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  • 1.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evans, Drew R
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Fabretto, Manrico
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arlin, Jean-Baptiste
    Free University of Brussels, Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, CP 206/1, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Geerts, Yves H.
    Free University of Brussels, Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, CP 206/1, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Desbief, Simon
    University of Mons, Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Breiby, Dag W.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Physics, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons, Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Murphy, Peter J.
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Corrigendum: Semi-metallic polymers2014Inngår i: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 13, s. 662-662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Malti, Abdellah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimization of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)2011Inngår i: NATURE MATERIALS, ISSN 1476-1122, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 429-433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) transform a heat flow into electricity. Thermoelectric materials are being investigated for electricity production from waste heat (co-generation) and natural heat sources. For temperatures below 200 degrees C, the best commercially available inorganic semiconductors are bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)-based alloys, which possess a figure of merit ZT close to one(1). Most of the recently discovered thermoelectric materials with ZT andgt; 2 exhibit one common property, namely their low lattice thermal conductivities(2,3). Nevertheless, a high ZT value is not enough to create a viable technology platform for energy harvesting. To generate electricity from large volumes of warm fluids, heat exchangers must be functionalized with TEGs. This requires thermoelectric materials that are readily synthesized, air stable, environmentally friendly and solution processable to create patterns on large areas. Here we show that conducting polymers might be capable of meeting these demands. The accurate control of the oxidation level in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) combined with its low intrinsic thermal conductivity (lambda = D 0.37W m(-1) K-1) yields a ZT = 0.25 at room temperature that approaches the values required for efficient devices.

  • 3.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evans, Drew R.
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Fabretto, Manrico
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arlin, Jean-Baptiste
    University of Libre Brussels, Belgium .
    Geerts, Yves H.
    University of Libre Brussels, Belgium .
    Desbief, Simon
    University of Mons, Belgium .
    Breiby, Dag W.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Norway .
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark .
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons, Belgium .
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Murphy, Peter J.
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Semi-metallic polymers2014Inngår i: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 190-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report that polymers can also be semi-metallic. Semi-metals, exemplified by bismuth, graphite and telluride alloys, have no energy bandgap and a very low density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, they typically have a higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivities compared with metals, thus being suitable for thermoelectric applications. We measure the thermoelectric properties of various poly( 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) samples, and observe a marked increase in the Seebeck coefficient when the electrical conductivity is enhanced through molecular organization. This initiates the transition from a Fermi glass to a semi-metal. The high Seebeck value, the metallic conductivity at room temperature and the absence of unpaired electron spins makes polymer semi-metals attractive for thermoelectrics and spintronics.

  • 4.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arlin, Jean-Baptiste
    Free University of Brussels Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Geerts, Yves
    Free University of Brussels Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Desbief, Simon
    University of Mons Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Mons, Belgium.
    Breiby, Dag W.
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Imaging and Structural Analysis Programme, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Mons, Belgium.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Advantageous thermoelectric properties of a semimetallic polymerManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generation potentially holds a solution for waste heat recovery issues provided that the availability of inexpensive, biodegradable and highly efficient thermoelectric materials is insured in the near future. Plastic thermoelectrics could successfully comply with the said requirements if the thermoelectric efficiency (ZT) of conducting polymers was higher. However, given the novelty of the subject, at present there are no clear guidelines for ZT optimization in this class of materials. The most important piece of information that is currently missing is the description of a specific electronic makeup that conducting polymers must possess in order to enable good thermoelectric performance. In the present study the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivatives with two types of counterions, i.e. poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and tosylate (Tos) are evaluated. A striking variation in their thermoelectric performance is attributed to structural and morphological differences between two polymers that manifest itself in dissimilar charge transport mechanism. The superior properties of PEDOT-Tos presumably originate from a high degree of crystallinity and structural order that predetermines the tendency for bipolaron band formation. Unlike polaronic PEDOT-PSS with slowly varying density of localized states (DOS) near the Fermi level (EF), the DOS in PEDOT-Tos is characterized by higher asymmetry and higher charge carrier density at EF (similar to semimetals), which allows for higher thermopower and electrical conductivity. Therefore, we conclude that the polymers with semimetallic electronic makeup are expected to exhibit promising thermoelectric properties with bigger variation in thermopower upon doping.

  • 5.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications2015Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amount of heat is wasted in industries, power generation plants and ordinary household appliances. This waste heat, can be a useful input to a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that can convert it to electricity. Conducting polymers (CPs) have been proved as best suited thermoelectric (TE) materials for lower temperatures, being not toxic, abundant in nature and solution processible. So far, CPs have been characterized as thin films, but it needs the third dimension to realize vertical TEGs which is possible by coating it on low thermal conductivity 3D skeletons. In this work, porous bulk cellulose structures have been used as a supporting material and were coated with CPs in various ways. The blend of cellulose and polymer were also freeze-dried, resulting in conducting and soft composites. Those flexible aerogels were utilized as a dual parameter sensor to sense pressure and temperature, based on the concept of thermoelectricity. It opens another application area of sensing, utilizing the thermoelectric phenomenon beyond the prevailing power generation concept. The sensitivity of such materials can be enhanced to make them useful as electronic skin in healthcare and robotics.

  • 6.
    Malti, Abdellah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Hao
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
    Yao, Ylong
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wåberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, and Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enabling organic power electronics with a cellulose nano-scaffold2015Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the nanoscale properties of certain materials enables the creation of new materials with a unique set of properties. Here, we report on an electronic (and ionic) conducting paper based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which may be facilely processed into large three-dimensional geometries, while keeping unprecedented electronic and ionic conductivities of 140 S/cm and 20 mS/cm, respectively. This is achieved by cladding the CNF with PEDOT:PSS, and trapping an ion-transporting phase in the interstices between these nanofibrils. The unique properties of the resulting nanopaper composite have been used to demonstrate (electrochemical) transistors, supercapacitors and conductors resulting in exceptionally high device parameters, such as an associated transconductance, charge storage capacity and current level beyond 1 S, 1 F and 1 A, respectively.

  • 7.
    Malti, Abdellah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andreasen, Jens W
    Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Hao
    University of Kentucky, Lexington.
    Yao, Yulong
    University of Kentucky, Lexington.
    Brill, Joseph W
    University of Kentucky, Lexington.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics2016Inngår i: Advanced Science, ISSN 2198-3844, artikkel-id 1500305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.

  • 8.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Douheret, O.
    University of Mons UMons, Belgium.
    Leclere, P.
    University of Mons UMons, Belgium.
    Nilsson, M.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, P.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, G.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Lazzaroni, R.
    University of Mons UMons, Belgium.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Solution processed liquid metal-conducting polymer hybrid thin films as electrochemical pH-threshold indicators2015Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, nr 29, s. 7604-7611Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A global and accurate mapping of the environment could be achieved if sensors and indicators are mass-produced at low cost. Printed electronics using polymeric (semi) conductors offer a platform for such sensor/indicator based circuits. Herein, we present the material concept for an electrochemical pH-threshold indicator based on a printable hybrid electrode which comprises a liquid metal alloy (GaInSn) embedded in a conducting polymer matrix (PEDOT). This hybrid electrode displays a large variation in open circuit potential versus pH in an electrochemical cell, which when connected to the gate of an electrochemical transistor leads to a dramatic change in the drain current in a narrow range of pH.

  • 9.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bubnova, Olga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Evans, Drew R.
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Australia.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films2015Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, s. 10616-10623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we study the variation in the thermoelectric properties by a simple acido-basic treatment. The emphasis of this study is to elucidate the chemical changes induced by acid (HCl) or base (NaOH) treatment in PEDOT-Tos thin films using various spectroscopic and structural techniques. We could identify changes in the nanoscale morphology due to anion exchange between tosylate and Cl- or OH-. But, we identified that changing the pH leads to a tuning of the oxidation level of the polymer, which can explain the changes in thermoelectric properties. Hence, a simple acid-base treatment allows finding the optimum for the power factor in PEDOT-Tos thin films.

  • 10.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Max Hamedi, Mahiar
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels2016Inngår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, nr 22, s. 4556-4562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronically conducting polymers constitute an emerging class of materials for novel electronics, such as printed electronics and flexible electronics. Their properties have been further diversified to introduce elasticity, which has opened new possibility for "stretchable" electronics. Recent discoveries demonstrate that conducting polymers have thermoelectric properties with a low thermal conductivity, as well as tunable Seebeck coefficients - which is achieved by modulating their electrical conductivity via simple redox reactions. Using these thermoelectric properties, all-organic flexible thermoelectric devices, such as temperature sensors, heat flux sensors, and thermoelectric generators, are being developed. In this article we discuss the combination of the two emerging fields: stretchable electronics and polymer thermoelectrics. The combination of elastic and thermoelectric properties seems to be unique for conducting polymers, and difficult to achieve with inorganic thermoelectric materials. We introduce the basic concepts, and state of the art knowledge, about the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers, and illustrate the use of elastic thermoelectric conducting polymer aerogels that could be employed as temperature and pressure sensors in an electronic-skin.

  • 11.
    Ullah, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thermoelectric Devices with Electronic and Ionic Conducting Polymers2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy consumption in the world is continuously growing and the sources of energy are largely dominated by fossil fuels. However, the resources of oil, gas and coal are diminishing in capacity. Moreover the CO2 emissions arising from their combustion is a great concern because it induces climate changes that threaten our habitat. There is a dire need to look for alternative sources of energies and to minimize losses of energy in our surroundings. Heat engines and turbines typically running with fossil energy have efficiencies of about 35%, i.e. 65% of the energy is lost in the form of heat. Low temperature heat (<200 C) is almost always wasted in power plants, industries, automobiles and household appliances. This is a huge resource that can be directly converted to electricity through the concept of thermoelectricity. Major challenges for heat to electricity conversion include finding the abundant materials with efficient thermoelectric (TE) conversion that can be mass produced at low cost.

    This thesis presents an investigation of the TE properties of electronic and ionic conducting polymers, as well as their implementation in thermoelectric devices. This is a journey from thin solid films on a substrate to wet and liquid media and towards bulk structures utilizing the same core concept of thermoelectricity. The TE device concepts introduced here are suitable for various heat sources i.e. continuous, intermittent and instantaneous. The thesis has three major parts as follows:

    Conducting polymers (CPs) have been studied mainly as thin films. They have been synthesized in different ways and their properties have been compared to propose the most efficient amongst them for thermoelectricity. Simple methods of exposure to certain gases or liquids have been used to tune their TE properties and demonstrated its applications in thermoelectric generator (TEGs).

    Ionic materials have also been studied as potential candidates for thermoelectricity. Polyelectrolytes constitute a special class of electrolytes with dissimilar sizes of ions; a polymeric ion and a small counter ion. The movement of the small sodium (Na+) cation under heat gradient was explored in wet films and in solution. Because the ions could not cross the electrolyte-electrode junction, we propose the idea of ionic thermoelectric supercapacitor (ITESC), suitable for intermittent heat source.

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has been used along with conducting polymers to realize the three dimensional conducting bulks as a TEG leg. NFC bulks were coated with conducting polymers as a first approach and later the mixture of (NFC & CP) was freeze-dried. The later approach resulted in mechanically flexible structures that were used as dual sensors for pressure and temperature based on the TE properties of the CP which can be utilized for electronic skin applications.

    The thesis shows new ways of utilizing waste heat using polymeric materials and points to a sensory application area, broadening the horizons of thermoelectricity.

    Delarbeid
    1. Optimization of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Optimization of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
    Vise andre…
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: NATURE MATERIALS, ISSN 1476-1122, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 429-433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) transform a heat flow into electricity. Thermoelectric materials are being investigated for electricity production from waste heat (co-generation) and natural heat sources. For temperatures below 200 degrees C, the best commercially available inorganic semiconductors are bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)-based alloys, which possess a figure of merit ZT close to one(1). Most of the recently discovered thermoelectric materials with ZT andgt; 2 exhibit one common property, namely their low lattice thermal conductivities(2,3). Nevertheless, a high ZT value is not enough to create a viable technology platform for energy harvesting. To generate electricity from large volumes of warm fluids, heat exchangers must be functionalized with TEGs. This requires thermoelectric materials that are readily synthesized, air stable, environmentally friendly and solution processable to create patterns on large areas. Here we show that conducting polymers might be capable of meeting these demands. The accurate control of the oxidation level in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) combined with its low intrinsic thermal conductivity (lambda = D 0.37W m(-1) K-1) yields a ZT = 0.25 at room temperature that approaches the values required for efficient devices.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Nature Publishing Group, 2011
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68783 (URN)10.1038/nmat3012 (DOI)000290855100016 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-06-08 Laget: 2011-06-07 Sist oppdatert: 2017-02-03
    2. Semi-metallic polymers
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Semi-metallic polymers
    Vise andre…
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 190-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report that polymers can also be semi-metallic. Semi-metals, exemplified by bismuth, graphite and telluride alloys, have no energy bandgap and a very low density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, they typically have a higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivities compared with metals, thus being suitable for thermoelectric applications. We measure the thermoelectric properties of various poly( 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) samples, and observe a marked increase in the Seebeck coefficient when the electrical conductivity is enhanced through molecular organization. This initiates the transition from a Fermi glass to a semi-metal. The high Seebeck value, the metallic conductivity at room temperature and the absence of unpaired electron spins makes polymer semi-metals attractive for thermoelectrics and spintronics.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Nature Publishing Group, 2014
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104644 (URN)10.1038/nmat3824 (DOI)000330182700027 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-20 Laget: 2014-02-20 Sist oppdatert: 2018-09-07
    3. Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, s. 10616-10623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we study the variation in the thermoelectric properties by a simple acido-basic treatment. The emphasis of this study is to elucidate the chemical changes induced by acid (HCl) or base (NaOH) treatment in PEDOT-Tos thin films using various spectroscopic and structural techniques. We could identify changes in the nanoscale morphology due to anion exchange between tosylate and Cl- or OH-. But, we identified that changing the pH leads to a tuning of the oxidation level of the polymer, which can explain the changes in thermoelectric properties. Hence, a simple acid-base treatment allows finding the optimum for the power factor in PEDOT-Tos thin films.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121977 (URN)10.1039/C5TC01952D (DOI)000363251600035 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: European Research Council (ERC) [307596]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-14 Laget: 2015-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2018-08-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 1450-1457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature gradients are generated by the sun and a vast array of technologies and can induce molecular concentration gradients in solutions via thermodiffusion (Soret effect). For ions, this leads to a thermovoltage that is determined by the thermal gradient Delta T across the electrolyte, together with the ionic Seebeck coefficient alpha(i). So far, redox-free electrolytes have been poorly explored in thermoelectric applications due to a lack of strategies to harvest the energy from the Soret effect. Here, we report the conversion of heat into stored charge via a remarkably strong ionic Soret effect in a polymeric electrolyte (Seebeck coefficients as high as alpha(i) = 10 mV K-1). The ionic thermoelectric supercapacitor (ITESC) is charged under a temperature gradient. After the temperature gradient is removed, the stored electrical energy can be delivered to an external circuit. This new means to harvest energy is particularly suitable for intermittent heat sources like the sun. We show that the stored electrical energy of the ITESC is proportional to (Delta T alpha(i))(2). The resulting ITESC can convert and store several thousand times more energy compared with a traditional thermoelectric generator connected in series with a supercapacitor.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128769 (URN)10.1039/c6ee00121a (DOI)000374351200029 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [307596]; Swedish foundation for strategic research (SSF); Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation (KAW); Swedish Energy Agency; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Advanced Functional Materials Centre at Linkoping University.

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-30 Laget: 2016-05-30 Sist oppdatert: 2018-08-31bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Ionic Thermoelectric effect in Polyelectrolytes
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ionic Thermoelectric effect in Polyelectrolytes
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121980 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-14 Laget: 2015-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-02-03bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amount of heat is wasted in industries, power generation plants and ordinary household appliances. This waste heat, can be a useful input to a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that can convert it to electricity. Conducting polymers (CPs) have been proved as best suited thermoelectric (TE) materials for lower temperatures, being not toxic, abundant in nature and solution processible. So far, CPs have been characterized as thin films, but it needs the third dimension to realize vertical TEGs which is possible by coating it on low thermal conductivity 3D skeletons. In this work, porous bulk cellulose structures have been used as a supporting material and were coated with CPs in various ways. The blend of cellulose and polymer were also freeze-dried, resulting in conducting and soft composites. Those flexible aerogels were utilized as a dual parameter sensor to sense pressure and temperature, based on the concept of thermoelectricity. It opens another application area of sensing, utilizing the thermoelectric phenomenon beyond the prevailing power generation concept. The sensitivity of such materials can be enhanced to make them useful as electronic skin in healthcare and robotics.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121981 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-14 Laget: 2015-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2018-02-15bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 12.
    Wang, Hui
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ionic Thermoelectric effect in Polyelectrolytes2015Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Weathers, Annie
    et al.
    University of Texas Austin, TX 78712 USA.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brooke, Robert
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Evans, Drew
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Pettes, Michael T.
    University of Texas Austin, TX 78712 USA.
    Wenzel Andreasen, Jens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shi, Li
    University of Texas Austin, TX 78712 USA.
    Significant Electronic Thermal Transport in the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)2015Inngår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 27, nr 12, s. 2101-2106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspended microdevices are employed to measure the in-plane electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of suspended poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films. The measured thermal conductivity is higher than previously reported for PEDOT and generally increases with the electrical conductivity. The increase exceeds that predicted by the Wiedemann-Franz law for metals and can be explained by significant electronic thermal transport in PEDOT.

  • 14.
    Zhao, Dan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Martinelli, Anna
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Willfahrt, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fischer, Thomas
    Innovative Applications of The Printing Technologies, Stuttgart Media University.
    Bernin, Diana
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky.
    Brill, Joseph
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Polymer gels with tunable ionic Seebeck coefficient for ultra-sensitive printed thermopiles2019Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1093Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring temperature and heat flux is important for regulating any physical, chemical, and biological processes. Traditional thermopiles can provide accurate and stable temperature reading but they are based on brittle inorganic materials with low Seebeck coefficient, and are difficult to manufacture over large areas. Recently, polymer electrolytes have been proposed for thermoelectric applications because of their giant ionic Seebeck coefficient, high flexibility and ease of manufacturing. However, the materials reported to date have positive Seebeck coefficients, hampering the design of ultra-sensitive ionic thermopiles. Here we report an “ambipolar” ionic polymer gel with giant negative ionic Seebeck coefficient. The latter can be tuned from negative to positive by adjusting the gel composition. We show that the ion-polymer matrix interaction is crucial to control the sign and magnitude of the ionic Seebeck coefficient. The ambipolar gel can be easily screen printed, enabling large-area device manufacturing at low cost.

  • 15.
    Zhao, Dan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, J. C.
    Xiamen University, Peoples R China.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors2016Inngår i: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 1450-1457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature gradients are generated by the sun and a vast array of technologies and can induce molecular concentration gradients in solutions via thermodiffusion (Soret effect). For ions, this leads to a thermovoltage that is determined by the thermal gradient Delta T across the electrolyte, together with the ionic Seebeck coefficient alpha(i). So far, redox-free electrolytes have been poorly explored in thermoelectric applications due to a lack of strategies to harvest the energy from the Soret effect. Here, we report the conversion of heat into stored charge via a remarkably strong ionic Soret effect in a polymeric electrolyte (Seebeck coefficients as high as alpha(i) = 10 mV K-1). The ionic thermoelectric supercapacitor (ITESC) is charged under a temperature gradient. After the temperature gradient is removed, the stored electrical energy can be delivered to an external circuit. This new means to harvest energy is particularly suitable for intermittent heat sources like the sun. We show that the stored electrical energy of the ITESC is proportional to (Delta T alpha(i))(2). The resulting ITESC can convert and store several thousand times more energy compared with a traditional thermoelectric generator connected in series with a supercapacitor.

1 - 15 of 15
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