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  • 1.
    Acosta, Lilibeth
    et al.
    Potsdam Institute Climate Impact Research PIK, Germany .
    Klein, Richard J T
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden .
    Reidsma, Pytrik
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Metzger, Marc J
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland .
    Rounsevell, Mark D A
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland .
    Leemans, Rik
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Schroeter, Dagmar
    Int Institute Appl Syst Anal, Austria .
    A spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity to global change in Europe2013Ingår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1211-1224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional impact models combine exposure in the form of scenarios and sensitivity in the form of parameters, providing potential impacts of global change as model outputs. However, adaptive capacity is rarely addressed in these models. This paper presents the first spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity, which can be combined with impact models to support quantitative vulnerability assessment. The adaptive capacity model is based on twelve socio-economic indicators, each of which is projected into the future using four global environmental change scenarios, and then aggregated into an adaptive capacity index in a stepwise approach using fuzzy set theory. The adaptive capacity model provides insight into broad patterns of adaptive capacity across Europe, the relative importance of the various determinants of adaptive capacity, and how adaptive capacity changes over time under different social and economic assumptions. As such it provides a context for the implementation of specific adaptation measures. This could improve integrated assessment models and could be extended to other regions. However, there is a clear need for a better theoretical understanding of the adaptive capacity concept, and its relationship to the actual implementation of adaptation measures. This requires more empirical research and coordinated meta-analyses across regions and economic sectors, and the development of bottom-up modelling techniques that can incorporate human decision making.

  • 2.
    Brown, Sally
    et al.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Nicholls, Robert J.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Hanson, Susan
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Brundrit, Geoff
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Dearing, John A.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Dickson, Mark E.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Gallop, Shari L.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Gao, Shu
    Nanjing University, China.
    Haigh, Ivan D.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    Global Climate Forum eV, Berlin, Germany.
    Jimenez, Jose A.
    University of Politecn Cataluna, Spain.
    Klein, Richard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm Environm Institute, Sweden.
    Kron, Wolfgang
    Munich Reinsurance Company, Germany.
    Lazar, Attila N.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Freitas Neves, Claudio
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Newton, Alice
    University of Algarve, Portugal; Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway; NILU-IMPEC, Kjeller, Norway.
    Pattiaratachi, Charitha
    University of Western Australia.
    Payo, Andres
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Pye, Kenneth
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Sanchez-Arcilla, Agustin
    University of Politecn Cataluna, Spain.
    Siddall, Mark
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Shareef, Ali
    Ministry of Environment and Energy, Maldives.
    Tompkins, Emma L.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Vafeidis, Athanasios T.
    University of Kiel, Germany.
    van Maanen, Barend
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Ward, Philip J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Woodroffe, Colin D.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Shifting perspectives on coastal impacts and adaptation2014Ingår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, nr 9, s. 752-755Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports reflect evolving attitudes in adapting to sea-level rise by taking a systems approach and recognizing that multiple responses exist to achieve a less hazardous coast.

  • 3.
    Dow, Kirstin
    et al.
    University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA.
    Berkhout, Frans
    Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Preston, Benjamin L.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA.
    Klein, Richard J. T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Midgley, Guy
    South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Shaw, M. Rebecca
    University of Kwazulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    COMMENTARY: Limits to adaptation2013Ingår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 305-307Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.

  • 4.
    Eisenack, Klaus
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Moser, Susanne C.
    Susanne Moser Research and Consulting, CA 95060 USA.
    Hoffmann, Esther
    Institute Ecol Econ Research, Germany.
    Klein, Richard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oberlack, Christoph
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Pechan, Anna
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Rotter, Maja
    Deutsch Gesell Int Zusammenarbeit GIZ, Germany.
    Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation2014Ingår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, nr 10, s. 867-872Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of barriers is increasingly used to describe the obstacles that hinder the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation. The growing literature on barriers to adaptation reveals not only commonly reported barriers, but also conflicting evidence, and few explanations of why barriers exist and change. There is thus a need for research that focuses on the interdependencies between barriers and considers the dynamic ways in which barriers develop and persist. Such research, which would be actor-centred and comparative, would help to explain barriers to adaptation and provide insights into how to overcome them.

  • 5.
    Eisenack, Klaus
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Moser, Susanne C.
    Susanne Moser Research and Consulting, CA 95060 USA.
    Hoffmann, Esther
    Institute Ecol Econ Research, Germany.
    Klein, Richard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Stockholm Environm Institute, Sweden.
    Oberlack, Christoph
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Pechan, Anna
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Rotter, Maja
    Deutsch Gesell Int Zusammenarbeit GIZ, Ghana.
    Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Letter: Reply to Opening up the black box of adaptation decision-making in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, vol 5, issue 6, pp 494-4952015Ingår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 494-495Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    et al.
    Global Climate Forum (GCF), Germany .
    Nicholls, Robert J.
    University of Southampton, England .
    Tol, Richard S. J.
    University of Sussex, England Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Wang, Zheng B.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands Deltares, Netherlands .
    Hamilton, Jacqueline M.
    University of Hamburg, Germany .
    Boot, Gerben
    Deltares, Netherlands .
    Vafeidis, Athanasios T.
    University of Kiel, Germany .
    McFadden, Loraine
    Middlesex University, England .
    Ganopolski, Andrey
    Potsdam Institute Climate Impact Research PIK, Germany .
    Klein, Richard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A global analysis of erosion of sandy beaches and sea-level rise: An application of DIVA2013Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 111, s. 150-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first assessment of the global effects of climate-induced sea-level rise on the erosion of sandy beaches, and its consequent impacts in the form of land loss and forced migration of people. We consider direct erosion on open sandy coasts and indirect erosion near selected tidal inlets and estuaries, using six global mean sea-level scenarios (in the range of 0.2-0.8 m) and six SRES socio-economic development scenarios for the 21st century. Impacts are assessed both without and with adaptation in the form of shore and beach nourishment, based on cost-benefit analysis that includes the benefits of maintaining sandy beaches for tourism. Without nourishment, global land loss would amount to about 6000-17,000 km(2) during the 21st century, leading to 1.6-5.3 million people being forced to migrate and migration costs of US$ 300-1000 billion (not discounted). Optimal beach and shore nourishment would cost about US$ 65-220 billion (not discounted) during the 21st century and would reduce land loss by 8-14%, forced migration by 56-68% and the cost of forced migration by 77-84% (not discounted). The global share of erodible coast that is nourished increases from about 4% in 2000 to 18-33% in 2100, with beach nourishment being 3-4 times more frequent than shore nourishment, reflecting the importance of tourism benefits. In absolute terms, with or without nourishment, large counties with long shorelines appear to have the largest costs, but in relative terms, small island states appear most impacted by erosion. Considerable uncertainty remains due to the limited availability of basic coastal geomorphological data and models on a global scale. Future work should also further explore the effects of beach tourism, including considering sub-national distributions of beach tourists.

  • 7.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    et al.
    Global Climate Forum (GCF), Germany .
    van Vuuren, Detlef P.
    Netherlands Environm Assessment Agency PBL, Netherlands .
    Nicholls, Robert J.
    University of Southampton, England .
    Klein, Richard J T
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden .
    The effects of adaptation and mitigation on coastal flood impacts during the 21st century. An application of the DIVA and IMAGE models2013Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 117, nr 4, s. 783-794Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of mitigation and adaptation on coastal flood impacts. We focus on a scenario that stabilizes concentrations at 450 ppm-CO2-eq leading to 42 cm of global mean sea-level rise in 1995-2100 (GMSLR) and an unmitigated one leading to 63 cm of GMSLR. We also consider sensitivity scenarios reflecting increased tropical cyclone activity and a GMSLR of 126 cm. The only adaptation considered is upgrading and maintaining dikes. Under the unmitigated scenario and without adaptation, the number of people flooded reaches 168 million per year in 2100. Mitigation reduces this number by factor 1.4, adaptation by factor 461 and both options together by factor 540. The global annual flood cost (including dike upgrade cost, maintenance cost and residual damage cost) reaches US$ 210 billion per year in 2100 under the unmitigated scenario without adaptation. Mitigation reduces this number by factor 1.3, adaptation by factor 5.2 and both options together by factor 7.8. When assuming adaptation, the global annual flood cost relative to GDP falls throughout the century from about 0.06 % to 0.01-0.03 % under all scenarios including the sensitivity ones. From this perspective, adaptation to coastal flood impacts is meaningful to be widely applied irrespective of the level of mitigation. From the perspective of a some less-wealthy and small island countries, however, annual flood cost can amount to several percent of national GDP and mitigation can lower these costs significantly. We conclude that adaptation and mitigation are complimentary policies in coastal areas.

  • 8.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    et al.
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    Goodsite, M.E.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Davis, M.
    Stockholm Environment Institute US Centre, USA.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Davídsdóttir, B.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Atlason, R.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Landauer, Mia
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Neset, Tina Schmid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Eskeland, Gunnar
    Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Gammelgaard Ballantyne, Anne
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Adaptation decision-making in the Nordic countries: assessing the potential for joint action2014Ingår i: Environment Systems and Decisions, ISSN 2194-5403, E-ISSN 2194-5411, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 600-611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a global context, the outlook for the Nordic region is relatively favourable, given its relatively stronger resiliency to climate change impacts in comparison to many other geo-political regions of the world. Overall, the projected climatic changes include increases in mean temperatures and in precipitation, although regional variations can be significant. The countries’ robust institutions and economies give them a strong capacity to adapt to these changes. Still, the need for adaptation to the changing climate has been and still is substantial, and in most of the region, there has been progress on the issue. This paper explores the potential for Nordic cooperation on adaptation; specifically, for the development of a regional adaptation strategy. In particular, it addresses two questions (1) What is the current state of adaptation in the Nordic countries? and (2) What are the potential benefits and weaknesses of a Nordic strategy for adaptation? In order to answer these two questions, this paper examines reviews the current national adaptation policies of each Nordic country and discusses the challenges facing a Nordic strategy and finally assesses the potential for common Nordic adaptation policy and further cooperation.

  • 9.
    Klein, Richard J T
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Moehner, Annett
    UNFCCC Climate Change Secretariat, Bonn, Germany .
    The Political Dimension of Vulnerability: Implications for the Green Climate Fund2011Ingår i: IDS BULLETIN-INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES, ISSN 0265-5012, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 15-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the availability of adaptation finance for developing countries increases, so does the need for a transparent way of prioritising countries for the allocation of money. It is intuitive that some countries are more vulnerable to climate change than others, and that countries that are particularly vulnerable should be given priority for adaptation finance. However, research has shown that science cannot be relied upon for a single objective ranking of vulnerability. This article analyses how the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA), the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) and the Adaptation Fund currently make decisions on adaptation finance allocations. It finds that each of the funds uses vulnerability to prioritise among countries, but the criteria applied vary and other criteria also play a role. Thus, vulnerability is politically, as well as scientifically, ambiguous. The Cancun Agreements have not resolved this, leaving a challenge for the Green Climate Fund.

  • 10.
    Klein, Richard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    University of Helsinki, Finland; Aalto University, Finland .
    A framework for Nordic actor-oriented climate adaptation research2014Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 40, s. 101-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The past ten years have seen a substantial increase in research on climate change adaptation, but a large gap remains between adaptation research and action. Adaptation researchers have either failed to demonstrate the relevance of their findings to practitioners and policymakers, or stakeholders have based their views and decisions on other kinds of information. In addition, in sectors such as agriculture, forestry, nature conservation, urban planning, water management and energy supply, adaptation has been studied separately from mitigation, which contradicts the reality of many practitioners. This paper identifies five bottlenecks to the use of adaptation research in adaptation practice and policy. These bottlenecks have gone unnoticed because the traditional framing of adaptation does not adequately consider the notion of agency, often rendering stakeholder interactions ineffective. Knowledge and use of actor-oriented theory when analysing and discussing adaptation needs and options could serve to find ways to overcome the bottlenecks and narrow the gap between research and action. The paper presents a novel framework for actor-oriented adaptation research that is being conducted within the Nordic Centre of Excellence for Strategic Adaptation Research (NORD-STAR). It frames climate adaptation as addressing both the impacts of climate change and the consequences of climate policy. Two methodological approaches - modelling and visualisation, and policy analysis - are applied to three thematic issues: land-use change, energy transitions, and insurance and finance.

  • 11.
    Pauw, W. P.
    et al.
    German Development Institute, Bonn, Germany.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mbeva, Kennedy
    African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi, Kenya / University of Melbourne, Melbourne, nAustralia.
    Dzebo, Adis
    German Development Institute, Bonn, Germany / Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Cassanmagnago, Davide
    Independent Researcher, Milan, Italy.
    Rudloff, Anna
    Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
    Beyond headline mitigation numbers: we need more transparent and comparable NDCs to achieve the Paris Agreement on climate change2018Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 147, nr 1, s. 23-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) were key to reaching the Paris Agreement and will be instrumental in implementing it. Research was quick to identify the ‘headline numbers’ of NDCs: if these climate action plans were fully implemented, global mean warming by 2100 would be reduced from approximately 3.6 to 2.7°C above pre-industrial levels (Höhne et al. Climate Pol 17:1–17, 2016; Rogelj et al. Nature 534:631–639, 2016). However, beyond these headline mitigation numbers, NDCs are more difficult to analyse and compare. UN climate negotiations have so far provided limited guidance on NDC formulation, which has resulted in varying scopes and contents of NDCs, often lacking details concerning ambitions. If NDCs are to become the long-term instrument for international cooperation, negotiation, and ratcheting up of ambitions to address climate change, then they need to become more transparent and comparable, both with respect to mitigation goals, and to issues such as adaptation, finance, and the way in which NDCs are aligned with national policies. Our analysis of INDCs and NDCs (Once a party ratifies the Paris Agreement, it is invited to turn its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) into an NDC. We refer to results from our INDC analysis rather than our NDC analysis in this commentary unless otherwise stated.) shows that they omit important mitigation sectors, do not adequately provide details on costs and financing of implementation, and are poorly designed to meet assessment and review needs.

  • 12.
    Pauw, W. P.
    et al.
    Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik/ German Development Institute (DIE), Bonn, Germany / Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vellinga, P.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Biermann, F.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Private finance for adaptation: do private realities meet public ambitions?2016Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 134, nr 4, s. 489-503Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The private sector’s role in climate finance is increasingly subject to political and scientific debate. Yet there is poor empirical evidence of private engagement in adaptation and its potential contribution to the industrialised countries’ mobilisation of USD 100 billion of annual climate finance from 2020 onwards to support developing countries to address climate change. This paper analysed 101 case studies of private sector adaptation under the Private Sector Initiative (PSI) of the UNFCCC Nairobi work programme, and examined these against ten ‘adaptation finance criteria’ that were distilled from UN climate negotiation outcomes. Results show that private adaptation interventions complement public adaptation activities. Yet the ten adaptation finance criteria are not met, which demonstrates that the diplomatic UNFCCC conceptualisation of financing adaptation is dissonant from the private sector reality. For example, while the case studies’ investments are ‘new and additional’ to Official Development Assistance (ODA), their ‘predictability’ remains unclear. And despite some commitment for ‘up-scaling’, plans and associated costs for doing so remain undisclosed. Developed countries’ role in ‘mobilising’ private financial resources under the PSI seems limited. It is unrealistic to expect that the UNFCCC alters existing criteria to suit private initiatives, or that the private sector aligns its initiatives to meet existing criteria. This paper advocates monitoring and reporting only of those private investments that principally finance adaptation. This practical way forward would allow private finance to meet criteria such as predictability, transparency, and mobilisation, but would drastically reduce the amount of private investment that could contribute to reaching the USD 100 billion climate finance target.

  • 13.
    Sietz, Diana
    et al.
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam, Germany.
    Boschütz, Maria
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam, Germany.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Kräftriket 2B, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mainstreaming climate adaptation into development assistance: rationale, institutional barriers and opportunities in Mozambique2011Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 493-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Mozambique, weather extremes threaten development progress, while pronounced poverty aggravates the climate vulnerability of the population. With the country being a major recipient of official development assistance, Mozambique’s development strongly depends on donor investments. Against this background, we aim to encourage the mainstreaming of climate adaptation into development assistance. An analysis of donor investments at a sub-national level showed that a significant proportion of development assistance was invested in climate-sensitive sectors in regions highly exposed to extreme weather conditions. Major damage caused by weather extremes motivates a stronger integration of climate policies into development assistance. Although Mozambique has a supportive legislative environment and climate awareness among donors was found to be high, the limited institutional capacity restricted mainstreaming initiatives. Given major barriers at the national level, bilateral and multilateral donors are able to play a key role in fostering mainstreaming in Mozambique.

  • 14.
    Simonsson, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    André, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wallgren, Oskar
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klein, Richard J. T.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Perceptions of Risk and Limits to Climate Change Adaptation: Case Studies of Two Swedish Urban Regions2011Ingår i: Climate Change Adaptation in Developed Nations: From Theory to Practice / [ed] James D. Ford and Lea Berrang-Ford, Springer , 2011, s. 321-334Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now widely accepted that adaptation will be necessary if we are to manage the risks posed by climate change. What we know about adaptation, however, is limited. While there is a well established body of scholarship proposing assessment approaches and explaining concepts, few studies have examined if and how adaptation is taking place at a national or regional level. This deficit in understanding is particularly pronounced in developed nations which have typically been assumed to have a low vulnerability to climate change. Yet as recent research highlights, this assumption is misplaced: developed nations are experiencing the most pronounced changes in climatic conditions globally and have significant pockets of vulnerability. Chapters in this book profile cases from different sectors in developed nations where specific adaptation measures have been identified, implemented, and evaluated. The contributions provide practical advice and guidance that can help guide adaptation planning in multiple contexts, identifying transferable lessons. It is a comprehensive and timely piece of work on an emerging body of literature that is critical for both academics and policy makers to be aware of and learn from in regards to the importance of adaptation and adaptation needs associated with climate change and variability. It is a strong step forward in bringing together this literature and thinking in one collective piece of writing. Chris Furgal, Trent University, Canada Lead Author IPCC 4th Assessment Report This volume is ambitious in scope and distinctive in focus. It is not about climate change science or mitigation or impacts... but focuses clearly on the processes of adaptation. This volume represents a valuable compilation of ideas, methods and applications dealing with adaptation to climate change in developed nations. Barry Smit, University of Guelph, Canada Canada Research Chair in Global Environmental Change This book provides key insights from leading scholars who are addressing an important but neglected question: How easy is it to adapt to climate change in practice? Focusing on evidence from developed countries, the contributions provide reasons for both optimism and concern, and lessons that are critical for anyone interested in climate change policy and a sustainable future. Karen O Brien, University of Oslo, Norway Chair of Global Environmental Change and Human Security

  • 15.
    Smith, Joel B.
    et al.
    Stratus Consulting, PO Box 4059, Boulder, CO 80302, USA.
    Dickinson, Thea
    Burton Dickinson Consulting Ltd, 204-600 Kingston Road, Toronto, Ontario M4E 1R1, Canada.
    Donahue, Joseph D.B.
    Stratus Consulting, 1920 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA.
    Burton, Ian
    University of Toronto, 26 St. Anne’s Road, Toronto M6J 2C1, Canada / International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD, UK.
    Haites, Erik
    Margaree Consultants Inc., 120 Adelaide Street West, Toronto M5H 1T1, Canada.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Kra ̈ftriket 2B, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patwardhan, Anand
    S.J. Mehta School of Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India.
    Development and climate change adaptation funding: coordination and integration2011Ingår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 987-1000Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a few decades, tens of billions, and possibly over a hundred billion, dollars will be needed for climate change adaptation in developing countries. In recent international climate negotiations, US$100 billion per year by 2020 was pledged by developed countries for mitigation and adaptation. Even if this pledge is realized, it is not clear that it will generate sufficient funds to address the adaptation needs of developing countries. A majority of what has been identified as climate change adaptation needs could be considered as funding for basic development. In addition, a large share of current development assistance is spent on climate-sensitive projects. With the potential for funding of climate change adaptation to fall short of what is needed and for development funding to continue funding many climate-sensitive activities, coordination of the two funding streams may enable more effective support for both sustainable development and climate change adaptation. Preliminary steps to facilitate such coordination are part of the Cancun Agreements and initiatives by other organizations.

  • 16.
    Watkiss, Paul
    et al.
    Paul Watkiss Associates, Oxford, UK.
    Benzie, Magnus
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The complementarity and comparability of climate change adaptation and mitigation2015Ingår i: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 541-557Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both mitigation and adaptation can reduce the risks of climate change. This study reviews the complementarity and comparability between the two, looking first at the global level and then at the national-to-local domain. At the global level, the review finds differing definitions and viewpoints exist in the literature. Much of the economic literature reports that global mitigation and adaptation are substitutes (in economic terms). In contrast, the scientific literature considers them to be complementary (in policy terms), as they address different risks that vary temporally and spatially. The degree of complementarity and comparability therefore depends on the perspective taken, although there is a policy space where the two can overlap. However, the governance, institutional, and policy-based literature identifies that even if a global mitigation and adaptation mix could be defined, it would be highly contentious and extremely difficult to deliver in practice. The review then considers the complementarity and comparability of mitigation and adaptation at the national-to-local domain, in national policy and at sector level. The review finds there is greater potential for complementarity at this scale, although possible conflicts can also exist. However, the institutional, governance, and policy literature identifies a number of barriers to practical implementation, and as a result, complementary mitigation and adaptation action is unlikely to happen autonomously. Finally, the lessons from the review are drawn together to highlight policy relevant issues and identify research gaps. WIREs Clim Change 2015, 6:541–557. doi: 10.1002/wcc.368This article is categorized under: * Integrated Assessment of Climate Change > Methods of Integrated Assessment of Climate Change * The Carbon Economy and Climate Mitigation > Benefits of Mitigation * Climate and Development > Sustainability and Human Well-Being

  • 17.
    White, Christopher J.
    et al.
    School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia / Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), Hobart, Australia.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Robertson, Andrew W.
    International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Bonn, Germany.
    Lazo, Jeffrey K.
    National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/Research Applications Laboratory (RAL), Boulder, CO, USA.
    Kumar, Arun
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Climate Prediction Center (CPC), College Park, MD, USA.
    Vitart, Frederic
    European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), Reading, UK.
    Coughlan de Perez, Erin
    International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA / Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre, International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA .
    Ray, Andrea J.
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Boulder, CO, USA.
    Murray, Virginia
    Public Health England (PHE), London, UK.
    Bharwani, Sukaina
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Oxford, UK.
    MacLeod, Dave
    Department of Physics, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, UK.
    James, Rachel
    Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, UK.
    Fleming, Lora
    European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter, Truro, UK.
    Morse, Andrew P.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK.
    Eggen, Bernd
    Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (PHE), Chilton, UK.
    Graham, Richard
    UK Met Office, Exeter, UK.
    Kjellström, Erik
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Becker, Emily
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Climate Prediction Center (CPC), College Park, MD, USA.
    Pegion, Kathleen V.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences and Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Holbrook, Neil J.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
    McEvoy, Darryn
    Global Cities Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Depledge, Michael
    European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter, Truro, UK.
    Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Brown, Timothy J.
    Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA.
    Street, Roger
    UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP), University of Oxford, UK.
    Jones, Lindsey
    London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), UK.
    Remenyi, Tomas A.
    Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), Hobart, Australia.
    Hodgson-Johnston, Indi
    Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), Hobart, Australia.
    Buontempo, Carlo
    UK Met Office, Exeter, UK.
    Lamb, Rob
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, UK / JBA Trust, Skipton, UK.
    Meinke, Holger
    Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Zebiak, Stephen E.
    International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA / Climate Information Services Ltd, Tappan, NY, USA.
    Potential applications of subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) predictions2017Ingår i: Meteorological Applications, ISSN 1350-4827, E-ISSN 1469-8080, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 315-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While seasonal outlooks have been operational for many years, until recently the extended-range timescale referred to as subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) has received little attention. S2S prediction fills the gap between short-range weather prediction and long-range seasonal outlooks. Decisions in a range of sectors are made in this extended-range lead time; therefore, there is a strong demand for this new generation of forecasts. International efforts are under way to identify key sources of predictability, improve forecast skill and operationalize aspects of S2S forecasts; however, challenges remain in advancing this new frontier. If S2S predictions are to be used effectively, it is important that, along with science advances, an effort is made to develop, communicate and apply these forecasts appropriately. In this study, the emerging operational S2S forecasts are presented to the wider weather and climate applications community by undertaking the first comprehensive review of sectoral applications of S2S predictions, including public health, disaster preparedness, water management, energy and agriculture. The value of applications-relevant S2S predictions is explored, and the opportunities and challenges facing their uptake are highlighted. It is shown how social sciences can be integrated with S2S development, from communication to decision-making and valuation of forecasts, to enhance the benefits of ‘climate services’ approaches for extended-range forecasting. While S2S forecasting is at a relatively early stage of development, it is concluded that it presents a significant new window of opportunity that can be explored for application-ready capabilities that could allow many sectors the opportunity to systematically plan on a new time horizon.

  • 18.
    Wolf, Sarah
    et al.
    Global Climate Forum, Berlin, Germany.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    Global Climate Forum, Berlin, Germany .
    Hallier, Mareen
    Department of Mathematics, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany .
    Bisaro, Alexander
    Global Climate Forum, Berlin, Germany .
    Lincke, Daniel
    Department of Transdisciplinary Concepts and Methods, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research.Potsdam, Germany .
    Ionescu, Cezar
    Department of Transdisciplinary Concepts and Methods, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany .
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Clarifying vulnerability definitions and assessments using formalisation2013Ingår i: International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, ISSN 1756-8692, E-ISSN 1756-8706, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 54-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a formal framework of vulnerability to climate change, to address the conceptual confusion around vulnerability and related concepts. Design/methodology/approach: The framework was developed using the method of formalisation - making structure explicit. While mathematics as a precise and general language revealed common structures in a large number of vulnerability definitions and assessments, the framework is here presented by diagrams for a non-mathematical audience. Findings: Vulnerability, in ordinary language, is a measure of possible future harm. Scientific vulnerability definitions from the fields of climate change, poverty, and natural hazards share and refine this structure. While theoretical definitions remain vague, operational definitions, that is, methodologies for assessing vulnerability, occur in three distinct types: evaluate harm for projected future evolutions, evaluate the current capacity to reduce harm, or combine the two. The framework identifies a lack of systematic relationship between theoretical and operational definitions. Originality/value: While much conceptual literature tries to clarify vulnerability, formalisation is a new method in this interdisciplinary field. The resulting framework is an analytical tool which supports clear communication: it helps when making assumptions explicit. The mismatch between theoretical and operational definitions is not made explicit in previous work. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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