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  • 1.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Efficient improvement of energy efficiency in small and medium- sized Swedish firms2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a dissertation about efficient implementation of energy efficiency measures in small and medium-sized Swedish firms. The aim is to investigate the potential for economically efficient implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures in small and medium-sized firms. The thesis contains five papers that analyse different aspects that have been put forth in policy documents and academic debate as  methods to improve energy efficiency in non-energy intensive sectors.

    By reading policy documents, interviewing representatives of small and medium- sized firms and energy auditors as well as analysing data from the Swedish energy audit program, different aspects of energy management practices, energy services and energy audits are considered. The thesis is the product of an interdisciplinary context but economic theory is at the foundation of the analysis and has helped formulate questions and hypotheses that have been tested and explored with the data.

    The results show that while the potential for improving energy efficiency in the small and medium- sized sector in Sweden is large there are challenges to realizing it in each individual firm. There is potential for improving energy efficiency in the sector and not just for investments in new technology but also for adjusting existing machinery and changing behaviour, but costs for investigating the potential and implementing the measures are large relative to the improvement potential in each company. Energy management practices in this sector are lacking and energy services will only be demanded if reduction in production cost is estimated larger than transaction costs of the service. The Swedish energy audit program has led to the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in the participating firms but compared to other policy instruments it has been a less cost-efficient way to improve energy efficiency in Sweden.

    Delarbeid
    1. Extending the Energy efficiency gap
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Extending the Energy efficiency gap
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, s. 392-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2012
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86546 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.042 (DOI)000312620000042 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-12-18 Laget: 2012-12-18 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. The energy service gap: What does it mean?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The energy service gap: What does it mean?
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: ECEEE 2011 Summer Study; Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society: Conference proceedings, Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, s. 649-656Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the formulation of the 2020-targets, the EU has set as objective to reduce the use of primary energy with 20 % by2020. The target is supposed to be reached through increasedenergy efficiency. Despite a large potential for energy efficiency, cost effective measures are not always implemented which isexplained by market failures and barriers to energy efficiency. This difference between potential energy-efficiency and what is actually implemented, is referred to as the energy-efficiencygap.

    Energy service companies (ESCOs) have been put forth asa potential means of overcoming this gap to energy-efficiency.Well-functioning markets for ESCOs are therefore addressedas one of the key elements in the Energy Services Directive(ESD), a tool for the economy to move towards increased energy efficiency and sustainability. In other words, the developmentof the energy service market is of crucial importance if a Member State is to achieve the ambitious 2020-target.

    The aim of this article is to analyse the market for energyservices towards industrial small- and medium sized Enterprises(SMEs). Focus will be on the Swedish market, howevergeneral conclusions may be drawn from this example. A large part of the potential for energy services is not being implemented today - this is identified as the energy-service gap. The gap is explained by transaction cost economics; relatively hightransaction costs for consulting ESCOs inhibit further marketdevelopment. The ESCO market in Sweden is estimated, by the Swedish state, to still be immature but have potential forfurther development. A government report does not identify the market barriers on the energy service market as market failures. By introducing market development mechanisms (e.g.standardized contracts and an accreditation system) the state could decrease the transaction and thus the energy service gap. Reducing the energy-service gap could be a cost effective wayof reducing the energy efficiency gap and reach the 2020-target.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011
    Emneord
    Energy efficiency, Energy Service, ESCO, Energy Efficiency Gap
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71759 (URN)978-91-633-4455-8 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    ECEEE 2011 Summer Study Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society, Belambra Presqu’île de Giens, France, 6–11 June 2011
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-11-10 Laget: 2011-11-03 Sist oppdatert: 2014-11-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, s. 54-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112267 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2014.12.068 (DOI)000351788700005 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-11-20 Laget: 2014-11-20 Sist oppdatert: 2015-05-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
    2014 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112268 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-11-20 Laget: 2014-11-20 Sist oppdatert: 2015-01-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 511-521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services have been highlighted both in European Union directives and in academic literature as an important tool to increase energy efficiency. Performance-based energy services, i.e., outsourcing energy management in performance-based remuneration contracts, is said to overcome many of the barriers that have been used to explain the energy efficiency gap. Energy service companies (ESCOs) help organizations to implement energy-efficient solutions in order to reduce energy costs. By combining science and technology studies (STS) analysis and economics in an interview study of firms, the paper contributes insights on the relational nature of energy service collaborations. The objective of the study is to describe how knowledge and incentives affect trust between partners in performance-remunerated energy service collaborations. Performance-based remuneration is one aspect that makes energy service contracts complex. On the one hand, risk is recognized as an important barrier to energy efficiency. Since remuneration to ESCOs is based on energy savings, they also share the financial and technical project risk with their clients. On the other hand, performance-based remuneration can create a lack of trust. Performance is measured in calculations made by the ESCO, calculations that demand expertise that client firms do not possess. ESCOs are consulted for their knowledge on energy efficiency and therefore an imbalance of knowledge is in the nature of energy service collaborations. The paper concludes that if the initial doubt is overcome, long-term collaborations can be advantageous for both parties, since this builds trust and generates long-term profits.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer Netherlands, 2013
    Emneord
    ESCO, Energy services, Barriers to energy efficiency, Energy efficiency, Trust
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87148 (URN)10.1007/s12053-012-9189-z (DOI)000321437000006 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-01-10 Laget: 2013-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-11
  • 2.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms2012Inngår i: : European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy – now introduces a new series of events, focusing on, Papendal Hotel and Conference Centre, Arnhem, The Netherlands 11–14 September 2012, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments in energy efficient technologies. This paper investigates to what extent energy management practices influence firms estimation of energy efficiency potentials. Further it investigates two Swedish policy programs that promote industrial energy management practices: The Programme For improving Energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (PFE) and the energy audit program and whether these have increased energy management practices in Swedish firms. A multiple case study has been conducted in order to investigate energy practices in firms in different industrial sectors. Employment of energy management varies between firms. The firms estimate equal energy efficiency potentials from implementation of energy efficient technology as for energy management practices. In total the firms estimate energy efficiency potentials of 12 %. The study shows that firms that have participated in the programs work more actively with energy management. This can be illustrated by the fact that 75 % of the firms that have not participated in any of the programs lack a person responsible for energy management and 50 % also lack a long term energy strategy. For firms that have participated in the programs the corresponding figures are 30 % and 33 %. The results indicate an untapped potential of energy efficiency measures that could be reached through increased energy management in Swedish industries.

  • 3.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust2013Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 511-521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services have been highlighted both in European Union directives and in academic literature as an important tool to increase energy efficiency. Performance-based energy services, i.e., outsourcing energy management in performance-based remuneration contracts, is said to overcome many of the barriers that have been used to explain the energy efficiency gap. Energy service companies (ESCOs) help organizations to implement energy-efficient solutions in order to reduce energy costs. By combining science and technology studies (STS) analysis and economics in an interview study of firms, the paper contributes insights on the relational nature of energy service collaborations. The objective of the study is to describe how knowledge and incentives affect trust between partners in performance-remunerated energy service collaborations. Performance-based remuneration is one aspect that makes energy service contracts complex. On the one hand, risk is recognized as an important barrier to energy efficiency. Since remuneration to ESCOs is based on energy savings, they also share the financial and technical project risk with their clients. On the other hand, performance-based remuneration can create a lack of trust. Performance is measured in calculations made by the ESCO, calculations that demand expertise that client firms do not possess. ESCOs are consulted for their knowledge on energy efficiency and therefore an imbalance of knowledge is in the nature of energy service collaborations. The paper concludes that if the initial doubt is overcome, long-term collaborations can be advantageous for both parties, since this builds trust and generates long-term profits.

  • 4.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Energy services in Swedish industrial firms: A multidisciplinary analysis of an emerging market2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The European commission highlight the energy service market as an important means to improve energy efficiency. Both the Energy service directive and the new suggested Energy Efficiency Directive urge member states to facilitate market development for energy services. The industrial sector is estimated to have large energy efficiency potential. The aim of this multidisciplinary report is to investigate the state of the Swedish energy service market 2011, both from the supply side and from the industrial demand side in order to contribute with knowledge to the discussion of energy services as a way to improve industrial energy efficiency. Economic market theory and Socio-technical theory (the theory of economization presented by Caliskan and Callon) is used to analyse different aspects of the emerging market. The results show that the market for industrial energy services in Sweden is more extensive than previous reports have assessed. Our study describes how energy service collaborations can be complex and how calculations and measurements of expected energy savings lead to controversies and power imbalances.

  • 5.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms2014Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

  • 6.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program2015Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, s. 54-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

  • 7.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The energy service gap: What does it mean?2011Inngår i: ECEEE 2011 Summer Study; Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society: Conference proceedings, Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, s. 649-656Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the formulation of the 2020-targets, the EU has set as objective to reduce the use of primary energy with 20 % by2020. The target is supposed to be reached through increasedenergy efficiency. Despite a large potential for energy efficiency, cost effective measures are not always implemented which isexplained by market failures and barriers to energy efficiency. This difference between potential energy-efficiency and what is actually implemented, is referred to as the energy-efficiencygap.

    Energy service companies (ESCOs) have been put forth asa potential means of overcoming this gap to energy-efficiency.Well-functioning markets for ESCOs are therefore addressedas one of the key elements in the Energy Services Directive(ESD), a tool for the economy to move towards increased energy efficiency and sustainability. In other words, the developmentof the energy service market is of crucial importance if a Member State is to achieve the ambitious 2020-target.

    The aim of this article is to analyse the market for energyservices towards industrial small- and medium sized Enterprises(SMEs). Focus will be on the Swedish market, howevergeneral conclusions may be drawn from this example. A large part of the potential for energy services is not being implemented today - this is identified as the energy-service gap. The gap is explained by transaction cost economics; relatively hightransaction costs for consulting ESCOs inhibit further marketdevelopment. The ESCO market in Sweden is estimated, by the Swedish state, to still be immature but have potential forfurther development. A government report does not identify the market barriers on the energy service market as market failures. By introducing market development mechanisms (e.g.standardized contracts and an accreditation system) the state could decrease the transaction and thus the energy service gap. Reducing the energy-service gap could be a cost effective wayof reducing the energy efficiency gap and reach the 2020-target.

  • 8.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Extending the Energy efficiency gap2012Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, s. 392-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.

  • 9.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems2014Inngår i: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily from the use of fossil fuels, is demanding actions from all sectors of society. The industry sector is one of the world’s largest energy using sectors and GHG emitters. Improved energy efficiency in industry is one of the foremost means of improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Research shows that despite large untapped potentials for improved energy efficiency in industry, cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency, e.g. information imperfections and asymmetries. Moreover, research shows that a major energy efficiency potential lies in the energy system and the way it is governed. For regional governments, the industrial energy use is difficult to affect as they only have indirect power to influence the decisions in those organizations. This underlies the importance of developing methods on how a region can support and effectively contribute to energy efficiency improvements in the local industry. So far, methods are limited related to regional governance of industrial energy systems. The aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology for improved regional resource efficiency in the local industry from a regional perspective, inspired by the Triple Helix Model. Results display the county administrative board of administration’s current method how to target industry, and ends with a proposal for how the methods could be improved.

  • 10.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot2012Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, s. 332-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using industrial excess heat in District Heating (DH) networks reduces the need for primary energy and is considered efficient resource use. The conditions of Swedish DH markets are under political discussion in the Third Party Access (TPA) proposal, which would facilitate the delivery of firms' industrial excess heat to DH networks. This paper estimates and discusses the untapped potential for excess heat deliveries to DH networks and considers whether the realization of this potential would be affected by altered DH market conditions. The results identify untapped potential for industrial excess heat deliveries, and calculations based on estimated investment costs and revenues indicate that realizing the TPA proposal could enable profitable excess heat investments.

  • 11.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Swedish energy networks among industrial SMEs2014Inngår i: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, s. 619-628Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and policy instruments for improved energy efficiency in industry have historically focused on large and energy-intensive companies, perhaps because a large part of the energy use is concentrated therein. However, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for 30 % of Swedish industrial energy use. Research shows that both the relative energy efficiency potential and the cost-effectiveness for implementing energy efficiency improvement measures in industrial SMEs is higher, compared with large and energyintensive companies. A significant difference between large companies and SMEs is their management capability, i.e. the difference between how energy is governed in-house companies. One way to approach SMEs is through energy efficiency networks, where 10–15 companies work together to improve energy efficiency. The networks are driven in turn by an external actor. The model has been successfully used in 70 networks in Switzerland and more than 50 in Germany, and is now emerging as a means to improve energy efficiency in Swedish industrial SMEs as well. While energy audit programs, nationally and internationally, is a thoroughly researched subject with developed methods, etc., this is not the case with networks, and in particular the Swedish networks. The aim of this paper is to study the current Swedish energy network activity in industrial SMEs. Results show that a large potential for improvement still exists in these networks, i.e. methods and tools used are still to be developed, as well as a more structured methodology on how the network are to be managed. Including experience from other country’s networks could contribute further to more effective Swedish industrial SME energy networks.

  • 12.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden2013Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 111, s. 636-643Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field.

  • 13.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zubizarreta Jiménez, Rogelio
    Morales, Inés
    Kimura, Osamu
    Cornelis, Erwin
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The design and structure of effective energy end-use policies and programs towards industrial SMEs2014Inngår i: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of climate change due to, in particular anthropogenic emissions of CO2 is driving decision-makers to make decisions towards more efficient use of energy. Improved industrial energy efficiency is stated to have a key role in the transition into more carbon-neutral energy systems. In most countries, industrial SMEs represent more than 95 % of the number of companies. Thus, the sector is apart from using energy, a major driver in the Economy in regard to innovations, and GDP growth, investments and export etc. The aim of this paper is to present results of an international study within International Energy Agency Industrial Energy Technologies and Systems) concerning the design and structure of effective energy end-use policies towards industrial SMEs in the countries Belgium, Japan, Spain and Sweden. The major method used was workshops, and literature studies, mainly country-specific reports and documents, mostly written in that countries native language.Results from this paper states that for medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs it is emphasized that Energy Conservation Law/Long-Term Agreements (LTA)/Voluntary Agreement (VA) are strong energy end-use policies followed by energy audit programs, preferably but not necessarily located regionally or locally. Energy networks, preferably locally or regionally anchored, are also policies suggested to be considered for medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs followed by investment subsidies mainly for investments in production-related technologies, benchmarking, and finally sector guidelines.For small-sized and non-energy-intensive industrial SMEs it is emphasized that energy audit program, preferably locally or regionally anchored, followed by energy networks, preferably locally or regionally anchored, are strong energy end-use policies followed investment subsidies, benchmarking, and finally sector guidelines.

  • 14.
    Trianni, Andrea
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Dept. Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering,, Italy.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecnico di Milano, Dept. Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Milan, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Barriers to industrial energy efficiency in foundries: a European comparison2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 40, s. 161-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to recent studies, the 20% European improvement in energy efficiency will not be achieved with current trends, even with the adoption of present policies to reduce primary energy use. This is due to the existence of several barriers that hinder the adoption of the energy-efficient technologies and practices. A relevant contribution to improved energy efficiency could come from the industrial sector, due to its relevance on total energy use. This study therefore addresses barriers within the European foundry industry, a major industrial energy user and a strategic player for the European economy. The research investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at 65 foundries, several of them small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting the critical problems and difficulties by evaluating the socio-technical frameworks against which the barriers have been categorized. Findings show that the greatest perceived barriers are the perception of the lack of resources to be devoted to improving energy efficiency, and the existence of other priorities such as the importance of guaranteeing business continuity. The study has also performed a preliminary analysis of the factors that might affect the perception of barriers. In particular, looking at size, smaller enterprises show a greater perception of the barriers than larger ones, mainly due to several organizational issues, but with effect on behavioural ones, that tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a peripheral issue. The study has also highlighted differences by type of alloy characterizing foundries, taken as proxy of the process complexity. Indeed, enterprises with simpler production processes tend to perceive higher barriers to energy efficiency, showing the need to identify effective means to promote energy efficiency among those enterprises. Moreover, the analysis has pointed out that performing energy audits brings more awareness to the enterprises, highlighting the effective existing difficulties in improving their energy efficiency. This result seems to be relevant since it shows the need for the research to analyze the awareness to energy efficiency in greater depth and develop the most effective policies to increase it at industrial level. Finally when looking at the country in which foundries operate, German enterprises tend to suffer from the barriers far less than the average, whilst a totally different behaviour can be observed for Swedish ones. These preliminary findings open the research to investigate in greater depth the factors leading to a different perception of barriers, and also the domestic policies that have led to those results. Moreover, the study opens to investigate which means, i.e. drivers, might be more effectively exploited at European level to promote industrial energy efficiency.

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