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  • 1.
    Qu, Yuan Yuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Simple Color Prediction Model based on Multiple Do Gain Curves2011In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the color prediction models use single dot gain curve, few assume that dot gain changes when ink superposition happens, but still, use single dot gain curve for each ink to compensate the effective ink coverage. Considering the fact that optical dot gain is the effect of light scattering in paper, it is reasonable that light with different wavelength might produce different optical dot gain for each ink. In this study, for each primary ink we utilized three different curves obtained by CIEX, Y and Z, which approximately stand for three special wavelength bands, to calculate color coordinates. In addition, we noticed that dot gain curves obtained from the print samples with single ink printed on paper do not work well for the prints where ink is printed on another, or others. Therefore, dot gain curves for different ink superposition situations are optimized by matching the calculated tri-stimulus values of training patches to their measurement counterpoints. For each ink, dividing the dot gain into several dot gain actions responding to different ink superposition situations, we got the final dot gain as a group of multiple curves that takes into account all possible 'dot gain actions' with certain probability coefficients.

  • 2.
    Qu, Yuan Yuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating the Possibility of Using Fewer Training Samples: In the Color Prediction Model based on CIEXYZ using an Effective Coverage Map2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the present work is to reduce the number of the training samples used in our color prediction model based on CIEXYZ using an Effective Coverage Map while keeping satisfying prediction. A general approach is proposed in this paper to choose the best reference combination for the training samples. The approach is based on the dot gain behavior of each primary ink, which is characterized by three curves using CIEXYZ tri-stimulus values. The proposed approach is built in our model to predict the color values for the color prints using two different devices, i.e. a laser printer and an inkjet printer. For the laser printer the number of the training samples is reduced from 125 to 64 while still giving quite good result. The approach also shows that for the test laser printer it is possible to further cut this number to 53 with a satisfying result. For the inkjet printer the number of training samples for our model is reduced from 125 to 79 or 64, both giving satisfying results.

  • 3.
    QU, YUAN YUAN
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating the Possibility of Using Fewer Training Samples: In the Color Prediction Model based on CIEXYZ using an Effective Coverage Map2012In: CGIV2012 Final Program and Proceeding, 2012, p. 163-167Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the present work is to reduce the number of thetraining samples used in our color prediction model based onCIEXYZ using an Effective Coverage Map while keepingsatisfying prediction. A general approach is proposed in thispaper to choose the best reference combination for the trainingsamples. The approach is based on the dot gain behavior ofeach primary ink, which is characterized by three curves usingCIEXYZ tri-stimulus values. The proposed approach is built inour model to predict the color values for the color prints usingtwo different devices, i.e. a laser printer and an inkjet printer.For the laser printer the number of the training samples isreduced from 125 to 64 while still giving quite good result. Theapproach also shows that for the test laser printer it is possibleto further cut this number to 53 with a satisfying result. For theinkjet printer the number of training samples for our model isreduced from 125 to 79 or 64, both giving satisfying results.

  • 4.
    Qu, Yuan Yuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simple Color Prediction Model Based on CIEXYZ Using an Effective Coverage Map2012In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 010506-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the color prediction models use a single dot gain curve for each primary ink. In the proposed model, the behaviour of the dot gain of each primary ink is characterized by three curves based on CIEXYZ tri-stimulus values. In our previous works, it was shown that the usage of three characterization curves for each primary ink reduced the color difference between the predicted and measured data compared with the simple Yule-Nielsen model. In the present paper, an effective coverage map based on CIEXYZ is created. This map presents the effective coverage values of the primary inks corresponding to different ink combinations. Given any reference ink combination, the effective coverage values of the involved primary inks are estimated by cubic interpolation. Compared to our previous models, the proposed model gives significant reduction in the color difference between the predicted and the measured data. 

  • 5.
    Qu, Yuan Yuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A New Approach to Estimate the 3-D Surface of Paper2011In: Proceedings of the 63rd Technical Association of the GraphicArts, (TAGA), Pittsburgh, USA, 2011, p. 321-339Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for 3-D surface estimation based on reflection measurements in different orientationsof the light source and the paper. To facilitate the estimation, surface facets that probably support specular reflection weremarked and isolated, so as to enable the application of sample Lambertian reflectance model over those non-specular reflectionpoints. A computer controlled imaging device was used to capture images in a large number of orientations. The image capturewas performed using several different exposures in order to present larger dynamic irradiance range. Images together with theircounterpoints under antithetical illuminations were used to deal with the possible situation that light failed illumination arrivalson some points locate behind bulges.Iteration using difference approximation as well as enforcing integrability algorithm wereused to calculate the surface height based on Shaping from Shading algorithm.

  • 6.
    Qu, Yuanyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Color Prediction and Separation Models in Printing: Minimizing the Colorimetric and Spectral Differences employing Multiple Characterization Curves2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Color prediction models and color separation models are essential for print device characterization and calibration, from which the profiles used in color management systems are built up. Dot gain refers to the phenomenon in printing causing the printed ink dots appear bigger than their reference size in the original bitmap.The characterization of dot gain is necessary and crucial in color prediction models.

    Most prediction and separation models use a single dot gain characterization curve for each primary ink. In this thesis, the dot gain behavior of each ink is characterized by using multiple characterization curves based on CIEXYZ tri-stimulus values or spectral reflectance at different subintervals. For higher color prediction accuracy, an effective coverage map is created based on those multiple characterization curves. With this map, given any reference ink combination, the effective coverage values of the involved inks are calculated by cubic interpolation, and then used to predict the tri-stimulus values or the spectra of the printed colors. The color prediction accuracy is improved significantly by using this effective coverage map. Further improvement on the modified model is also carried out by selecting optimal training samples.

    Based on this color prediction model (forward model), a simple color separation model (inverse model), minimizing the colorimetric and spectral differences, is also presented. The presented color separation model shows favorable stability and gives accurate color reproduction. Ink saving is feasible during the color separation by setting tolerances in colorimetric differences (ΔE94). The simplicity and high accuracy of the proposed color prediction and separation models prove their potential to be applied to color management in practical printing systems.

    In order to investigate the possibility of applying these models to multi-channel printing, color prediction for CMYLcLm prints, i.e. with the additional colorants light cyan and light magenta, is carried out using the forward model. The color prediction is implemented by treating the combination of C and Lc (M and Lm) as a new ink coordinate to replace the ink coordinate C (M) in our three-channel color prediction model. The corresponding prediction results are acceptable. Suggestions are also given for future work to simplify and modify the approach based on our simple color prediction model for CMYLmLc prints.

  • 7.
    Qu, Yuanyuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Color prediction modeling for five-channel CMYLcLm printing2014In: Color Imaging XIX: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications / [ed] Reiner Eschbach, Gabriel G. Marcu, Alessandro Rizzi, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014, Vol. 9015, p. 901508-1-901508-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In printing, halftoning algorithms are applied in order to reproduce a continuous-tone image by a binary printing system. The image is transformed into a bitmap composed of dots varying in size and/or frequency. Nevertheless, this causes that the sparse dots found in light shades of cyan (C) and magenta (M) appear undesirably noticeable against white substrate. The solution is to apply light cyan (Lc) and light magenta (Lm) inks in those regions. In order to predict the color of CMYLcLm prints, we make use of the fact that Lc and Lm have similar spectral characteristics as C and M respectively. The goal of this paper is to present a model to characterize a five-channel CMYLcLm printing system using a three-channel color prediction model, where we treat the ink combinations Lc+C and Lm+M as new compound inks. This characterization is based on our previous three-channel CMY color prediction model that is capable of predicting both colorimetric tri-stimulus values and spectral reflectance. The drawback of the proposed model in this paper is the requirement of large number of training samples. Strategies are proposed to reduce this number, which resulted in expected larger but acceptable color differences.

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