liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 33 of 33
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Asutay, E.
    et al.
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kleiner, M.
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Development of methodology for documentation of key action properties and haptie sensation of pipe organ playing2012In: Acoustics Bulletin, ISSN 0308-437X, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 42-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musical instruments provide auditory, visual and tactile feedback to the performer. The organist hears the pipes sounding as well as the contribution of room acoustics, sees the console, smells the air of the room, and feels the key action properties through his or her fingers and feet. Thus just as perception of most objects and events is multisensory, the sensation and perception of instrument playing are also multisensory. Within the project, The Organ as Memory Bank, we investigate the underlying dimensions of haptics in pipe organ playing, focusing on the mechanical manual-key action. This research involves both objective and subjective characterisation of the key action. Objective characterisation focuses on mechanical construction of the key and trackers and how it shapes the tactile feedback. The dynamic behaviour of the keys is measured as a function of key-fall and velocity as keys are pressed using a controllable linear actuator and characterized by objective parameters. The subjective characterisation of the haptics of organ playing is initially surveyed online. Semantic differential scales, which are devised based on the results of the survey, will be used in subjective experiments to reveal the underlying dimensions. Finally the objective (physical) and subjective (perceptual) characteristics will be linked to reveal the salient sensorial key action properties.

  • 2.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Attentional and Emotional Prioritization of the Sounds Occurring Outside the Visual Field2015In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 281-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to detect and localize sounds in an environment is critical for survival. Localizing sound sources is a computational challenge for the human brain because the auditory cortex seems to lack a topographical space representation. However, attention and task demands can modulate localization performance. Here, we investigated whether the localization performance for sounds occurring directly in front of or behind people could be modulated by emotional salience and sound-source location. We measured auditory-induced emotion by ecological sounds occurring in the frontal or rear perceptual fields, and employed a speeded localization task. The results showed that both localization speed and accuracy were higher, and that stronger negative emotions were induced when sound sources were behind the participants. Our results provide clear behavioral evidence that auditory attention can be influenced by sound-source location. Importantly, we also show that the effect of spatial location on attention is mediated by emotion, which is in line with the argument that emotional information is prioritized in processing. Auditory system functions as an alarm system and is in charge of detecting possible salient events, and alarming for an attention shift. Further, spatial processing in the auditory dorsal pathway has a function of guiding the visual system to a particular location of interest. Thus, an auditory bias toward the space outside the visual field can be useful, so that visual attention could be quickly shifted in case of emotionally significant information.

  • 3.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emotional Bias in Change Deafness in Multisource Auditory Environments2014In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 143, no 1, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of auditory attention suggest that humans decompose complex auditory input into individual auditory objects, which then compete for attention to dominate auditory perception. Since emotional significance of external stimuli has been argued to provide cues for sensory prioritization and allocation of attention, emotionally salient auditory objects can receive attention to dominate auditory perception. On the basis of the function of audition as an alarm system that informs the organism about its immediate surroundings, and on empirical evidence that emotion can modulate auditory perception, we argue that auditory stimuli with greater emotional saliency would dominate perception in multisource environments. To test our hypothesis, we employed a change detection task in which participants were asked to indicate whether multisource auditory scenes were identical or different. Participants were better at detecting changes at the presence of an emotionally negative environment compared to neutral environment. Further, we found that participants were better at detecting changes of emotionally negative targets compared to neutral targets. Our results demonstrate that detecting changes in auditory scenes is influenced by emotion. The findings are discussed in the light of the theories of auditory attention, emotional modulation of attention, and the adaptive function of emotion for perception.

  • 4.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Negative emotion provides cues for orienting auditory spatial attention2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The auditory stimuli provide information about the objects and events around us. They can also carry biologically significant emotional information (such as unseen dangers and conspecific vocalizations), which provides cues for allocation of attention and mental resources. Here, we investigated whether task-irrelevant auditory emotional information can provide cues for orientation of auditory spatial attention. We employed a covert spatial orienting task: the dot-probe task. In each trial, two task-irrelevant auditory cues were simultaneously presented at two separate locations (lef-tright or front-back). Environmental sounds were selected to form emotional vs. neutral, emotional vs. emotional, and neutral vs. neutral cue pairs. The participants task was to detect the location of an acoustic target that was presented immediately after the task-irrelevant auditory cues. The target was presented at the same location as one of the auditory cues. The results indicated that participants were significantly faster to locate the target when it replaced the negative cue compared to when it replaced the neutral cue. The positive cues did not produce a clear attentional bias. Further, same valence pairs (emotionalemotional or neutralneutral) did not modulate reaction times due to a lack of spatial attention capture by one cue in the pair. Taken together, the results indicate that negative affect can provide cues for the orientation of spatial attention in the auditory domain.

  • 5.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perception of Loudness Is Influenced by Emotion2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Loudness perception is thought to be a modular system that is unaffected by other brain systems. We tested the hypothesis that loudness perception can be influenced by negative affect using a conditioning paradigm, where some auditory stimuli were paired with aversive experiences while others were not. We found that the same auditory stimulus was reported as being louder, more negative and fear-inducing when it was conditioned with an aversive experience, compared to when it was used as a control stimulus. This result provides support for an important role of emotion in auditory perception.

  • 6.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    Royal Holloway University of London.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Gothenburg.
    Bergman, Penny
    Chalmers.
    Kleiner, Mendel
    Chalmers.
    Emoacoustics: A Study of the Psychoacoustical and Psychological Dimensions of Emotional Sound Design2012In: JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 60, no 1-2, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though traditional psychoacoustics has provided indispensable knowledge about auditory perception, it has, in its narrow focus on signal characteristics, neglected listener and contextual characteristics. To demonstrate the influence of the meaning the listener attaches to a sound in the resulting sensations we used a Fourier-time-transform processing to reduce the identifiability of 18 environmental sounds. In a listening experiment, 20 subjects listened to and rated their sensations in response to, first, all the processed stimuli and then, all original stimuli, without being aware of the relationship between the two groups. Another 20 subjects rated only the processed stimuli, which were primed by their original counterparts. This manipulation was used in order to see the difference in resulting sensation when the subject could tell what the sound source is. In both tests subjects rated their emotional experience for each stimulus on the orthogonal dimensions of valence and arousal, as well as perceived annoyance and perceived loudness for each stimulus. They were also asked to identify the sound source. It was found that processing caused correct identification to reduce substantially, while priming recovered most of the identification. While original stimuli induced a wide range of emotional experience, reactions to processed stimuli were emotionally neutral. Priming manipulation reversed the effects of processing to some extent. Moreover, even though the 5th percentile Zwickers-loudness (N5) value of most of the stimuli was reduced after processing, neither perceived loudness nor auditory-induced emotion changed accordingly. Thus indicating the importance of considering other factors apart from the physical sound characteristics in sound design.

  • 7.
    Bjaelkebring, Par
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Regulation of Experienced and Anticipated Regret in Daily Decision Making2016In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions were sampled from 108 participants during 8 days using a web-based diary method. Each day participants rated experienced regret for a decision made, as well as forecasted regret for a decision to be made. Participants also indicated to what extent they used different strategies to prevent or regulate regret. Participants regretted 30% of decisions and forecasted regret in 70% of future decisions, indicating both that regret is relatively prevalent in daily decisions but also that experienced regret was less frequent than forecasted regret. In addition, a number of decision-specific regulation and prevention strategies were successfully used by the participants to minimize regret and negative emotions in daily decision making. Overall, these results suggest that regulation and prevention of regret are important strategies in many of our daily decisions.

  • 8.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts.

  • 9.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Johansson, Boo E. A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a persons rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  • 10.
    Carpenter, Stephanie M.
    et al.
    Decis Research, OR USA University of Michigan, MI 48109 USA .
    Peters, Ellen
    Ohio State University, OH 43210 USA Decis Research, OR USA .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Isen, Alice M.
    Cornell University, NY 14853 USA Cornell University, NY 14853 USA .
    Positive feelings facilitate working memory and complex decision making among older adults2013In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of induced mild positive feelings on working memory and complex decision making among older adults (aged 6385) was examined. Participants completed a computer administered card task in which participants could win money if they chose from gain decks and lose money if they chose from loss decks. Individuals in the positive-feeling condition chose better than neutral-feeling participants and earned more money overall. Participants in the positive-feeling condition also demonstrated improved working-memory capacity. These effects of positive-feeling induction have implications for affect theory, as well as, potentially, practical implications for people of all ages dealing with complex decisions.

  • 11.
    Dickert, Stephan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Kleber, Janet
    WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria; Alpen Adria University of Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, OR USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Mental Imagery, Impact, and Affect: A Mediation Model for Charitable Giving2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, p. e0148274-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the puzzling phenomena in philanthropy is that people can show strong compassion for identified individual victims but remain unmoved by catastrophes that affect large numbers of victims. Two prominent findings in research on charitable giving reflect this idiosyncrasy: The (1) identified victim and (2) victim number effects. The first of these suggests that identifying victims increases donations and the second refers to the finding that peoples willingness to donate often decreases as the number of victims increases. While these effects have been documented in the literature, their underlying psychological processes need further study. We propose a model in which identified victim and victim number effects operate through different cognitive and affective mechanisms. In two experiments we present empirical evidence for such a model and show that different affective motivations (donor-focused vs. victim-focused feelings) are related to the cognitive processes of impact judgments and mental imagery. Moreover, we argue that different mediation pathways exist for identifiability and victim number effects.

  • 12.
    Dickert, Stephan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, NY USA.
    Kleber, Janet
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, NY USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Scope insensitivity: The limits of intuitive valuation of human lives in public policy2015In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, E-ISSN 2211-369X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 248-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical question for government officials, managers of NGOs, and politicians is how to respond to situations in which large numbers of lives are at risk. Theories in judgment and decision making as well as economics suggest diminishing marginal utility with increasing quantities of goods. In the domain of lifesaving, this form of non-linearity implies decreasing concern for individual lives as the number of affected people increases. In this paper, we show how intuitive valuations based on prosocial emotions can lead to scope insensitivity and suboptimal responses to lives at risk. We present both normative and descriptive models of valuations of lives and discuss the underlying psychological processes as they relate to judgments and decisions made in public policy and by NGO5. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • 13.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Arthur
    Lund University, Department of Psychology, Lund, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, United States of America.
    Bullshit-sensitivity predicts prosocial behavior2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0201474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullshit-sensitivity is the ability to distinguish pseudo-profound bullshit sentences (e.g. “Your movement transforms universal observations”) from genuinely profound sentences (e.g. “The person who never made a mistake never tried something new”). Although bullshit-sensitivity has been linked to other individual difference measures, it has not yet been shown to predict any actual behavior. We therefore conducted a survey study with over a thousand participants from a general sample of the Swedish population and assessed participants’ bullshit-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven bullshit sentences) and profoundness-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven genuinely profound sentences), and used these variables to predict two types of prosocial behavior (self-reported donations and a decision to volunteer for charity). Despite bullshit-receptivity and profoundness-receptivity being positively correlated with each other, logistic regression analyses showed that profoundness-receptivity had a positive association whereas bullshit-receptivity had a negative association with both types of prosocial behavior. These relations held up for the most part when controlling for potentially intermediating factors such as cognitive ability, time spent completing the survey, sex, age, level of education, and religiosity. The results suggest that people who are better at distinguishing the pseudo-profound from the actually profound are more prosocial.

  • 14.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Attitudes and donation behavior when reading positive and negative charity appeals2018In: Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, ISSN 1049-5142, E-ISSN 1540-6997, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 444-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tries to clarify whether negative charity appeals (i.e., advertisements emphasizing the bad consequences of not helping) or positive charity appeals (i.e., advertisements emphasizing the good consequences of helping) are more effective. Previous literature does not provide a single answer to this question and we suggest that one contributing reason for this is that different studies have operationalized appeal effectiveness in different ways (e.g., actual behavior, self-rated helping intentions, or expressed attitudes about the ad or the organization). Results from four separate studies suggest that positive appeals are more effective in inducing favorable attitudes toward the ad and toward the organization but that negative appeals are more effective (in studies 1A and 1B) or at least equally effective (in studies 1C and 1D) in eliciting actual donations. Also, although people’s attitude toward the appeal (i.e., liking) was a good predictor for the expected effectiveness in increasing donation behavior (in Study 2), it was a poor predictor of actual donation behavior in all four main studies. These results cast doubt on marketing theories suggesting that attitudes toward an advertisement and toward the brand always lead to higher purchase behavior.

  • 15.
    Genevsky, Alexander
    et al.
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, OR USA .
    Knutson, Brian
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Neural Underpinnings of the Identifiable Victim Effect: Affect Shifts Preferences for Giving2013In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 33, no 43, p. 17188-17196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The "identifiable victim effect" refers to peoples tendency to preferentially give to identified versus anonymous victims of misfortune, and has been proposed to partly depend on affect. By soliciting charitable donations from human subjects during behavioral and neural (i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging) experiments, we sought to determine whether and how affect might promote the identifiable victim effect. Behaviorally, subjects gave more to orphans depicted by photographs versus silhouettes, and their shift in preferences was mediated by photograph-induced feelings of positive arousal, but not negative arousal. Neurally, while photographs versus silhouettes elicited activity in widespread circuits associated with facial and affective processing, only nucleus accumbens activity predicted and could statistically account for increased donations. Together, these findings suggest that presenting evaluable identifiable information can recruit positive arousal, which then promotes giving. We propose that affect elicited by identifiable stimuli can compel people to give more to strangers, even despite costs to the self.

  • 16.
    Hagman, William
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges2015In: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? Should all types of nudges be judged the same? To date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. In addition we explore how individual differences in thinking and feeling influence attitudes toward nudges. General population samples in Sweden and the United States (n=952) were presented with vignettes describing nudge-policies and rated acceptability and intrusiveness on freedom of choice. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition and analytical thinking were included. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high in both countries, but were slightly higher among Swedes than Americans. Somewhat paradoxically a majority of the respondents also perceived the presented nudge-policies as intrusive to freedom of choice. Nudge- polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges (p<.0001). Individuals with a more individualistic worldview were less likely to perceive nudges as acceptable, while individuals more prone to analytical thinking were less likely to perceive nudges as intrusive to freedom of choice. To conclude, our findings suggest that the notion of “one-nudge- fits-all” is not tenable. Recognizing this is an important aspect both for successfully implementing nudges as well as nuancing nudge theory. 

  • 17.
    Hagman, William
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; Klagenfurt University, Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The effect of paternalistic alternatives on attitudes toward default nudges2019In: Behavioural Public Policy, ISSN 2398-0648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nudges are increasingly being proposed and used as a policy tool around the world. The success of nudges depends on public acceptance. However, several questions about what makes a nudge acceptable remain unanswered. In this paper, we examine whether policy alternatives to nudges influence the public's acceptance of these nudges: Do attitudes change when the nudge is presented alongside either a more paternalistic policy alternative (legislation) or a less paternalistic alternative (no behavioral intervention)? In two separate samples drawn from the Swedish general public, we find a very small effect of alternatives on the acceptability of various default nudges overall. Surprisingly, we find that when the alternative to the nudge is legislation, acceptance decreases and perceived intrusiveness increases (relative to conditions where the alternative is no regulation). An implication of this finding is that acceptance of nudges may not always automatically increase when nudges are explicitly compared to more paternalistic alternatives.

  • 18.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Liljestrom, Simon
    Stockholm University.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Emotional reactions to music in a nationally representative sample of Swedish adults: Prevalence and causal influences2011In: Musicae scientiae, ISSN 1029-8649, E-ISSN 2045-4147, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 174-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have indicated that listeners value music primarily for its ability to arouse emotions. Yet little is known about which emotions listeners normally experience when listening to music, or about the causes of these emotions. The goal of this study was therefore to explore the prevalence of emotional reactions to music in everyday life and how this is influenced by various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to a random and nationally representative sample of 1.500 Swedish citizens between the ages of 18 and 65, and 762 participants (51%) responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-two items explored both musical emotions in general (semantic estimates) and the most recent emotion episode featuring music for each participant (episodic estimates). The results revealed several variables (e.g., personality, age. gender, listener activity) that were correlated with particular emotions. A multiple discriminant analysis indicated that three of the most common emotion categories in a set of musical episodes (i.e., happiness, sadness, nostalgia) could be predicted with a mean accuracy of 70% correct based on data obtained from the questionnaire. The results may inform theorizing about musical emotions and guide the selection of causal variables for manipulation in future experiments.

  • 19.
    Kogut, Tehila
    et al.
    Ben Gurion University of Negev, Israel; Ben Gurion University of Negev, Israel.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Scope Insensitivity in Helping Decisions: Is It a Matter of Culture and Values?2015In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 144, no 6, p. 1042-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The singularity effect of identifiable victims refers to peoples greater willingness to help a single concrete victim compared with a group of victims experiencing the same need. We present 3 studies exploring values and cultural sources of this effect. In the first study, the singularity effect was found only among Western Israelis and not among Bedouin participants (a more collectivist group). In Study 2, individuals with higher collectivist values were more likely to contribute to a group of victims. Finally, the third study demonstrates a more causal relationship between collectivist values and the singularity effect by showing that enhancing peoples collectivist values using a priming manipulation produces similar donations to single victims and groups. Moreover, participants collectivist preferences mediated the interaction between the priming conditions and singularity of the recipient. Implications for several areas of psychology and ways to enhance caring for groups in need are discussed.

  • 20.
    Liljestrom, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Experimental evidence of the roles of music choice, social context, and listener personality in emotional reactions to music2013In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 579-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music may arouse intense emotions in listeners, but little is known about the circumstances that contribute to such reactions. Here we report a listening experiment that investigated the roles of selected musical, situational, and individual factors in emotional reactions to music. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, we manipulated music choice (self-chosen vs. randomly sampled) and social context (alone vs. with a close friend or partner). Fifty university students (20-43 years old) rated their emotional responses to the music in terms of overall emotion intensity and 15 emotions. We also measured personality traits (NEO-PI-R) and psychophysiological responses (skin conductance, heart rate). Consistent with predictions based on previous field studies, listeners reported more intense emotions (1) to self-chosen music than to randomly selected music and (2) when listening with a close friend or partner than when listening alone. Moreover, listeners scoring high on the trait Openness to experience experienced more intense emotions than listeners scoring low. All three factors correlated positively with the experience of positive emotions such as happiness and pleasure.

  • 21.
    Lind, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Motivated reasoning when assessing the effects of refugee intake2018In: Behavioural Public Policy, ISSN 2398-063XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do differences in worldview ideology hinder people from objectively interpreting the effect of immigration? In an experiment with Swedish adults (n = 1015), we investigate whether people display motivated reasoning when interpreting numerical information about the effects of refugee intake on crime rate. Our results show clear evidence of motivated reasoning along the lines of worldview ideology (i.e., whether people identify themselves primarily as nationally oriented or globally oriented). In scenarios where refugee intake was associated with higher crime rate, nationally oriented people were 18 percentage points more likely to make the correct assessment compared to globally oriented people. Likewise, in scenarios where refugee intake was associated with lower crime rate, nationally oriented people were 20 percentage points less likely to make the correct assessment compared to globally oriented people. Individuals with higher numeric ability were less likely to engage in motivated reasoning, suggesting that motivated reasoning more commonly is driven by feelings and emotional cues rather than deliberate analytical processes.

  • 22.
    Markowitz, Ezra M.
    et al.
    Columbia University, NY, USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hodges, Sara D.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Compassion fade and the challenge of environmental conservation2013In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 397-406Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Compassion shown towards victims often decreases as the number of individuals in need of aid increases, identifiability of the victims decreases, and the proportion of victims helped shrinks. Such "compassion fade" may hamper individual-level and collective responses to pressing large-scale crises. To date, research on compassion fade has focused on humanitarian challenges; thus, it remains unknown whether and to what extent compassion fade emerges when victims are non-human others. Here we show that compassion fade occurs in the environmental domain, but only among non-environmentalists. These findings suggest that compassion fade may challenge our collective ability and willingness to confront the major environmental problems we face, including climate change. The observed moderation effect of environmental identity further indicates that compassion fade may present a significant psychological barrier to building broad public support for addressing these problems. Our results highlight the importance of bringing findings from the field of judgment and decision making to bear on pressing societal issues.

  • 23. McCarthy, Randy J.
    et al.
    Skowronski, John J.
    Verschuere, Bruno
    Meijer, Ewout H.
    Jim, Ariane
    Hoogesteyn, Katherine
    Orthey, Robin
    Acar, Oguz A.
    Aczel, Balazs
    Bakos, Bence E.
    Barbosa, Fernando
    Baskin, Ernest
    Bègue, Laurent
    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon
    Birt, Angie R.
    Blatz, Lisa
    Charman, Steve D.
    Claesen, Aline
    Clay, Samuel L.
    Coary, Sean P.
    Crusius, Jan
    Evans, Jacqueline R.
    Feldman, Noa
    Ferreira-Santos, Fernando
    Gamer, Matthias
    Gerlsma, Coby
    Gomes, Sara
    González-Iraizoz, Marta
    Holzmeister, Felix
    Huber, Juergen
    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.
    Isoni, Andrea
    Jessup, Ryan K.
    Kirchler, Michael
    klein Selle, Nathalie
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kovacs, Marton
    Laine, Tei
    Lentz, Frank
    Loschelder, David D.
    Ludvig, Elliot A.
    Lynn, Monty L.
    Martin, Scott D.
    McLatchie, Neil M.
    Mechtel, Mario
    Nahari, Galit
    Özdoğru, Asil Ali
    Pasion, Rita
    Pennington, Charlotte R.
    Roets, Arne
    Rozmann, Nir
    Scopelliti, Irene
    Spiegelman, Eli
    Suchotzki, Kristina
    Sutan, Angela
    Szecsi, Peter
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tisserand, Jean-Christian
    Tran, Ulrich S.
    Van Hiel, Alain
    Vanpaemel, Wolf
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon.
    Verliefde, Thomas
    Vezirian, Kévin
    Voracek, Martin
    Warmelink, Lara
    Wick, Katherine
    Wiggins, Bradford J.
    Wylie, Keith
    Yıldız, Ezgi
    Registered Replication Report on Srull and Wyer (1979)2018In: Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, ISSN 2515-2459, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 321-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Srull and Wyer (1979) demonstrated that exposing participants to more hostility-related stimuli caused them subsequently to interpret ambiguous behaviors as more hostile. In their Experiment 1, participants descrambled sets of words to form sentences. In one condition, 80% of the descrambled sentences described hostile behaviors, and in another condition, 20% described hostile behaviors. Following the descrambling task, all participants read a vignette about a man named Donald who behaved in an ambiguously hostile manner and then rated him on a set of personality traits. Next, participants rated the hostility of various ambiguously hostile behaviors (all ratings on scales from 0 to 10). Participants who descrambled mostly hostile sentences rated Donald and the ambiguous behaviors as approximately 3 scale points more hostile than did those who descrambled mostly neutral sentences. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 26 independent replications (N = 7,373 in the total sample; k = 22 labs and N = 5,610 in the primary analyses) of Srull and Wyer?s Experiment 1, each of which followed a preregistered and vetted protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis showed that the protagonist was seen as 0.08 scale points more hostile when participants were primed with 80% hostile sentences than when they were primed with 20% hostile sentences (95% confidence interval, CI = [0.004, 0.16]). The ambiguously hostile behaviors were seen as 0.08 points less hostile when participants were primed with 80% hostile sentences than when they were primed with 20% hostile sentences (95% CI = [?0.18, 0.01]). Although the confidence interval for one outcome excluded zero and the observed effect was in the predicted direction, these results suggest that the currently used methods do not produce an assimilative priming effect that is practically and routinely detectable.

  • 24.
    ODonnell, Michael
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Nelson, Leif D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Ackermann, Evi
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Aczel, Balazs
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Akhtar, Athfah
    Birmingham City Univ, England.
    Aldrovandi, Silvio
    Birmingham City Univ, England.
    Alshaif, Nasseem
    Calif State Univ Bakersfield, CA USA.
    Andringa, Ronald
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Aveyard, Mark
    Amer Univ Sharjah, U Arab Emirates.
    Babincak, Peter
    Univ Presov, Slovakia.
    Balatekin, Nursena
    Uskudar Univ, Turkey.
    Baldwin, Scott A.
    Brigham Young Univ, UT 84602 USA.
    Banik, Gabriel
    Univ Presov, Slovakia.
    Baskin, Ernest
    St Josephs Univ, PA 19131 USA.
    Bell, Raoul
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Bialobrzeska, Olga
    SWPS Univ Social Sci and Humanities, Poland.
    Birt, Angie R.
    Mt St Vincent Univ, Canada.
    Boot, Walter R.
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Braithwaite, Scott R.
    Brigham Young Univ, UT 84602 USA.
    Briggs, Jessie C.
    Temple Univ, PA 19122 USA.
    Buchner, Axel
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Budd, Desiree
    Univ Wisconsin Stout, WI USA.
    Budzik, Kathryn
    Ashland Univ, OH USA.
    Bullens, Lottie
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Bulley, Richard L.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Cannon, Peter R.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Cantarero, Katarzyna
    SWPS Univ Social Sci and Humanities, Poland.
    Cesario, Joseph
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Chambers, Stephanie
    East Tennessee State Univ, TN USA.
    Chartier, Christopher R.
    Ashland Univ, OH USA.
    Chekroun, Peggy
    Univ Paris Nanterre, France.
    Chong, Clara
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Cleeremans, Axel
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Coary, Sean P.
    St Josephs Univ, PA 19131 USA.
    Coulthard, Jacob
    East Tennessee State Univ, TN USA.
    Cramwinckel, Florien M.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands; Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Denson, Thomas F.
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Diaz-Lago, Marcos
    Univ Deusto, Spain.
    DiDonato, Theresa E.
    Loyola Univ Maryland, MD USA.
    Drummond, Aaron
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Eberlen, Julia
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Ebersbach, Titus
    Univ Wuppertal, Germany.
    Edlund, John E.
    Rochester Inst Technol, NY 14623 USA.
    Finnigan, Katherine M.
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Fisher, Justin
    Appalachian State Univ, NC 28608 USA.
    Frankowska, Natalia
    SWPS Univ Social Sci and Humanities, Poland.
    Garcia-Sanchez, Efrain
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Golom, Frank D.
    Loyola Univ Maryland, MD USA.
    Graves, Andrew J.
    Appalachian State Univ, NC 28608 USA.
    Greenberg, Kevin
    Univ Utah, UT 84112 USA.
    Hanioti, Mando
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Hansen, Heather A.
    Calif State Univ Bakersfield, CA USA.
    Harder, Jenna A.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Harrell, Erin R.
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Hartanto, Andree
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Inzlicht, Michael
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Johnson, David J.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Karpinski, Andrew
    Temple Univ, PA 19122 USA.
    Keller, Victor N.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Klein, Olivier
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Krahmer, Emiel
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Lantian, Anthony
    Univ Paris Nanterre, France.
    Larson, Michael J.
    Brigham Young Univ, UT 84602 USA.
    Legal, Jean-Baptiste
    Univ Paris Nanterre, France.
    Lucas, Richard E.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Lynott, Dermot
    Univ Lancaster, England.
    Magaldino, Corey M.
    Appalachian State Univ, NC 28608 USA.
    Massar, Karlijn
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    McBee, Matthew T.
    East Tennessee State Univ, TN USA.
    McLatchie, Neil
    Univ Lancaster, England.
    Melia, Nadhilla
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Mensink, Michael C.
    Univ Wisconsin Stout, WI USA.
    Mieth, Laura
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Moore-Berg, Samantha
    Temple Univ, PA 19122 USA.
    Neeser, Geraldine
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Newell, Ben R.
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Noordewier, Marret K.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Ozdogru, Asil Ali
    Uskudar Univ, Turkey.
    Pantazi, Myrto
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Parzuchowski, Michal
    SWPS Univ Social Sci and Humanities, Poland.
    Peters, Kim
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Philipp, Michael C.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Pollmann, Monique M. H.
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Rentzelas, Panagiotis
    Birmingham City Univ, England.
    Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Roeer, Jan Philipp
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Ropovik, Ivan
    Univ Presov, Slovakia.
    Roque, Nelson A.
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Rueda, Carolina
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Colombia.
    Rutjens, Bastiaan T.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sackett, Katey
    Rochester Inst Technol, NY 14623 USA.
    Salamon, Janos
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Sanchez-Rodriguez, Angel
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Saunders, Blair
    Univ Dundee, Scotland.
    Schaafsma, Juliette
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael
    Univ Bern, Switzerland; Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Germany.
    Shanks, David R.
    UCL, England.
    Sherman, Martin F.
    Loyola Univ Maryland, MD USA.
    Steele, Kenneth M.
    Appalachian State Univ, NC 28608 USA.
    Steffens, Niklas K.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Sun, Jessie
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Susa, Kyle J.
    Calif State Univ Bakersfield, CA USA.
    Szaszi, Barnabas
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Szollosi, Aba
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Tamayo, Ricardo M.
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Colombia.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tong, Yuk-yue
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Tweten, Carol
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Vadillo, Miguel A.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Valcarcel, Deisy
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Colombia.
    Van der Linden, Nicolas
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    van Elk, Michiel
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Harreveld, Frenk
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vazire, Simine
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Verduyn, Philippe
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Williams, Matt N.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Willis, Guillermo B.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Wood, Sarah E.
    Univ Wisconsin Stout, WI USA.
    Yang, Chunliang
    UCL, England.
    Zerhouni, Oulmann
    Univ Paris Nanterre, France.
    Zheng, Robert
    Univ Utah, UT 84112 USA.
    Zrubka, Mark
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998)2018In: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 268-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with a category associated with intelligence (professor) subsequently performed 13% better on a trivia test than participants primed with a category associated with a lack of intelligence (soccer hooligans). In two unpublished replications of this study designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, Dijksterhuis, van Knippenberg, and Holland observed a smaller difference between conditions (2%-3%) as well as a gender difference: Men showed the effect (9.3% and 7.6%), but women did not (0.3% and -0.3%). The procedure used in those replications served as the basis for this multilab Registered Replication Report. A total of 40 laboratories collected data for this project, and 23 of these laboratories met all inclusion criteria. Here we report the meta-analytic results for those 23 direct replications (total N = 4,493), which tested whether performance on a 30-item general-knowledge trivia task differed between these two priming conditions (results of supplementary analyses of the data from all 40 labs, N = 6,454, are also reported). We observed no overall difference in trivia performance between participants primed with the professor category and those primed with the hooligan category (0.14%) and no moderation by gender.

  • 25.
    Strömbäck, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lind, Thérèse
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene Oregon, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Does self-control predict financial behavior and financial well-being?2017In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, ISSN 2214-6350, E-ISSN 2214-6369, ISSN 2214-6350, Vol. 14, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve our understanding of how people make financial decisions, it is important to investigate what psychological characteristics influence individuals’ positive financial behavior and financial well-being. In this study, we explore the effect of individual differences in self-control and other non-cognitive factors on financial behavior and financial well-being. A survey containing measures of financial behavior, subjective financial well-being, self-control, optimism, deliberative thinking and demographic variables was sent to a representative sample (n=2063)" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: normal; font-size: 14.399999618530273px; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Microsoft Sans Serif', 'Segoe UI Symbol', STIXGeneral, 'Cambria Math', 'Arial Unicode MS', sans-serif; position: relative;"> of the Swedish population. Our findings extend the application of the behavioral lifecycle hypothesis beyond savings behavior, to include general financial behavior. People with good self-control are more likely to save money from every pay-check, have better general financial behavior, feel less anxious about financial matters, and feel more secure in their current and future financial situation.

  • 26.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bonn, Caroline
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Böttiger, Harald
    Klarna AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Josephson, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundgren, Gustaf
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kirchler, Michael
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Intuition and cooperation reconsidered2013In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 498, no 7452, p. E1-E2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rand et al.1 reported increased cooperation in social dilemmas after forcing individuals to decide quickly1. Time pressure was used to induce intuitive decisions, and they concluded that intuition promotes cooperation. We test the robustness of this finding in a series of five experiments involving about 2,500 subjects in three countries. None of the experiments confirms the Rand et al.1 finding, indicating that their result was an artefact of excluding the about 50% of subjects who failed to respond on time.

  • 27.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Why People Hate Health Economics – Two Psychological Explanations2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people dislike the idea of “health economists” having influence on medical decision making and who gets what when it comes to health care. Health economics is often thought of as inhumane, promoting efficiency at the expense of more profound moral values, such as equality and need. The fact that allocations solely based on cost-effectiveness are unlikely to be compatible with public views has been illustrated in experimental studies (1, 2). Moreover, lessons from the Oregon experience on priority setting illuminated that rationing decisions based on health maximization are likely to conflict with the view of the general public. For an economist this can be hard to understand, why is not the quest to maximize the value for money something that strikes a chord with the general public? Here we will outline two fundamental psychological mechanisms that will help to explain why people hate health economics.

    The two psychological mechanisms – taboo-tradeoffs and compassion fade – are emotional phenomena that bias decision-making. These biases are of amplified by the fact that health is of special moral importance to most people. Not only our own health, but other people’s health as well. Moreover, decisions on how to allocate scarce resources in health care also ultimately lead to policies that carry life and death consequences. Thus, health care rationing elicits strong emotions making it an area of decision-making where emotion and reason often diverge. We will argue that health economics at large has been oblivious to the core aspects of human nature outlined in this paper, and this has limited the use of health economics as a productive input in health policy.

  • 28. Verschuere, Bruno
    et al.
    Meijer, Ewout H.
    Jim, Ariane
    Hoogesteyn, Katherine
    Orthey, Robin
    McCarthy, Randy J.
    Skowronski, John J.
    Acar, Oguz A.
    Aczel, Balazs
    Bakos, Bence E.
    Barbosa, Fernando
    Baskin, Ernest
    Bègue, Laurent
    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon
    Birt, Angie R.
    Blatz, Lisa
    Charman, Steve D.
    Claesen, Aline
    Clay, Samuel L.
    Coary, Sean P.
    Crusius, Jan
    Evans, Jacqueline R.
    Feldman, Noa
    Ferreira-Santos, Fernando
    Gamer, Matthias
    Gomes, Sara
    González-Iraizoz, Marta
    Holzmeister, Felix
    Huber, Juergen
    Isoni, Andrea
    Jessup, Ryan K.
    Kirchler, Michael
    Selle, Nathalie klein
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kovacs, Marton
    Laine, Tei
    Lentz, Frank
    Loschelder, David D.
    Ludvig, Elliot A.
    Lynn, Monty L.
    Martin, Scott D.
    McLatchie, Neil M.
    Mechtel, Mario
    Nahari, Galit
    Özdog˘ru, Asil Ali
    Pasion, Rita
    Pennington, Charlotte R.
    Roets, Arne
    Rozmann, Nir
    Scopelliti, Irene
    Spiegelman, Eli
    Suchotzki, Kristina
    Sutan, Angela
    Szecsi, Peter
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tisserand, Jean-Christian
    Tran, Ulrich S.
    Hiel, Alain Van
    Vanpaemel, Wolf
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon.
    Verliefde, Thomas
    Vezirian, Kévin
    Voracek, Martin
    Warmelink, Lara
    Wick, Katherine
    Wiggins, Bradford J.
    Wylie, Keith
    Yıldız, Ezgi
    Registered Replication Report on Mazar, Amir, and Ariely (2008)2018In: Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 299-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-concept maintenance theory holds that many people will cheat in order to maximize self-profit, but only to the extent that they can do so while maintaining a positive self-concept. Mazar, Amir, and Ariely (2008, Experiment 1) gave participants an opportunity and incentive to cheat on a problem-solving task. Prior to that task, participants either recalled the Ten Commandments (a moral reminder) or recalled 10 books they had read in high school (a neutral task). Results were consistent with the self-concept maintenance theory. When given the opportunity to cheat, participants given the moral-reminder priming task reported solving 1.45 fewer matrices than did those given a neutral prime (Cohen’s d = 0.48); moral reminders reduced cheating. Mazar et al.’s article is among the most cited in deception research, but their Experiment 1 has not been replicated directly. This Registered Replication Report describes the aggregated result of 25 direct replications (total N = 5,786), all of which followed the same preregistered protocol. In the primary meta-analysis (19 replications, total n = 4,674), participants who were given an opportunity to cheat reported solving 0.11 more matrices if they were given a moral reminder than if they were given a neutral reminder (95% confidence interval = [−0.09, 0.31]). This small effect was numerically in the opposite direction of the effect observed in the original study (Cohen’s d = −0.04).

  • 29.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Paul, Slovic
    Decision Research Eugene, OR, USA.
    Burns, William
    Decision Research Eugene, OR, USA.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Arithmetic of Emotion: Integration of Incidental and Integral Affect in Judgments and Decisions2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, p. 325-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has demonstrated that two types of affect have an influence on judgment and decision making: incidental affect (affect unrelated to a judgment or decision such as a mood) and integral affect (affect that is part of the perceiver’s internal representation of the option or target under consideration). So far, these two lines of research have seldom crossed so that knowledge concerning their combined effects is largely missing. To fill this gap, the present review highlights differences and similarities between integral and incidental affect. Further, common and unique mechanisms that enable these two types of affect to influence judgment and choices are identified. Finally, some basic principles for affect integration when the two sources co-occur are outlined. These mechanisms are discussed in relation to existing work that has focused on incidental or integral affect but not both.

  • 30.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Peters, Ellen
    Ohio State University, OH 43210 USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, OR USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: Domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 527-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits.

  • 31.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, OR USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Mayorga, Marcus
    Decis Research, OR USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Pseudoinefficacy: negative feelings from children who cannot be helped reduce warm glow for children who can be helped2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a great many situations where we are asked to aid persons whose lives are endangered, we are not able to help everyone. What are the emotional and motivational consequences of not helping all? In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that negative affect arising from children that could not be helped decreases the warm glow of positive feeling associated with aiding the children who can be helped. This demotivation from the children outside of our reach may be a form of pseudoinefficacy that is non-rational. We should not be deterred from helping whomever we can because there are others we are not able to help.

  • 32.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Mayorga, Marcus
    Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Peters, Ellen
    Ohio State University, Columbus, USA .
    Compassion Fade: Affect and Charity Are Greatest for a Single Child in Need2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e0100115-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Charitable giving in 2013 exceeded $300 billion, but why do we respond to some life-saving causes while ignoring others? In our first two studies, we demonstrated that valuation of lives is associated with affective feelings (self-reported and psychophysiological) and that a decline in compassion may begin with the second endangered life. In Study 3, this fading of compassion was reversed by describing multiple lives in a more unitary fashion. Study 4 extended our findings to loss-frame scenarios. Our capacity to feel sympathy for people in need appears limited, and this form of compassion fatigue can lead to apathy and inaction, consistent with what is seen repeatedly in response to many large-scale human and environmental catastrophes.

  • 33.
    Wiss, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Res, Honolulu, HI USA; Univ Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The influence of identifiability and singularity in moral decision making2015In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 492-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased willingness to help identified individuals rather than non-identified, and the effect of identifiability is mainly present when a single individual rather than a group is presented. However, identifiability and singularity effects have thus far not been manipulated orthogonally. The present research uses a joint evaluation approach to examine the relative contribution of identifiability and singularity in moral decision-making reflecting conflicting values between deontology and consequentialism. As in trolley dilemmas subjects could either choose to stay with the default option, i.e., giving a potentially life-saving vaccine to a single child, or to actively choose to deny the single child the vaccine in favor of five other children. Identifiability of the single child and the group of children was varied between-subjects in a 2x2 factorial design. In total 1,232 subjects from Sweden and the United States participated in three separate experiments. Across all treatments, in all three experiments, 32.6% of the subjects chose to stay with the deontological default option instead of actively choosing to maximize benefits. Results show that identifiability does not always have a positive effect on decisions in allocation dilemmas. For single targets, identifiability had a negative or no effect in two out of three experiments, while for the group of targets identifiability had a more stable positive effect on subjects’ willingness to allocate vaccines. When the effect of identifiability was negative, process data showed that this effect was mediated by emotional reactance. Hence, the results show that the influence of identifiability is more complex than it has been previously portrayed in the literature on charitable giving. 

1 - 33 of 33
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf