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  • 1.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the thesis was to investigate the impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments and without speech. The objectives were to develop and pilot a gaze-based assistive technology intervention (GAT intervention) at home and in school for these children and to understand its impact on daily activities as experienced by their parents.

    Methods: Study I was a pilot study in which the basic components that were developed for the intervention were evaluated for students with physical impairments. The study aimed at improving the use of computers as assistive technology (AT) in school. Based on the findings in Study I, the GAT intervention was developed. The GAT intervention aimed at implementing gaze-based AT in daily activities. It consisted of two parts; having access to gaze-based AT and having access to services from a multi professional communication team during nine to ten months. Studies II-IV concerned gazebased AT for children with severe physical impairments without speech who participated in the GAT intervention. The participants were ten children (ages 1-15) (Studies II, III), and their parents (Study IV). Studies II and III had longitudinal designs and children were followed during 15-20 months with repeated measurements before, after and at follow-up. In Study II children’s repertoire of computer activities, extent of use, and goal attainment with gaze-based AT was evaluated, as well as parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services. In Study III children’s eye gaze performance when using gaze-based AT was examined. In Study IV, parents were interviewed twice with the aim of  exploring their experiences of children’s gaze-based AT use in daily life. In Study IV a hermeneutical approach was used.

    Results: The findings of Study I showed that the basic components of intervention improved the use of computers in school. Study II showed an increased repertoire of computer activities with the gazebased AT, maintained use in daily activities for all at follow up, and that all children attained goals for gaze-based AT use in daily activities. Parents were satisfied with the gaze-based AT, and with the services in the GAT intervention. In study III, nine children improved in eye gaze performance over time when using the gaze-based AT in daily activities. Study IV revealed that children’s gaze-based AT usage in daily activities made a difference to parents since the children demonstrated agency, and showed their personality and competencies by using gaze-based AT, and for the parents this opened up infinite possibilities for the child to do and learn things. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT usage provided parents with hope of a future in which their children could develop and have influence in life.

    Conclusions: This thesis shows that these children with severe physical impairments and without speech acquired sufficient gaze control skills to use gaze-based AT for daily activities in the home and at school. The gaze-based AT had a positive impact on performing activities, for example, play activities and communication- and interaction-related activities. For the parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage made a difference since it shaped a hope of a better future for their children, where they can develop and gain influence in their future life. Furthermore, the children continued to perform daily activities with gaze-based AT over time. This finding suggests that key persons were provided with sufficient knowledge and skills to support children in maintained use of gaze-based AT after withdrawal of the services provided in the GAT intervention.

    Delarbeten
    1. Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: A pilot study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: A pilot study
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 463-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year. Methods: Fifteen students (aged 12-18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up. Results: The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem. Discussion: The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Informa Healthcare, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Assistive technology, children with disabilities, goal setting, intervention, self-help devices
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102984 (URN)10.3109/11038128.2013.837506 (DOI)000328280300008 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council||Swedish Institute of Assistive Technology||Norrbacka-Eugeniastiftelsen||

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-01-09 Skapad: 2014-01-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06
    2. Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 129-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents’ satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention.

    Methods: Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1–15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9–10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities.

    Results: Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services was high.

    Discussion: The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Cerebral palsy, computer activities, eye-tracking technology, goal achievement, self-help devices
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Arbetsmedicin och miljömedicin Arbetsterapi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123300 (URN)10.3109/17518423.2015.1132281 (DOI)000399489800003 ()26930111 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies|Swedish Research Council; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript.

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-10 Skapad: 2015-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 93-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

    Nyckelord
    assistive devices, computer access, physical disability
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Pediatrik Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123301 (URN)10.1080/10400435.2015.1092182 (DOI)000376031400004 ()26496529 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-10 Skapad: 2015-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments: parents’ experiences
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments: parents’ experiences
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 301-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and explore parents’ experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents’ experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The results demonstrate that for parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show  personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT provides hope to parents for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. In conclusion, gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children’s future.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Activities in daily life, cerebral palsy, eye tracking controlled system, self-help devices, parental hope, qualitative
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Arbetsmedicin och miljömedicin Arbetsterapi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123302 (URN)10.1080/17518423.2016.1211769 (DOI)000406527400008 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-10 Skapad: 2015-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 2.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Curtin University, Australia .
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: A pilot study2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 463-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year. Methods: Fifteen students (aged 12-18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up. Results: The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem. Discussion: The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.

  • 3.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Change in eye controlled performance over time with an eye tracker controlled system, used by children with severe physical disabilities2013Ingår i: Assistive Technology: From Research to Practice, IOS Press, 2013, Vol. 33, s. 473-477Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe how speed and accuracy in eye controlled computer performance changed over time for children with severe physical disabilities that used eye tracker controlled system (ETCS) in daily activities as an effect of assistive technology (AT) intervention. Data was collected with diaries and with Compass software. The preliminary results from this study from the first four children indicate that two children improved significantly in eye controlled performance up to 19 months since start of ETCS usage in daily activities.

  • 4.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Dator i skolarbetet: För elever med funktionsnedsättning2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever med rörelsehinder kan ha stor nytta av dator i skolarbetet, när datorn är integrerad i skolarbetet och får fungera som ett kompensatoriskt hjälpmedel för eleven. En del elever med rörelsehinder anser att de inte får möjlighet att använda dator i skolarbetet i den utsträckning de behöver. Den här skriften handlar om de eleverna.

    Bakgrunden är ett projekt som pågick läsåret 2008 - 2009. Den övergripande målsättningen var att öka möjligheterna för elever med rörelsehinder att använda dator på det sätt de önskar. Projektet utgick från elevernas önskemål och deras behov stod i centrum. Samarbetet mellan elev och lärare var en annan viktig utgångspunkt för projektets genomförande. I projektet deltog en grupp elever med rörelsehinder som huvudsakligen gick på högstadiet och gymnasiet.

    Projektet började med att 15 elever som önskade delta valde en lärare på sin skola som de ville skulle delta tillsammans med dem. Därefter erbjöds lärarna tillsammans med elevernas assistenter en kursdag om datorns möjligheter i skolarbetet. Kursdagen genomfördes i samarbete med Specialpedagogiska skolmyndigheten (SPSM). Efter kursdagen genomfördes planeringsmöten för varje elev. Mål formulerades för hur datorn skulle användas i skolarbetet. Efter två och fyra månader utvärderade eleverna sina mål.

    Innan projektstart ansåg en majoritet av lärarna att de inte fått tillräckligt med kompetensutveckling kring den aktuella eleven. Lärarna behövde stöd för att utnyttja datorn på bästa sätt för eleverna. De ansåg att datorn var ett viktigt pedagogiskt verktyg för eleven.

    Resultatet/utvärderingen visade att en majoritet av de uppsatta målen var uppfyllda vid elevernas utvärderingar och eleverna med uppfyllda mål tyckte att målen hade underlättat skolarbetet. Eleverna upplevde sig mindre beroende av andra när de använde dator. Samtidigt upplevde de sig mindre kompetenta efter projektets insatser jämfört med vid projektstart. Lärarna var överlag positiva till att sätta mål och nästan alla lärare ansåg att målformulering är en bra metod. De ansåg att målen underlättade skolarbetet för eleverna och kunde bidra till att eleven upptäcker nyttan med dator. Samtidigt ansåg lärarna att de saknade kunskap för att sätta mål själva och att de behövde stöd utifrån för att uppnå målen. De flesta lärarna kunde tänka sig att använda arbetssättet igen till andra elever som komplement till andra åtgärder.

    Med den här skriften vill vi försöka ge inspiration till lärare när det gäller datorns möjligheter för elever med funktionsnedsättning. Vi vill också visa på olika samarbetspartner som lärare kan ta hjälp av. Slutligen vill vi visa hur arbetet kan formaliseras och utvärderas genom att sätta mål. Skriften består av två delar, i första delen beskrivs projektets resultat och i andra delen beskrivs arbetssättet, som vi valt att kalla för Inspiration – Samarbete – Mål.

    Vår slutsats är att det beskrivna arbetssättet kan ge elever bättre möjligheter att använda dator i skolarbetet och att både elev och lärare behöver stöd för att lyckas. Det blev tydligt i projektet att eleverna var beroende av lärarnas engagemang i genomförandet av målen. Det blev också tydligt att lärare kan behöva stöd av andra med kunskap om elevens funktionsnedsättning och alternativa verktyg för att sätta mål. Arbetssättet kan behöva utvärderas för fler elever.

  • 5.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The Benefits of Gaze-Based Assistive Technology in Daily Activities for Children with Disabilities2017Ingår i: Harnessing the Power of Technology to Improve Lives / [ed] Cudd P.,de Witte L., IOS Press, 2017, Vol. 242, s. 1082-1088Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports research findings on how gaze-based assistive technology contributed to performance of daily activities for a group of children with severe physical impairments and without speech.

  • 6.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rytterström, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments: parents’ experiences2017Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 301-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and explore parents’ experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents’ experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The results demonstrate that for parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show  personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT provides hope to parents for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. In conclusion, gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children’s future.

  • 7.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi.
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi.
    Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study2017Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 129-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents’ satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention.

    Methods: Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1–15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9–10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities.

    Results: Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services was high.

    Discussion: The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.

  • 8.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia / School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study2016Ingår i: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 93-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 9.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gaze-Based Assistive Technology - Use in Everyday Life for Individuals with Impairments2017Ingår i: Harnessing the Power of Technology to Improve Lives / [ed] Cudd P.,de Witte L., IOS Press, 2017, Vol. 242, s. 1079-1081Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This session focuses on the latest developments of gaze-based assistive technology (AT) and the impact of gaze-based AT interventions in the home and at school. In particular, for play, communication, assessments and early intervention. The discussion focuses on how research findings can advance future developments.

  • 10.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gaze-Based Assistive Technology for a Toddler with Tetraplegia and Without Speech2017Ingår i: Harnessing the Power of Technology to Improve Lives / [ed] Cudd P.,de Witte L., 2017, Vol. 242, s. 1109-1112Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study exploring gaze-based AT as early intervention, for a ten-month-old non-verbal child with severe physical impairments. Data was collected repeatedly over time through questionnaires, videos clips, and field observations until the child was three years old.

  • 11.
    Rytterström, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Teachers’ experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers for pupils with severe motor impairments and without speech2016Ingår i: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 506-519Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore teachers’ experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers with pupils with severe disabilities. Technology to control a computer with eye gaze is a fast growing field and has promising implications for people with severe disabilities. This is a new assistive technology and a new learning situation for teachers. Using a reflective lifeworld approach, 11 teachers were interviewed twice. The essence of the phenomenon of teaching pupils who use an eye gaze-controlled computer is to understand what the pupil does with the computer and relate this to what the pupil wants to express through the computer. The pupils have emotions, wishes and knowledge that are trapped in their own bodies. The eye gaze computer creates opportunities to get a glimpse of these thoughts to others, and creates hope concerning the pupil’s future possibilities. The teacher’s responsibility to try to understand what is inside the pupil’s trapped body is a motivating factor to integrate the computer in everyday classroom activities. The results give directions for teaching and for implementation of eye gaze computers in the school system, and also suggest improvements that could be made to computers.

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