whale Eschrichtius robustus Mud Plumes2013Inngår i: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 23, s. 114-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Greay Whales Eschristius robustus are the only large whales that are specialized bottom feeders, foraging on bottom sediments. When surfacing after a feeding dive a mud plume is formed at the surface as remaining sediment is strained out between the baleen. In the Chukchi Sea, Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris are attrackted to these mud plumes in search of food particles.

  • 49.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Missing Skull – Professor Lundborg and the Mismeasure of Grandma2016Inngår i: Endeavour, ISSN 0160-9327, E-ISSN 1873-1929, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 131-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What is science? Or, more pertinently, what is good science? This question is central for all practitioners of science and one of the most important to convey to our students. For those of us working in interdisciplinary settings – my own department covers everything from humanities to political and natural science – the question becomes even more complicated when traditions from different disciplines collide. For me personally, whenever I think too highly of my own research and risk deviating into bad scientific practices, I think of my paternal grandmother, Elsa. Although long dead, she brings me back into the fold of good science – or so I hope – by urging me to take another turn at critically evaluating how I perform research and to keep my arrogance in check.

  • 50.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Time-integrated sampling of glyphosate in natural waters2013Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, nr 6, s. 1821-1828Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental monitoring of pesticide residues in surface water is often done with time-integrated sampling where a specified volume is sampled each hour during, e.g., a week, thus avoiding at momentary high or low extreme concentrations. However, sampling over an extended period of time can result in losses of easily degradable analytes, why the stability of the target analytes over the timespan of the sampling must be checked. Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides. Because of its chemical complexity, glyphosate binds differently to metals and colloids at different pH, and the degradation may also be affected. Recovery of glyphosate from spiked natural waters after one and three weeks of storage was higher when the samples were acidified to approximately pH 2 rather than at their natural pH. Keeping the samples refrigerated to 4 °C in darkness also enhanced recovery, while glyphosate losses were substantial from samples kept at their natural pH at 20 °C. Total loss of glyphosate was observed in some samples kept at natural pH, 20 °C, and daylight; a loss partly due to binding to metals or colloids that could only partially be reversed by acidification. For one-week time-integrated sampling a small amount of hydrochloric acid in a piece of heat-sealed hydrophobic micro-porous tubing is added to the sampling bottles before deployment, a procedure that acidifies the samples during collection keeping them below pH 2 until analysis, thus minimizing losses of glyphosate. The method also allows determination of the primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA).

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