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  • 1.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the thesis was to investigate the impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments and without speech. The objectives were to develop and pilot a gaze-based assistive technology intervention (GAT intervention) at home and in school for these children and to understand its impact on daily activities as experienced by their parents.

    Methods: Study I was a pilot study in which the basic components that were developed for the intervention were evaluated for students with physical impairments. The study aimed at improving the use of computers as assistive technology (AT) in school. Based on the findings in Study I, the GAT intervention was developed. The GAT intervention aimed at implementing gaze-based AT in daily activities. It consisted of two parts; having access to gaze-based AT and having access to services from a multi professional communication team during nine to ten months. Studies II-IV concerned gazebased AT for children with severe physical impairments without speech who participated in the GAT intervention. The participants were ten children (ages 1-15) (Studies II, III), and their parents (Study IV). Studies II and III had longitudinal designs and children were followed during 15-20 months with repeated measurements before, after and at follow-up. In Study II children’s repertoire of computer activities, extent of use, and goal attainment with gaze-based AT was evaluated, as well as parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services. In Study III children’s eye gaze performance when using gaze-based AT was examined. In Study IV, parents were interviewed twice with the aim of  exploring their experiences of children’s gaze-based AT use in daily life. In Study IV a hermeneutical approach was used.

    Results: The findings of Study I showed that the basic components of intervention improved the use of computers in school. Study II showed an increased repertoire of computer activities with the gazebased AT, maintained use in daily activities for all at follow up, and that all children attained goals for gaze-based AT use in daily activities. Parents were satisfied with the gaze-based AT, and with the services in the GAT intervention. In study III, nine children improved in eye gaze performance over time when using the gaze-based AT in daily activities. Study IV revealed that children’s gaze-based AT usage in daily activities made a difference to parents since the children demonstrated agency, and showed their personality and competencies by using gaze-based AT, and for the parents this opened up infinite possibilities for the child to do and learn things. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT usage provided parents with hope of a future in which their children could develop and have influence in life.

    Conclusions: This thesis shows that these children with severe physical impairments and without speech acquired sufficient gaze control skills to use gaze-based AT for daily activities in the home and at school. The gaze-based AT had a positive impact on performing activities, for example, play activities and communication- and interaction-related activities. For the parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage made a difference since it shaped a hope of a better future for their children, where they can develop and gain influence in their future life. Furthermore, the children continued to perform daily activities with gaze-based AT over time. This finding suggests that key persons were provided with sufficient knowledge and skills to support children in maintained use of gaze-based AT after withdrawal of the services provided in the GAT intervention.

    List of papers
    1. Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: A pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: A pilot study
    2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year. Methods: Fifteen students (aged 12-18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up. Results: The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem. Discussion: The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa Healthcare, 2013
    Keywords
    Assistive technology, children with disabilities, goal setting, intervention, self-help devices
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102984 (URN)10.3109/11038128.2013.837506 (DOI)000328280300008 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council||Swedish Institute of Assistive Technology||Norrbacka-Eugeniastiftelsen||

    Available from: 2014-01-09 Created: 2014-01-09 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 129-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents’ satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention.

    Methods: Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1–15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9–10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities.

    Results: Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services was high.

    Discussion: The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2017
    Keywords
    Cerebral palsy, computer activities, eye-tracking technology, goal achievement, self-help devices
    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health Occupational Therapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123300 (URN)10.3109/17518423.2015.1132281 (DOI)000399489800003 ()26930111 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies|Swedish Research Council; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript.

    Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

    Keywords
    assistive devices, computer access, physical disability
    National Category
    Pediatrics Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123301 (URN)10.1080/10400435.2015.1092182 (DOI)000376031400004 ()26496529 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond

    Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-03-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments: parents’ experiences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments: parents’ experiences
    2017 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and explore parents’ experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents’ experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The results demonstrate that for parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show  personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT provides hope to parents for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. In conclusion, gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children’s future.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2017
    Keywords
    Activities in daily life, cerebral palsy, eye tracking controlled system, self-help devices, parental hope, qualitative
    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health Occupational Therapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123302 (URN)10.1080/17518423.2016.1211769 (DOI)000406527400008 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond

    Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Curtin University, Australia .
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: A pilot study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year. Methods: Fifteen students (aged 12-18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up. Results: The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem. Discussion: The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.

  • 3.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Change in eye controlled performance over time with an eye tracker controlled system, used by children with severe physical disabilities2013In: Assistive Technology: From Research to Practice, IOS Press, 2013, Vol. 33, p. 473-477Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe how speed and accuracy in eye controlled computer performance changed over time for children with severe physical disabilities that used eye tracker controlled system (ETCS) in daily activities as an effect of assistive technology (AT) intervention. Data was collected with diaries and with Compass software. The preliminary results from this study from the first four children indicate that two children improved significantly in eye controlled performance up to 19 months since start of ETCS usage in daily activities.

  • 4.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dator i skolarbetet: För elever med funktionsnedsättning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever med rörelsehinder kan ha stor nytta av dator i skolarbetet, när datorn är integrerad i skolarbetet och får fungera som ett kompensatoriskt hjälpmedel för eleven. En del elever med rörelsehinder anser att de inte får möjlighet att använda dator i skolarbetet i den utsträckning de behöver. Den här skriften handlar om de eleverna.

    Bakgrunden är ett projekt som pågick läsåret 2008 - 2009. Den övergripande målsättningen var att öka möjligheterna för elever med rörelsehinder att använda dator på det sätt de önskar. Projektet utgick från elevernas önskemål och deras behov stod i centrum. Samarbetet mellan elev och lärare var en annan viktig utgångspunkt för projektets genomförande. I projektet deltog en grupp elever med rörelsehinder som huvudsakligen gick på högstadiet och gymnasiet.

    Projektet började med att 15 elever som önskade delta valde en lärare på sin skola som de ville skulle delta tillsammans med dem. Därefter erbjöds lärarna tillsammans med elevernas assistenter en kursdag om datorns möjligheter i skolarbetet. Kursdagen genomfördes i samarbete med Specialpedagogiska skolmyndigheten (SPSM). Efter kursdagen genomfördes planeringsmöten för varje elev. Mål formulerades för hur datorn skulle användas i skolarbetet. Efter två och fyra månader utvärderade eleverna sina mål.

    Innan projektstart ansåg en majoritet av lärarna att de inte fått tillräckligt med kompetensutveckling kring den aktuella eleven. Lärarna behövde stöd för att utnyttja datorn på bästa sätt för eleverna. De ansåg att datorn var ett viktigt pedagogiskt verktyg för eleven.

    Resultatet/utvärderingen visade att en majoritet av de uppsatta målen var uppfyllda vid elevernas utvärderingar och eleverna med uppfyllda mål tyckte att målen hade underlättat skolarbetet. Eleverna upplevde sig mindre beroende av andra när de använde dator. Samtidigt upplevde de sig mindre kompetenta efter projektets insatser jämfört med vid projektstart. Lärarna var överlag positiva till att sätta mål och nästan alla lärare ansåg att målformulering är en bra metod. De ansåg att målen underlättade skolarbetet för eleverna och kunde bidra till att eleven upptäcker nyttan med dator. Samtidigt ansåg lärarna att de saknade kunskap för att sätta mål själva och att de behövde stöd utifrån för att uppnå målen. De flesta lärarna kunde tänka sig att använda arbetssättet igen till andra elever som komplement till andra åtgärder.

    Med den här skriften vill vi försöka ge inspiration till lärare när det gäller datorns möjligheter för elever med funktionsnedsättning. Vi vill också visa på olika samarbetspartner som lärare kan ta hjälp av. Slutligen vill vi visa hur arbetet kan formaliseras och utvärderas genom att sätta mål. Skriften består av två delar, i första delen beskrivs projektets resultat och i andra delen beskrivs arbetssättet, som vi valt att kalla för Inspiration – Samarbete – Mål.

    Vår slutsats är att det beskrivna arbetssättet kan ge elever bättre möjligheter att använda dator i skolarbetet och att både elev och lärare behöver stöd för att lyckas. Det blev tydligt i projektet att eleverna var beroende av lärarnas engagemang i genomförandet av målen. Det blev också tydligt att lärare kan behöva stöd av andra med kunskap om elevens funktionsnedsättning och alternativa verktyg för att sätta mål. Arbetssättet kan behöva utvärderas för fler elever.

  • 5.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Benefits of Gaze-Based Assistive Technology in Daily Activities for Children with Disabilities2017In: Harnessing the Power of Technology to Improve Lives / [ed] Cudd P.,de Witte L., IOS Press, 2017, Vol. 242, p. 1082-1088Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports research findings on how gaze-based assistive technology contributed to performance of daily activities for a group of children with severe physical impairments and without speech.

  • 6.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rytterström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments: parents’ experiences2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and explore parents’ experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents’ experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The results demonstrate that for parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show  personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT provides hope to parents for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. In conclusion, gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children’s future.

  • 7.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 129-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents’ satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention.

    Methods: Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1–15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9–10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities.

    Results: Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services was high.

    Discussion: The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.

  • 8.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia / School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study2016In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 9.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gaze-Based Assistive Technology - Use in Everyday Life for Individuals with Impairments2017In: Harnessing the Power of Technology to Improve Lives / [ed] Cudd P.,de Witte L., IOS Press, 2017, Vol. 242, p. 1079-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This session focuses on the latest developments of gaze-based assistive technology (AT) and the impact of gaze-based AT interventions in the home and at school. In particular, for play, communication, assessments and early intervention. The discussion focuses on how research findings can advance future developments.

  • 10.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gaze-Based Assistive Technology for a Toddler with Tetraplegia and Without Speech2017In: Harnessing the Power of Technology to Improve Lives / [ed] Cudd P.,de Witte L., 2017, Vol. 242, p. 1109-1112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study exploring gaze-based AT as early intervention, for a ten-month-old non-verbal child with severe physical impairments. Data was collected repeatedly over time through questionnaires, videos clips, and field observations until the child was three years old.

  • 11.
    Rytterström, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Teachers’ experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers for pupils with severe motor impairments and without speech2016In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 506-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore teachers’ experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers with pupils with severe disabilities. Technology to control a computer with eye gaze is a fast growing field and has promising implications for people with severe disabilities. This is a new assistive technology and a new learning situation for teachers. Using a reflective lifeworld approach, 11 teachers were interviewed twice. The essence of the phenomenon of teaching pupils who use an eye gaze-controlled computer is to understand what the pupil does with the computer and relate this to what the pupil wants to express through the computer. The pupils have emotions, wishes and knowledge that are trapped in their own bodies. The eye gaze computer creates opportunities to get a glimpse of these thoughts to others, and creates hope concerning the pupil’s future possibilities. The teacher’s responsibility to try to understand what is inside the pupil’s trapped body is a motivating factor to integrate the computer in everyday classroom activities. The results give directions for teaching and for implementation of eye gaze computers in the school system, and also suggest improvements that could be made to computers.

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