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  • 1.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att läsa Pettson och Findus med teknikglasögon2018In: Teknikdidaktisk forskning för lärare: Bidrag från en forskningsmiljö / [ed] Karin Stolpe, Gunnar Höst och Jonas Hallström, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, p. 51-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel bygger på analyser av det tekniska innehållet i böckerna om Pettson och Findus. Utgångspunkten är att skönlitterära barnböcker kan bidra med viktiga perspektiv på teknik och därför kan ses som betydelsefulla för teknikundervisningen. Genom att skönlitterära berättelser skildrar tekniken i ett sammanhang och individers upplevelser av den, kan de bidra med fördjupning av en mängd olika aspekter av teknik liksom öppna upp för diskussioner om tekniken samt vilken inverkan eller syfte den har eller har haft genom historien. Analyserna visar att teknikens mångskiftande karaktär lyfts fram i berättelserna om Pettson och Findus och exempel på aspekter är: den odödliga tekniken, att det är användaren som bestämmer teknikens funktion samt tekniken som resultat av ”gör-det-självarens” kreativa lösningar.

  • 2.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barnlitteraturens tekniklandskap: En didaktisk vandring från Nils Holgersson till Pettson och Findus2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine, from a didactic perspective, messages conveyed about technology (view of technology) in a selection of Swedish children’s books containing elements of technology education, and to explore how these views of technology relate to nature and futures perspectives. The analysis is based on children’s books by six Swedish authors: Selma Lagerlöf, Otto Witt, Elsa Beskow, Karl-Aage Schwartzkopf, Sven Wernström and Sven Nordqvist. These books contain depictions of technology, but also depict issues and problems relevant in the field of technology education. The study has three analytical perspectives: the identification of technologies represented in the books; interpretation of the views of technology transmitted in the stories in relation to nature and futures perspectives; and identification of shared and divergent themes in the stories. The analysis shows that in general, the books present technology in diverse ways. Various facets of technology appear in the material and these are categorized into six themes: technology as metaphor or analogy; as anthropomorphic; as autonomous; technology as a result of a creative driving force; masculine technology; and technology as enduring. There are also different views of technology and its impact on individuals as well as society. The dominant view of nature in the books is weak anthropocentric and a majority of the stories convey the image of an effective future society in which technology solves human problems. A conclusion is that the technology landscapes in children’s fiction could contribute to broadening technology education. The ambivalent messages in these books reveal technology’s multifaceted nature and its complexity. The messages in children’s literature could also make it possible to problematize the nature of technology in ways that  textbooks seldom can. Children’s fiction could thereby be jumping boards for creative discussions about the nature of technology, and technology’s effects on individuals, society and nature in past and present time.

  • 3.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Critiquing literature: children's literature as a learning tool for critical awareness2017In: Critique in design and technology education / [ed] P John Williams, Kay Stables, Singapore: Springer, 2017, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A starting point for this chapter is that children’s literature can be a source of reflection and can encourage children to think critically about technology. In contrast to many textbooks and non-fiction books, fictional stories reflect the complexities and contradictions inherent in technology and at the same time reveal its less obvious and concealed aspects and messages. By using books with a strong story line, which are of interest to children, technology can be presented as part of the world around them. Children’s literature can thus be seen as a mediator of values and attitudes, which makes it an interesting subject matter for Design and Technology education. This chapter involves an exploration of critical aspects of technology found within a selection of children’s books. The stories originate from different historical and cultural contexts, and the basis for the selection is that it represents a variety of critiques and aspects of technology found in children’s literature. The conclusion of the analysis is that children’s literature can contribute to making technology and the nature of technology more comprehensible and visible to pupils. The ambiguous messages in the books reveal the multifaceted and complex nature of technology and make it possible to problematise it in ways textbooks seldom can. As the stories form the basis for critical discussion about the nature of technology, they could also help to broaden perspectives, thereby acting as a pedagogic tool in fulfilling the aims of Design and Technology education.

  • 4.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Langdon Winner: A Call for a Critical Philosophy of Technology2019In: Reflections on Technology for Educational Practitioners: Philosophers of Technology Inspiring Technology Education / [ed] John R. Dakers, Jonas Hallström and Marc J. de Vries, Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 131-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Otto Witts tekniska sagor. Tekniksyn i det tidiga 1900-talets barnlitteratur2013In: Teknik som kunskapsinnehåll i svensk skola 1842-2010 / [ed] Jonas Hallström, Magnus Hultén, Daniel Lövheim, Hedemora: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, 1, p. 55-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Technology and children’s literature2018In: Handbook of technology education / [ed] Marc J. de Vries, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2018, p. 895-911Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology that mediates our lives today is complex. If we are to understand our modern technological world, technology education needs to place more emphasis on discussions and reflections about technology. A starting point for this chapter is that children’s literature can be understood as a mediator of views and values about technology, which makes it an interesting subject matter for technology education. Children’s fiction places technology in a context and could therefore serve as a pedagogical tool for broadening and expanding technology education. This chapter is an exploration of different views of technology found within a selection of children’s books: an anti-consumeristic view of technology, technology as a servant to humans, a nostalgic view of technology, and technology as a vehicle for adventure. The books are all examples of stories which depict technology itself but also issues and problems relevant to the field of technology education. In general, the books present technology in a diverse way, and the messages in the stories reveal its multifaceted nature. This chapter concludes that fictional stories can make it possible to problematize the nature of technology in ways that textbooks seldom can. Children’s fiction could therefore serve as a platform for open-ended enquiries and dialogues about the nature of technology and the effects of technology on individuals, society, and nature in the past and the present.

  • 7.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Technology Education in a Sámi School: Using Cultural Artefacts as a Learning Tool2019In: PATT 37 Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education Msida, Malta, June 2019 / [ed] Sarah Pulé and Marc J. de Vries, Msida: Department of Technology and Entrepreneurship Education, University of Malta , 2019, p. 25-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the nature of technology education in a Sámi school, in order to identify the potential of indigenous Sámi knowledge for broadening the horizons of technological literacy. This paper presents the findings from the initial analysis of the empirical material. The purpose was to identify which specific artefacts play a central role in technology education in a Sámi school, and how the artefacts are implemented in technology education to convey technological knowledge. The participants (teachers and pupils) were all from the same Sámi School in Northern Sweden. The method employed was participatory observation and empirical material consists of field notes, recorded conversations, photographs and children’s drawings. The findings show that technology education is strongly connected to specific artefacts that are important in Sámi culture. Technology Education is grounded in a holistic view of knowledge and to a large extent integrated with other school subjects. The knowledge system embedded in technology teaching is collective and related to both artefacts and activities. Myths and storytelling are frequently used to contextualise the technological content, and the historical aspect of technology is largely present since connections between older and newer technological solutions are made. Technological knowledge, activities and specific artefacts are not only attributed a practical value, but also given a symbolic value, since a common knowledge base in Technology contributes to strengthening the children’s cultural identity.

  • 8.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Technology Landscapes in Children’s Literature2019In: Explorations in Technology Education Research: Helping Teachers Develop Research Informed Practice / [ed] P. John Williams and David Barlex, Singapore: Springer, 2019, p. 73-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is about technology and children’s literature. The aim of this study was to take a journey through the technology landscapes of a selection of Swedish children’s literature, written during the last century (Axell,C. Technology landscapes in children’s literature. A didactic journey fromNils Holgersson to Pettson and Findus. Dissertation. Linköping University,Linköping, 2015). The empirical material was based on catalogues used by school libraries to order new books, and some of the chosen books are still frequently borrowed from Swedish libraries. The selection was justified by the fact that they not only contain depictions of technology but also depict issues and problems considered relevant today in the field of technology education. Examples of these issues include reflections about the nature of technology,discussions about its advantages and disadvantages or the way technology is described in a social and historical context. The analysis of the stories showed that they not only contained depictions of technology but also depicted issues and problems relevant in the field of technology education. The ambivalent messages in the books revealed the multifaceted nature of technology as well as its complexity in ways that textbooks seldom do. A conclusion from the analysis was that children’s fiction could be a starting point for creative discussions about the nature of technology and technology’s effects on individuals, society and nature in the past, present and future.

  • 9.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tekniken i barnlitteraturen2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för detta kapitel är att skönlitterära barnböcker kan vidga och fördjupa det didaktiska perspektivet i förskolans aktiviteter i teknik. I artikeln tar jag upp vad teknik är och varför skönlitterära barnböcker är användbara i förskolans teknikundervisning samt ger förslag på hur barnlitteraturen kan användas i aktiviteter som rör teknik..

  • 10.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teknikundervisningen i förskolan: En internationell utblick2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna översikt är att ge exempel på forskning om  teknikundervisningen för yngre barn från olika delar av världen samt att sätta forskningsresultaten i relation till den svenska reviderade läroplanen för förskolan från 2010. Forskningsöversikten gör på intet sätt anspråk på att vara heltäckande, utan har snarare som intention att ge exempel på återkommande teman inom den befintliga forskningen. Jag vill också klargöra att den inte inkluderar forskning som rör IKT (informations- och kommunikationsteknik) eller digitala medier i förskolan.

    Översikten bygger på vetenskapliga artiklar och konferenspresentationer författade av ledande forskare på området, varav en majoritet är från USA, Australien och Storbritannien. Även om undervisningen och utvecklingen av teknikämnet skiftar från land till land, kan ändå vissa gemensamma mönster urskiljas (de Vries, 2006). Vissa av artiklarna handlar om teknikundervisningen inom primary school education, då barnen i många länder börjar skolan vid 5 års ålder. Innehållet i artiklarna kan därför betraktas som intressanta utifrån ett svenskt föreskolperspektiv. Viktigt att notera är också att i den nya skollagen (2010:800) används begreppen utbildning och undervisning även när det handlar om förskolan, trots att den svenska förskolan inte är obligatorisk. I skollagen definieras begreppen på följande sätt:

    • undervisning: sådana målstyrda processer som under ledning av lärare eller förskollärare syftar till utveckling och lärande genom inhämtande och utvecklande av kunskaper och värden, och
    • utbildning: den verksamhet inom vilken undervisning sker utifrån bestämda mål. (SFS 2010:800, 1 kap. Inledande bestämmelser, 3§ Definitioner)

    Däremot används genomgående begreppet verksamhet istället för undervisning i läroplanen för förskolan. Jag har dock valt att använda undervisningsbegreppet i redogörelserna för de olika forskningsresultaten, eftersom det är detta begrepp som används i de internationella artiklarna.

    I översikten har jag tematiserat forskningen utifrån några huvudområden, vilka också utgör rubriker. Många gånger går dock de ämnen som tas upp för diskussion i varandra, vilket gör att vissa teman kan vara återkommande under flera rubriker. Med syfte att påvisa temats relevans utifrån ett svenskt förskoleperspektiv, inleder jag varje presentation av ett tema med ett citat från den svenska läroplanen för förskolan.

    Artiklarna som finns representerade i översikten spänner över en tidsperiod på tjugo år (1992-2012). Motivet till urvalet är att jag velat undersöka om det finns några återkommande teman över tid. Eftersom forskningen om teknikundervisningen i förskolan än så länge är så begränsad till sin omfattning, skulle dessutom en översikt med enbart den allra senaste forskningen ge en tämligen begränsad bild av forskningsläget.

    Forskningsöversikten avslutas med en sammanfattande diskussion, förslag på vidare forskning samt några avslutande reflektioner.

  • 11.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Upptäck tekniken i barnlitteraturen2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger dig som blivande eller yrkesverksam lärare inom förskola och grundskola F–6:

    • kunskap och allmänbildning inom teknikämnet
    • en metod för hur du med barnlitteraturen som utgångspunkt kan skapa  intresse och förståelse för teknik
    • underlag för samtal i enlighet med kursplanens intentioner om hur teknik påverkar oss människor, vårt samhälle och vår miljö.

    Med utgångspunkt i skönlitterära barnböcker – som exempelvis böckerna om Mamma Mu, Pettson och Findus samt Kalle och chokladfabriken – visas här konkret hur du kan föra diskussioner som väcker nyfikenhet, fördjupar förståelsen samt främjar det kritiska tänkandet.

  • 12.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teacher Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Using the Concept of Disruptive Technologies2018In: 2018 PATT36 International Conference: Research and Practice in Technology Education: Perspectives on Human Capacity and Development / [ed] Niall Seery, Jeffrey Buckley, Donal Canty and Joseph Phelan, Technology Education Research Group , 2018, p. 239-245Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical thinking is fundamental to 21st century learning and has thus become an important part of the technology curricula in many countries. Critical thinking draws on the ability to examine, analyse, interpret and evaluate, as well as asking questions and participating in discussions about risks and benefits of different technological solutions. An important task for teachers is to support young children in developing these skills. Students on a Swedish primary school teacher education programme were given an assignment inspired by the concept of ‘disruptive technologies’ (Barlex, Givens & Steeg, 2016; Manyika, Chui, Bughin, Dobbs, Bisson & Marrs, 2013), choosing from one of nine disruptive technologies and searching for information. The list was created on the grounds that these are technologies that are likely to have a significant effect on the students’ lives in a not too distant future. Based on the information found, the students were to critically analyse the technology they had chosen. This case study was performed through a thematic analysis of 120 assignment texts. The analysis showed that some of the suggested technologies were chosen more often than others. Autonomous cars came top, although robots in elderly care were the most frequently chosen technology among female students. The students performed well in the searching and collecting process. They found information about pros and cons for their chosen disruptive technology. However, the analysis also showed that the students had difficulty evaluating and problematising the information they had found. In their conclusions they did not change their original point of view. Even though they found more negative aspects of a new technology, they accentuated the positives.

  • 13.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Boström, Johan
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Facts for youngsters: Contextualised technology or fragmented artefacts? A study on portrayals of technology in picture books from a gender perspective2015In: PATT 29 Plurality and Complementarity of Approaches in Design and Technology Education, Marseille, France, April 2015 / [ed] M. Chatoney, Marseille: Presses Universitaires de Provence , 2015, p. 42-48Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is a field with strong connections to the female/male dichotomy and children's gender stereotyping starts as early as the age of two (Berner, 2004; Nisbet, Pendergast & Reynolds, 1998; Turja, Endepohls-Ulpe & Chatoney, 2009). According to the Swedish Curriculum for the Preschool, the preschool should strive to ensure that children ”develop their ability to identify technology in everyday life, and explore how simple technology works” (Lpfö98/2010, p. 10). The preschool also has a goal to actively counteract traditional gender roles and patterns (Lpfö98/2010, p. 4). An important part of children's activities in preschool relates to picture books. A government investigation states that the preschool, through its activities (among them ”reading aloud”) is an arena where societal norms can either be preserved or challenged (SOU 2006:75). Books about cars, airplanes, boats etc. often serve as an introduction to human applications of technology. Based on these, children start to identify and categorize the technologies they encounter in everyday life.

    The aim of this study is consequently to investigate the technological content from a gender perspective in a selection of picture books, more specifically; how do the books content preserve or challenge preschool children's view of technology and gender? Preschools use books from libraries in their daily activities, therefore the empirical material in this study is derived from the library section ”facts for youngsters”. A thematic analysis was employed to discover the dominant themes within the books. The result of the study shows that there is a focus on how separate artefacts function but no detailed explanation on how these artefacts are connected or what kind of implications they have in a societal context. There also seems to be an emphasis on traditionally masculine coded technology. This study will serve as a basis for a comparative study between two preschools, one where gender and technology is a prioritised goal and one where it is not.

  • 14.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Boström, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Växjö, Sweden.
    Preschoolers’ Conceptions of Technological Artefacts and Gender in Picture Books2016In: PATT-32 Proceedings Technology Education for 21st Century Skills / [ed] J. de Vries, Arien Bekker-Holtland and Gerald van Dijk, ITEEA , 2016, p. 57-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picture books are a frequent element of daily preschool activities (Damber, Nilsson & Ohlsson, 2013; Simonsson, 2004; SOU 2006:75). They are important pedagogical tools that can help children acquire an understanding of the everyday technology they come in contact with, as well as the human application of technology (Axell, 2015; Axell & Boström, 2015). These are skills that are emphasised in the Swedish preschool curriculum. In the curriculum it is also stated that the preschool should counteract traditional gender patterns and gender roles (Skolverket, 2010). However, an investigation of a selection of picture books aimed at preschool children shows that the books content is somewhat problematic. Many of the picture books provide a focus on the function of separate artefacts without any sort of context or explanation of their implications in a societal context. There also tends to be an emphasis on traditional masculine-coded technology in the books. Building and making and working with machines is depicted as a male activity. The male stereotype is essentially connected with different kinds of vehicles like cars, airplanes, motorbikes, tractors etc. (Axell & Boström, 2015; See also Holbrok, 2008). Based on these previous findings, the aim of this pilot study was to obtain an initial concept about how children’s literature may influence preschool children’s view on technological artefacts. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with four five-year-olds, two girls and two boys. Through a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) three overarching themes were identified: The relationship between design and function, anthropomorphic animals as users of artefacts, and gender and artefacts. Some of the key findings were that the 5-year-olds did not know what “technology” is, but had good knowledge about tools. Additionally, they did not genderise any of the artefacts included in the study.

  • 15.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Boström, Johan
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Technology in children’s picture books as an agent for reinforcing or challenging traditional gender stereotypes2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is a field with strong connections to the female/male dichotomy. Children start to stereotype everyday life regarding this dichotomy as early as the age of two. The preschool, through its activities—among them reading aloud from picture books—is an arena where societal norms can be either preserved or challenged. Books about different artefacts, e.g. cars, airplanes and boats, often serve as an introduction for children about the human application of technology and may influence how they identify and categorise the technology they encounter in everyday life. The aim of this study was to investigate the technological content in a selection of picture books from a gender perspective. Since preschools in Sweden often use books from libraries in their daily activities, the empirical material was derived from the library sections Facts for youngsters and Technology for youngsters, aimed at children aged 1–3 and 3–6. A thematic analysis was used to discover the dominant themes within the books. The results show that there is a focus on how separate artefacts function but no detailed explanation of how these artefacts are connected or what kind of implications they have in a societal context. There also seems to be an emphasis on traditionally masculine coded technology.

  • 16.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Representations of Technology in Educational Childrenʼs Fiction in Sweden in the Early 20th Century: The Example of The Wonderful Adventures of Nils2011In: PATT 25: CRIPT 8: Perspectives on LEarning in Design & Technology Education / [ed] Kay Stables, Clare Benson & Marc de Vries, London: Goldsmiths, University of London , 2011, p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature as a pedagogical tool has been used by educators for a long time and the importance of using childrenʼs books in elementary classrooms has been a topic of discussion in Sweden since the early 20th century. This study presupposes that childrenʼs fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating technological knowledge and attitudes towards technology to school children. At the turn of the century 1900 school teaching, including its literature, accounted for the main mediation of views of technology to schoolchildren. An investigation of educational childrenʼs literature can therefore be seen as an important approach to the responses of our culture in general and the school in particular to technology and technical knowledge. The aim of the study is consequently to analyse changes of technological content – that is, knowledge in and about technology as well as attitudes towards technology – in childrenʼs literature in Swedish elementary school libraries and relate this content to changes in society. This study is part of a larger research project with the same research aim and questions, but for this paper we have limited the analysis of empirical material to just the one childrenʼs book, The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, by Selma Lagerlöf.

    Research on the historical background to technology as a knowledge domain and practice in the school is still in its infancy. Historical research could be one possible way of strengthening the identity of technology education and its position in the school curriculum as well as of finding ways of relating the knowledge base of technology education to changes in society. The introduction in Sweden of the 1980 Compulsory School Curriculum (Lgr 80) mandated the teaching of technology in compulsory schooling. However, technical education appeared in Swedish elementary education much earlier through other subjects. The early 20th century was in many ways formative in the sense that there was an increased spread and use of technology in society as Sweden was industrialised, which also affected what was taught in the school (Hallström, 2009; 2010).

    Childrenʼs literature has been used by educators for a long time and the importance of using childrenʼs books in elementary classrooms has been a topic of discussion in Sweden since the early 20th century. This study presupposes that childrenʼs fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating technological knowledge and attitudes towards technology to school children. At the turn of the century 1900 school teaching, including its literature, accounted for the main mediation of views of technology to schoolchildren. An investigation of educational childrenʼs literature can therefore be seen as an important approach to the responses of our culture in general and the school in particular to technology and technical knowledge. The aim of the study is consequently to analyse changes of technological content – that is, knowledge in and about technology as well as attitudes towards technology – in childrenʼs literature in Swedish elementary schoo  libraries and relate this content to changes in society:

    What technological content can be found in childrenʼs fiction in elementary school libraries during the period ca. 1900-1920, and how does it relate to societal changes?

    This study is part of a larger research project with the same research aim and questions, but for this paper we have limited the analysis of empirical material to just the one childrenʼs book, The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, by Selma Lagerlöf (Lagerlöf, 1906-07/2004, English edition Project Gutenberg). The reason for selecting this book is the fact that it was selected to be part of a body of literature for the Swedish elementary school in the early 1900s. Furthermore, it still is the most widely read of all Swedish educational childrenʼs books. It is also translated into English and several other languages, which makes it eligible to an international audience.

  • 17.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Representations of technology in the “Technical Stories” for children of Otto Witt, early 20th century Swedish technology educator2013In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 817-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge to schoolchildren. An investigation of children's literature for schools is therefore important in order to understand what was considered worth knowing about technology at the time. The aim of this article is therefore to analyse the representations of technology and attitudes towards technology that were mediated through two children's fiction books in Swedish elementary school libraries in the 1910s. We have limited the analysis of empirical material to the books Technical Stories for Young and Old (Tekniska sagor for stora och smAyen, 1914) and Technical Stories of the War for Young and Old (Krigets tekniska sagor for stora och smAyen, 1915) by the Swedish inventor, author and technology educator Otto Witt. Gauging Witt's influence on the schoolchildren and educators of his time is very difficult, but in this first English-language article on his "technical stories" one can conclude that he was in many ways unique and probably fairly well-read in the schools of early 20th century Sweden and onward. He was also a particularly perceptive forerunner of today's technology and science educators in his use of anthropomorphism as an educational tool.

  • 18.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Technology and the shaping of a Swedish national identity in the educational work of Selma Lagerlöf, 1900-19072015In: History of Education and Children's Literature, ISSN 1971-1093, E-ISSN 1971-1131, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 299-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1900s Sweden saw an unprecedented societal transformation through ongoing industrialisation, urbanisation, democratisation and new technologies. In 1906-1907 the celebrated Swedish writer Selma Lagerlöf published a book subsequently read by thousands of elementary school children, The Wonderful Adventures of Nils. Although Lagerlöf’s book was mainly seen as a novel, she was commissioned to write it as a textbook in geography for the Swedish elementary school. One of the aims on the part of the commissioner – the Swedish Association of Elementary School Teachers – was for the book to induce Swedish nationalist sentiment and boost the feeling of a national identity in schoolchildren. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse how various representations of technology were utilised to create the sense of a Swedish national identity in The Wonderful Adventures of Nils. A hermeneutic method is employed to analyse the book in relation to the historical context of early 20th century Sweden. It is concluded that technology and human settlements are natural elements of the various landscapes of Sweden, thereby making them as much a part of building a national identity around the physical environment as woods, plains, lakes, animals and plants. The message of the book seems to be that technology is interwoven with society and nature in the formation of modern Sweden. It is impossible to describe the nation and impart nationalism in children without also incorporating technology; it is a human creation and as much a force in shaping the nation as other human endeavours and nature.

  • 19.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Images of Technology and Sustainable Development in Swedish Children’s Literature2014In: Australasian Journal of Technology Education, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate images of technology and how technology is linked to sustainable development in Swedish children’s literature. Our perspective is that such images represent values that are conveyed to the young generation. We have chosen to study books by four Swedish authors, Elsa Beskow, Inger Sandberg, Jan Lööf and Sven Nordqvist, all of them still read by many children, parents and teachers, both in and out of school. In the examined books, technology is portrayed in several modes: as a servant to man, as a deterministic force, as a loyal and equal companion to man, and as a natural phenomenon in a nostalgic world. Technologies that have a leading role in the stories examined are placed in different kind of contexts, more or less social, more or less utopian or idyllic. In all four authors’ writings there is an optimistic faith in children’s ability.

  • 20.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technology for a Sustainable Life. Images in Swedish Children’s Literature2013In: PATT 27 Technology Education for the Future: A Playon Sustainability / [ed] P. John Williams & Dilani Gedera, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2013, p. 27-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the United Nations report Our common future sustainable development is defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Technology is seen as a kind of enabling force in that endeavour; new technologies are to be the solution to conflicts between growing economic activities and reductions in the use of natural resources. Sustainable development can, however, also be expressed as a set of traditional values that, in a country like Sweden, have been a part of everyday life for many generations. Education for sustainable development has been a goal in the Swedish national curriculum since 1994, not the least in the subject Technology. The teaching can evidently be inspired by both the international discussion on the future world and by the long tradition of how to live locally.

     

    The aim of this paper is to investigate images of technology and how technology is linked to sustainable development in children’s literature. Our perspective is that such images represent values that are conveyed to the young generation. We have chosen to study books by four Swedish authors, Elsa Beskow, Inger Sandberg, Jan Lööf and Sven Nordqvist, all of them still read by many children, parents and teachers alike, both in and out of school. Technology is in the examined books portrayed in several modes: as a servant to man, as a deterministic force, as a loyal and “equal” companion to man and as a natural phenomenon in a nostalgic world. Technologies that have a leading role in the examined stories are placed in different kind of contexts, more or less social, more or less utopian or idyllic. In all four author’s writings there is an optimistic faith in children’s ability to choose the right path. Children are the ones who must take responsibility for the future and overcome the problems the current adult generation have created. From a gender perspective, the message in the majority of the stories is clear: men are the source of technological development.

  • 21.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Memisevic, Alma
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teknik, natursyn och barnlitteratur i förskolan2018In: Naturvetenskap och teknik genom estetiska lärprocesser i förskolan / [ed] Fredrik Jeppsson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, 1, p. 98-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Simonsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Barnlitteratur och bokpraktiker i fritidshem2019In: Fritidshemmets möjligheter: Att arbeta fritidspedagogiskt / [ed] Helene Elvstrand, Maria Simonsson och Lina Söderman Lago, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 185-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Programming as a New Content in Swedish Preschool: What Is It and How Is It Done?2019In: PATT 37 Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education Msida, Malta, June 2019 / [ed] Sarah Pulé and Marc J. de Vries, Department of Technology and Entrepreneurship Education, University of Malta , 2019, p. 39-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, the Swedish government decided on a new national strategy for digitalisation of the school system. The strategy resulted in a revision of the curricula for Swedish preschool in order to strengthen digitalisation. Although programming is not explicitly mentioned in the curriculum, programming and robots have become a more common feature of preschool teaching. There are intervention studies showing that children can develop programming skills and conceptions. However, studies of programming from a technology education perspective are rare, and there is a need for further research. This study aims to investigate how programming in a preschool context and what the teachers and children do. This study focuses on the interaction between children, teachers and technology. The programming activities in preschool are not a separate activity, but part of a wider context, hence we adapt a sociocultural perspective. The empirical data consist of two group interviews with preschool teachers and one video-recorded programming activity with children aged 4-5 years and their teachers. The data material was analysed using a thematic content analysis to inductively search for patterns in the actions and methods used by teachers and children. This study shows that four aspects of programming were communicated: instructions, sequences, bugs, and language. Moreover, the relationship between humans and the technological artefacts was characterized in three different ways: technology as I) anthropomorphic, II) gender coded, and III) autonomous or non-autonomous. Thus, the programming activities and robot were incorporated in a wider context. Technology (the robot) became a tool to achieve several learning objectives. The technology was not the main focus; the overall message constructed in this teaching setting is that the human controls and uses the technology to achieve specific purposes.

  • 24.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Hagerman, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Frejd, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Sultan, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Estetiska lärprocesser2018In: Naturvetenskap och teknik genom estetiska lärprocesser i förskolan, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 26-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Hagerman, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Frejd, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Sultan, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    NO och teknik på lekfulla villkor2018In: Naturvetenskap och teknik genom estetiska lärprocesser i förskolan / [ed] Fredrik Jeppsson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 15-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Sultan, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Girls’ Engagement in Technology Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature2018In: PATT36 International Conference: Researche and Practice in Technology Education: Perspectives on Human Capacity and Development / [ed] Niall Seery, Jeffrey Buckley, Donal Canty, Joseph Phelan, Technology Education Research Group , 2018, p. 231-238Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to review international published scientific literature on the subject of girls’ engagement in technology education, in order to: (a) identify what is the most common descriptions of the relationship between girls and technology, (b) identify how girls’ engagement in technology education is described, and (c) identify the type of technology concerned. After systematically searching a bibliographic database, 21 articles were located and included in the study. For each article, we have analysed the purpose of the study, the content of the research done, the research method used, and the sample characteristics and the results observed. The results of the literature review are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and can be used as guidance for educators and researchers in the area. This could lead to further questions, such as if a negative discourse around girls’ relationship with technology may assist or hinder girls’ engagement in technology and technology education

  • 27.
    Sultan, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Girls’ engagement with technology education: A scoping review of the literature2019In: Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, ISSN 1360-1431, E-ISSN 2040-8633, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 20-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to review internationally published scientific literature on the subject of girls’ engagement in technology education, in order to identify the most common descriptions of girls’ engagement with technology education, girls’ technological activities, and the relationship between girls and technology. After a scoping review of the literature, 20 relevant articles were identified and included in the study; they were analysed using content analysis. The results show that, according to the reviewed studies, girls are less interested in and have less positive attitudes towards technology (education) than boys. They are also less likely to choose a technology- or STEM-oriented occupa-tion. Several of the included studies venture possible explanations as to why this is and refer mainly to cultural factors. Those studies that do define the type of technology used in girls’ activities mostly describe a neutral, or male kind of “nuts and bolts” technology. As regards girls’ relationship to tech-nology, there is potential for improving female engagement using apparently simple means; for ex-ample, making sure the social context of teaching is adapted to girls. The results of the literature review are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and can be used as a guide for educators and researchers in the area. In particular, the reasons for girls’ lower interest in technolo-gy education compared to boys need to be further researched, and it may be that researchers need to study girls in their own right, not in perpetual comparison with boys, in order to come closer to an answer

  • 28.
    Sultan, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    What are they doing?: Tool use and self-image of girls aged 9 to12 when engaging in technology education2019In: PATT 37 Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education Msida, Malta, June 2019 / [ed] Sarah Pulé and Marc J. de Vries, Msida: Department of Technology and Entrepreneurship Education, University of Malta , 2019, p. 421-430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of technology education differences between girls and boys have been researched for some time but there is still a lack of knowledge about what exactly these differences consist of, and why they exist. The aim of this study is to explore tool use and self-image of girls aged 9 to12 when engaging in technology education. Data was collected over a course of two weeks, involving one Swedish compulsory school and three different classes with pupils aged 9 to 12. The data collection method used for this explorative study was unstructured observations made in-class during fourteen hours of teaching. Social identity theory is used as a theoretical framework to gain knowledge and clues as to why girls lose their interest in technology (education) as they get older. The results of the classroom observations revealed that, although the girls were not aware of it, they still confirmed gender stereotypes about girls and technology by e.g. adopting a social identity as not being technical. This study thus largely confirms the prevailing descriptions in previous research on girls and technology education.

1 - 28 of 28
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