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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The synthesis, characterization and device fabrication of ZnO, NiO and their composite nanostructures2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronics industry has been revolutionized since last few decades because of the fabrication of electronic devices by using nanoscale based materials. But the more innovative feature in the electronic devices is the use of transparent materials, which makes the transparent electronic devices as one of the most interesting research field in nanoscience and nano-technology now a days. In order to have high performance electronic devices based on the wide band gap compound semiconductors, a selection of right transparent material is crucial step. Among all the transparent metal oxides, ZnO is one of the potential candidates due to the ease in the synthesis process, wide bandgap of 3.37 eV, a high exciton binding energy of 60 meV and diverse morphologies. Since p-type ZnO based nanodevices are still difficult to fabricate due to the instability and unreliability of p-type ZnO nanomaterial, therefore several p-type semiconductors are used for the development of p-n junctions. Among those NiO is suitable p-type compound semiconductor to make p-n junction with ZnO because of its wide band gap of 3.7 eV and environment friendly conditions for its synthesis. Keeping these attractive properties of n-type ZnO and p-type NiO, the synthesis of composite nanostructures of these two transparent oxides and fabrication of their electronic devices is presented in this dissertation work.

    I started my work with the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures focusing on the effect of different anions of zinc salts on the morphology and crystallinity of ZnO nanostructures. Then I grow honey-comb like NiO nanostructures on 3D nickel foam and used these nanostructures for the detection of Zinc ion. After that synthesized NiO and ZnO based composite nanostructures and characterized them, having main focus on the luminescence properties of ZnO when decorated with NiO nanostructures. The composite nanostructures of p-type NiO and n-type ZnO showed enhancement in the luminescence properties. Since pn junction is the back bone of electronic devices so working on the designing of band alignment along with the current transport properties of p-type NiO/n-type ZnO composite structures, an attempt was put forwarded to explain the phenomenon of these compound semiconducting materials. Different devices based on these two compound semiconducting materials are fabricated and designed in the present dissertation work, however still more work is required to improve the efficiency of devices like LEDs and UV detectors.

    List of papers
    1. Anions effect on the low temperature growth of ZnO nanostructures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anions effect on the low temperature growth of ZnO nanostructures
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 1998-2001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Seed mediated aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route was used for the growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si substrate in four different growth mediums. The growth medium has shown to affect the morphology and the size of the different nanostructures. We observed that the medium containing zinc nitrate anions yields the nanorods, in a medium containing zinc acetate anions nano-candles are obtained. While in a medium containing zinc chloride anions ZnO nano-discs were obtained and in a medium containing zinc sulfate anions nano-flakes are achieved. Growth in these different mediums has also shown effect on the optical emission characteristics of the different ZnO nanostructures.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    ZnO, Chemical growth, Nanostructures, Optical properties
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84909 (URN)10.1016/j.vacuum.2012.05.020 (DOI)000308672000041 ()
    Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2018-02-16
    2. Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 15424-15437Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2012
    Keywords
    honeycomb NiO nanostructures, potentiometric response, ion selective electrode, selectivity, selective ionophore
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86653 (URN)10.3390/s121115424 (DOI)000311429500060 ()
    Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    3. Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 430-440Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO on n-type ZnO nanorods have been decorate on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy,  high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation has shown that the adopted synthesis has led to high crystalline quality nanostructures. Morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures were dominated by a near band gap emission at 380 nm and by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence originates mainly from the ZnO nanorods.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2014
    Keywords
    ZnO nanorods; NiO nanostructure; composite nanostructures; defect states; cathodoluminescent
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103339 (URN)10.3390/ma7010430 (DOI)000336088500030 ()
    Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
    4. The determination of valence band offset and the current transport properties of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The determination of valence band offset and the current transport properties of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction
    Show others...
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electron transport in the electronic devices has significant influence on the device performance, thus current transport properties determination is highly demanded for a particular device. Herein, we report the facile hydrothermal growth method based fabrication of p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction. The material characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. These techniques provided the good crystal quality, pure phase of p-NiO and n-ZnO nanostructures respectively. The measured valance band offset of composite nanostructure is 2.25 eV and conduction band offset was found to be 2.58 eV. The current transport properties of the fabricated p-n junction are governed by three different I-V regions. The impedance spectroscopy was used for the determination of the role of grain boundaries at the interface.

    Keywords
    Zinc oxide, nickel oxide, heterojunction, diode, current transport properties
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103340 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2014-03-27Bibliographically approved
    5. Fabrication of UV photo-detector based on coral reef like p-NiO/n-ZnO nanocomposite structures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of UV photo-detector based on coral reef like p-NiO/n-ZnO nanocomposite structures
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 108, p. 149-152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this research work, a UV photo-detector is fabricated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by exploiting the advantageous features of p-n heterojunctions based on p-NiO and n-ZnO composite nanostructures forming a coral-reef like structures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction results showed uniform morphology and good crystal quality of the synthesised nanostructures respectively. I-V measurements have shown nonlinear and rectifying response of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction. The proposed photodiode exhibited excellent UV response with acceptable photocurrent generation of about 3.4 mA and the responsivity of 2.27 A/W at -3 biasing voltage.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    p-NiO/n-ZnO composite nanostructures, Photodiode, UV-visible spectrophotometry
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99403 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2013.06.083 (DOI)000324562900038 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    6. The fabrication of white light-emitting diodes using the n-ZnO/NiO/p-GaN heterojunction with enhanced luminescence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The fabrication of white light-emitting diodes using the n-ZnO/NiO/p-GaN heterojunction with enhanced luminescence
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 8, no 320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cheap and efficient white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are of great interest due to the energy crisis all over the world. Herein, we have developed heterojunction LEDs based on the well-aligned ZnO nanorods and nanotubes on the p-type GaN with the insertion of the NiO buffer layer that showed enhancement in the light emission. Scanning electron microscopy have well demonstrated the arrays of the ZnO nanorods and the proper etching into the nanotubes. X-ray diffraction study describes the wurtzite crystal structure array of ZnO nanorods with the involvement of GaN at the (002) peak. The cathodoluminescence spectra represent strong and broad visible emission peaks compared to the UV emission and a weak peak at 425 nm which is originated from GaN. Electroluminescence study has shown highly improved luminescence response for the LEDs fabricated with NiO buffer layer compared to that without NiO layer. Introducing a sandwich-thin layer of NiO between the n-type ZnO and the p-type GaN will possibly block the injection of electrons from the ZnO to the GaN. Moreover, the presence of NiO buffer layer might create the confinement effect.

    Keywords
    White light-emitting diode; ZnO nanorods; Nanotubes; NiO buffer layer
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103341 (URN)10.1186/1556-276X-8-320 (DOI)000331642900001 ()
    Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The fabrication of white light-emitting diodes using the n-ZnO/NiO/p-GaN heterojunction with enhanced luminescence2013In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 8, no 320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cheap and efficient white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are of great interest due to the energy crisis all over the world. Herein, we have developed heterojunction LEDs based on the well-aligned ZnO nanorods and nanotubes on the p-type GaN with the insertion of the NiO buffer layer that showed enhancement in the light emission. Scanning electron microscopy have well demonstrated the arrays of the ZnO nanorods and the proper etching into the nanotubes. X-ray diffraction study describes the wurtzite crystal structure array of ZnO nanorods with the involvement of GaN at the (002) peak. The cathodoluminescence spectra represent strong and broad visible emission peaks compared to the UV emission and a weak peak at 425 nm which is originated from GaN. Electroluminescence study has shown highly improved luminescence response for the LEDs fabricated with NiO buffer layer compared to that without NiO layer. Introducing a sandwich-thin layer of NiO between the n-type ZnO and the p-type GaN will possibly block the injection of electrons from the ZnO to the GaN. Moreover, the presence of NiO buffer layer might create the confinement effect.

  • 3.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study2014In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 430-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO on n-type ZnO nanorods have been decorate on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy,  high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation has shown that the adopted synthesis has led to high crystalline quality nanostructures. Morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures were dominated by a near band gap emission at 380 nm and by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence originates mainly from the ZnO nanorods.

  • 4.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabrication of UV photo-detector based on coral reef like p-NiO/n-ZnO nanocomposite structures2013In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 108, p. 149-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research work, a UV photo-detector is fabricated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by exploiting the advantageous features of p-n heterojunctions based on p-NiO and n-ZnO composite nanostructures forming a coral-reef like structures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction results showed uniform morphology and good crystal quality of the synthesised nanostructures respectively. I-V measurements have shown nonlinear and rectifying response of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction. The proposed photodiode exhibited excellent UV response with acceptable photocurrent generation of about 3.4 mA and the responsivity of 2.27 A/W at -3 biasing voltage.

  • 5.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Yaqoob
    National Centre for Physics, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iron (III) Ion Sensor Based on the Seedless Grown ZnO Nanorods in 3 Dimensions Using Nickel Foam Substrate2013In: Journal of Sensors, ISSN 1687-725X, E-ISSN 1687-7268, no 382726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the seedless, highly aligned and vertical ZnO nanorods in 3 dimensions (3D) were grown on the nickel foam substrate. The seedless grown ZnO nanorods were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The characterised seedless ZnO nanorods in 3D on nickel foam were highly dense, perpendicular to substrate, grown along the (002) crystal plane, and also composed of single crystal. In addition to this, these seedless ZnO nanorods were functionalized with trans-dinitro-dibenzo-18-6 crown ether, a selective iron (III) ion ionophore, along with other components of membrane composition such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 2-nitopentylphenyl ether as plasticizer (NPPE), and tetrabutyl ammonium tetraphenylborate (TBATPB) as conductivity increaser. The sensor electrode has shown high linearity with a wide range of detection of iron (III) ion concentrations from 0.005 mM to 100 mM. The low limit of detection of the proposed ion selective electrode was found to be 0.001 mM. The proposed sensor also described high storage stability, selectivity, reproducibility, and repeatability and a quick response time of less than 10 s.

  • 6.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Yaqoob
    Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures2012In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 15424-15437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples.

  • 7.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Yaqoob
    National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Hussain, Sajjad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anions effect on the low temperature growth of ZnO nanostructures2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 1998-2001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seed mediated aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route was used for the growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si substrate in four different growth mediums. The growth medium has shown to affect the morphology and the size of the different nanostructures. We observed that the medium containing zinc nitrate anions yields the nanorods, in a medium containing zinc acetate anions nano-candles are obtained. While in a medium containing zinc chloride anions ZnO nano-discs were obtained and in a medium containing zinc sulfate anions nano-flakes are achieved. Growth in these different mediums has also shown effect on the optical emission characteristics of the different ZnO nanostructures.

  • 8.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The determination of valence band offset and the current transport properties of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electron transport in the electronic devices has significant influence on the device performance, thus current transport properties determination is highly demanded for a particular device. Herein, we report the facile hydrothermal growth method based fabrication of p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction. The material characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. These techniques provided the good crystal quality, pure phase of p-NiO and n-ZnO nanostructures respectively. The measured valance band offset of composite nanostructure is 2.25 eV and conduction band offset was found to be 2.58 eV. The current transport properties of the fabricated p-n junction are governed by three different I-V regions. The impedance spectroscopy was used for the determination of the role of grain boundaries at the interface.

  • 9.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast synthesis, morphology transformation, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown by seed-free hydrothermal method2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 11, p. 2611-2615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast and low cost seed-free hydrothermal synthesis method to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with controllable morphology, size and structure has been developed. Ammonia is used to react with water to tailor the ammonium hydroxide concentration, which provides a continuous source of OH− for hydrolysis and precipitation of the final products. Hence, allowing ZnO nanorods to growth on large areas of metal (Au and Ag coated glass), p-type Si and organic flexible (PEDOT: PSS) substrates. Increasing the growth time, the morphology transforms from pencil-like to hexagonal shape rod-like morphology. Within one hour the length of the ZnO nanorods has reached almost 1 µm. The optical characteristics has shown that the grown ZnO nanorods are dominated by two emission peaks, one is in the UV range centered at 381 nm and other one with relatively high intensity appears in the visible range and centered at 630 nm. While the growth duration was increased from 2 h to 6 h, the optical band gap was observed to increase from 2.8 eV to 3.24 eV, respectively. This fast and low cost method is suitable for LEDs, UV-photodetector, sensing, photocatalytic, multifunctional devices and other optoelectronic devices, which can be fabricated on any substrates, including flexible and foldable substrates.

  • 10.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZnO nanorods based piezoresistive sensor synthesized by rapid mixing hydrothermal methodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have successfully synthesized well-aligned, shape controlled and uniform size distribution of ZnO nanorods by using a rapid mixing hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations showed that the ZnO nanorods grow along the c-axis with hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure. The room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) investigation revealed that the ZnO nanorods have optical emissions in both the UV and visible ranges and the crystal quality of the ZnO nanorods can be improved by increasing the growth duration. The well-aligned and uniform ZnO nanorods were used to fabricate efficient piezoresistive sensor. The piezoresistive sensor has demonstrated a pressure sensitivity of 0.033 KPa-1 with a fast response and recovery times within 0.088 and 0.29 s, respectively. The piezoresistive sensor has potential applications in industrial, civil and transportation fields. Furthermore, the fabricated sensor can be utilized as a very useful human-friendly interactive electronic device for load sensing.

  • 11.
    Echresh, Ahmad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zargar Shoushtari, Morteza
    Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Farbod, Mansoor
    Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimization and characterization of NiO thin film and the influence of thickness on the electrical properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-NiO heterojunction2014In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 115009-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we report on the synthesis optimization of NiO thin film to grow preferentially along the (111) direction. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed that the NiO film with 200 nm thickness annealed at 600 degrees C temperature has the best preferential orientation along the (111) direction. Also, atomic force microscope (AFM) images show that the grain size of NiO increases at higher temperatures. Then, ZnO nanorods were grown on the NiO thin film with 100, 200 and 300 nm thickness grown at 600 degrees C. The XRD pattern and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicate that the well-aligned ZnO nanorods with hexagonal face have a preferential orientation along the c-axis (002). The current voltage measurements of the n-ZnO nanorods/p-NiO heterojunctions showed a clear rectifying behavior for all diodes. The threshold voltage of the heterojunctions was increased by increasing the thickness of the NiO thin film which was attributed to the increasing of the series resistance (R-s) of the diodes.

  • 12.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates2014In: Energy Harvesting and Systems, ISSN 2329-8774, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The step toward the fabrication of nanodevices with low cost and improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in the present study, different flexible substrates like common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil have been utilized to harvest electrical energy. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by using lowtemperature aqueous chemical growth method. The obtained ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned, uniformly distributed over the substrates and exhibited good crystal quality. The structural study was carried out by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The piezoelectric properties of ZnO NRs were investigated by the help of an atomic force microscope using contact mode. The measurements of generated piezoelectricity were around 16.2 mV, 23.2 mV, 38.5 mV and 43.3 mV for common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil, respectively. This investigation is an important step in order to study the effect of different substrates influencing the magnitude of the output voltage under identical growth and measurement conditions. We expect that this study will help identify the most suitable flexible substrate for harvesting energy. It also offers a promising alternative powering source for the next generation nanodevices using non-conventional substrates like aluminum foil. Moreover, the use of aluminum foil as flexible and low cost substrate may pave the way to develop devices in different fields including energy harvesting.

  • 13.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The improved piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with oxygen plasma treatment on the single layer graphene coated polymer substrate2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 2, p. 455-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The step towards the fabrication of nanodevices with improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in this study, oxygen plasma treated ZnO nanorods based piezoelectric nanogenerator is developed on the single layer graphene coated PET flexible polymer substrate. ZnO nanorods on the single layer graphene are grown by hydrothermal growth method and the structural study is carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The oxygen plasma treated sample of ZnO nanorods showed significant increase in the piezoelectric potential which could be due to the decrease in the defects levels in the ZnO and also increase in the mechanical properties of ZnO nanorods. Furthermore X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that the filling of vacancies by oxygen in the matrix of ZnO using oxygen plasma treatment has gave an enhanced piezoelectric potential compared to the sample of ZnO nanorods not treated with oxygen plasma. In addition to XPS experiment, cathodoluminescence (CL) technique was used for the determination of defect level in the ZnO nanorods after the treatment of oxygen plasma and the obtained information supported the XPS data of oxygen plasma treatment sample by showing the decreased level of defect levels in the prepared sample. From the XPS and CL studies, it is observed that the defect level has significant influence on the piezoelectric potential of the ZnO nanostructures.

  • 14.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of Three Dimensional Nickel Cobalt Oxide Nanoneedles on Nickel Foam, Their Characterization and Glucose Sensing Application2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 5415-5425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, NiCo2O4 nanostructures are fabricated in three dimensions (3D) on nickel foam by the hydrothermal method. The nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanostructures exhibit nanoneedle-like morphology grown in 3D with good crystalline quality. The nanomaterial is composed of nickel, cobalt and oxygen atoms. By using the favorable porosity of the nanomaterial and the substrate itself, a sensitive glucose sensor is proposed by immobilizing glucose oxidase. The presented glucose sensor has shown linear response over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0.005 mM to 15 mM with a sensitivity of 91.34 mV/decade and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The NiCo2O4 nanostructures-based glucose sensor has shown excellent reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The sensor showed negligible response to the normal concentrations of common interferents with glucose sensing, including uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. All these favorable advantages of the fabricated glucose sensor suggest that it may have high potential for the determination of glucose in biological samples, food and other related areas.

  • 15.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of anions on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method and their pH sensing application2014In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 717-718, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast, reliable, accurate, precise and sensitive pH sensor device is highly demanding for the monitoring of pH in biological, clinical and food industry samples. In this research work, the effect of anions on the morphology of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures is investigated using low temperature chemical approach for the growth. Different anions have shown visible effect on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for the material characterization. This study has shown highly dense, uniform and good crystal quality of fabricated Co3O4 nanostructures. The nanostructures obtained from the cobalt chloride were used for the development of potentiometric pH sensor electrode. The pH sensor electrode showed excellent linearity and close to Nernstian response for the pH range of 3-13 with a sensitivity of -58.45 mV/pH. Moreover, the proposed sensor showed a fast response time of 53 s, and acceptable reducibility and repeatability. The highly sensitive and a fast time response of the proposed sensor device indicate its potential application for the monitoring of pH from real samples including biological fluids.

  • 16.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbassi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of CuO/ZnO Composite Nanostructures, Their Optical Characterization and Valence Band Offset Determination by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy2014In: Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, ISSN 1555-130X, E-ISSN 1555-1318, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 348-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and its composite nanostructures is an appealing issue in order to have highly efficient optoelectronic devices in the future. Zinc oxide, copper oxide (CuO) and their composite nanostructures were grown by the hydrothermal growth technique. The structural properties of the grown ZnO, CuO and their composite NSs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. UV-visible spectroscopy, Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence techniques were used for the study of optical properties of the as synthesized nanomaterials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the valence band offset of the CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. Cathodoluminescence study of pure ZnO nanorods showed more insight for lateral luminescence compared to the top surface of the nanorods which opened a novel investigation in the area of optical properties of ZnO nanomaterial. While the room temperature cathodoluminescence spectra of CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures have demonstrated excellent luminescence in the UV region compared to the cathodoluminescence spectra observed at 4 K. The measured values for valence band offset and conduction band offset are found to be 2.83 eV and 0.73 eV, respectively for the prepared CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. It was observed that CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures have type-II band alignment. The conclusion from both the cathodoluminescence and the photoluminescence studies showed that the luminescence in the visible region is only originated from the ZnO nanomaterial and that the CuO absorbs this visible emission as it covers the ZnO. This provides evidence suggesting that the use of CuO/ZnO in the fabrication of LEDs in the visible range is not appropriate.

  • 17.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Use of ZnO nanorods grown AFM tip in the architecture of piezoelectric nanogenerator2014In: Micro & Nano Letters, ISSN 1750-0443, E-ISSN 1750-0443, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 539-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piezoelectric potential output has been studied using a ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown atomic force microscope (AFM) tip in lieu of the normally used AFM tip. The ZnO NRs were synthesised on the AFM tip and on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate using the aqueous chemical growth method. The as-grown ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned and uniform both on the tip and on the substrate. The structural study was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The piezoelectric properties of as-grown ZnO NRs were investigated using an AFM in contact mode. In comparison to the AFM tip without ZnO NRs, extra positive voltage peaks were observed when the AFM tip with ZnO NRs was used. The pair of ZnO NRs on the AFM tip and on the FTO glass substrate together worked as two oppositely gliding walls (composed of ZnO NRs) and showed an enhancement in the amount of the harvested energy as much as eight times. This approach demonstrates that the use of the AFM tip with ZnO NRs is not only a good alternative to improve the design of nanogenerators to obtain an enhanced amount of harvested energy but is also simple, reliable and cost-effective.

  • 18.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlSalhi, M. S.
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Synthesis of NiO/TiO2 Heterostructures and Their Valence Band Offset Determination2014In: Journal of Nanomaterials, ISSN 1687-4110, E-ISSN 1687-4129, no 928658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a heterojunction based on p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 nanostructures has been prepared on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction techniques were used for the morphological and crystalline arrays characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the valence-band offset (VBO) of the NiO/TiO2 heterojunction prepared on FTO glass substrate. The core levels of Ni 2p and Ti 2p were utilized to align the valence-band offset of p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 heterojunction. The valence band offset was found to be similar to 0.41 eV and the conduction band was calculated about similar to 0.91 eV. The ratio of conduction band offset and the valence-band offset was found to be 2.21.

  • 19.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide nanorods grown on textile cotton fabric2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores piezoelectricity generation from ZnO nanorods, which were grown on silver coated textile cotton fabrics using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. The morphology and crystal structure studies were carried out by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic and high resolution transmission electron microscopic techniques, respectively. ZnO nanorods were highly dense, well aligned, uniform in spatial distribution and exhibited good crystal quality. The generation of piezoelectricity from fabricated ZnO nanorods grown on textile cotton fabrics was measured using contact mode atomic force microscopy. The average output voltage generated from ZnO nanorods was measured to be around 9.5 mV. This investigation is an important achievement regarding the piezoelectricity generation on textile cotton fabric substrate. The fabrication of this device provides an alternative approach for a flexible substrate to develop devices for energy harvesting and optoelectronic technology on textiles.

  • 20.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harvesting piezoelectric potential from zinc oxide nanoflowers grown on textile fabric substrate2013In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 980-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanoflowers were synthesized on conductive flexible textile fabric substrate by using the simple low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method and were used for piezoelectric energy harvesting source. Structural characterization of ZnO nanoflowers was carried out by using surface scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ZnO nanoflowers are uniformly grown over the entire sample. They are composed of needle-like nanorods, which have hexagonal wurtzite structure with good crystalline quality. The current-voltage characteristics showed good rectifying Schottky behaviour. Contact-mode atomic force microscopy was used for measuring the piezoelectric output potential. The maximum output potential was found to be more than 600 mV and the corresponding current also recorded was near approximate to 650 nA.

  • 21.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of transport properties of copper/zinc-oxide-nanorods-based Schottky diode fabricated on textile fabric2013In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 125006-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a copper/zinc-oxide (ZnO)-nanorods-based Schottky diode was fabricated on the textile fabric substrate. ZnO nanorods were grown on a silver-coated textile fabric substrate by using the hydrothermal route. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used for the structural study. The electrical characterization of copper/ZnO-nanorods-based Schottky diodes was investigated by using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and an impedance spectrometer. The current density-voltage (J-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were used to estimate the electrical parameters. The threshold voltage (V-th), ideality factor (eta), barrier height (phi(b)), reverse saturation current density (J(s)), carrier concentration (N-D) and built-in potential (V-bi) were determined by using experimental data and (simulated) curve fitting. This study describes the possible fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices on textile fabric substrate with an acceptable performance.

  • 22.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of junction properties of gold-zinc oxide nanorods-based Schottky diode by means of frequency dependent electrical characterization on textile2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 3434-3441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present work is an effort to reveal the junction properties of gold/zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods-based Schottky diode by using the frequency dependent electrical properties. The most important electrical parameters such as conductance, resistance, capacitance, and impedance were studied as function of frequency across the series of AC voltages. Moreover, current density-voltage (J-V) was measured to know the performance of present Schottky diode. The effect of native defects was also studied by using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured at different accelerating voltage. The textile substrate was used for the growth of ZnO nanorods by using the aqueous chemical growth method and Schottky diode fabrication. Diode fabrication on textile fabric is a step forward toward the fabrication of electronic devices on nonconventional, economical, soft, light weight, flexible, wearable, washable, recyclable, reproducible, and nontoxic substrate.

  • 23.
    Khan, Yagoob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tajammul Hussain, Syed
    National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Physical Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the decoration of 3D nickel foam with single crystal ZnO nanorod arrays and their cathodoluminescence study2013In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 90, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting with an ammonical solution of zinc acetate, dense single crystal ZnO nanorod arrays were grown directly on high surface area porous 3D nickel foam substrates using a low temperature hydrothermal route. Heterogeneous nucleation of the nanorods with diameters around 100 nm can be conveniently and reproducibly Controlled by adjusting the amount of ammonia added to the growth solution. X-ray diffraction and HRTEM analysis confirmed the single phase wurtzite structure and c-axis orientation of the as grown ZnO nanorod arrays. Cathodoluminescence measurements indicate that the as-grown nanorod arrays were rich in atomic defects and gave strong orange emissions in the visible region. The nanorod arrays on unique 3D substrate are expected to improve the sensitivity and efficiency of ZnO based electrochemical sensors and heterogeneous catalysts.

  • 24.
    Khan, Yaqoob
    et al.
    Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
    Durrani, S K
    Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology.
    Mehmood, Mazhar
    Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
    Jan, Abdullah
    University of Peshawar.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    pH-dependant structural and morphology evolution of Ni(OH)(2) nanostructures and their morphology retention upon thermal annealing to NiO2011In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 130, no 3, p. 1169-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel hydroxide nanosheets, nanobelts and nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal treatment of the precipitates obtained at different pH values. The morphology and crystal structure of the products could be controlled simply by adjusting the pH value at precipitation. Interconnected nanosheets of hexagonal beta-Ni(OH)(2) with thickness around 10-20 nm were formed at pH similar to 11, whereas nanobelts with typical widths around 40-80 nm, and nanorods with diameters around 50-60 nm of phase pure alpha-Ni(OH)(2) containing intercalated sulphate ions were obtained in the pH range similar to 9.5-8.5. Thermal annealing of the hydroxides at 500 degrees C yielded cubic phase NiO with morphologies similar to their hydroxide precursors. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were used to characterize the as-prepared products. The role of pH in controlling the phase and morphology of the products was discussed.

  • 25.
    Khan, Yaqoob
    et al.
    National Centre for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, PIEAS, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad.
    Hussain, Sajjad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Durrani, Shahid Khan
    Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad.
    Honeycomb β-Ni(OH)2 films grown on 3D nickel foam substrates at low temperature2012In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 69, p. 37-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple method is presented to grow thick honeycomb β-Ni(OH)2 films on 3D nickel foam substrates at80 °C using nickel sulfate and ammonia as the starting materials. The porous honeycomb network structureof the films with pore openings about 0.5–1 μm wide is built from seamlessly connected polycrystallinenanowalls, approximately 10–20 nm thick. The amount of ammonia added to the growth solution and thegrowth time were found to be critical parameters in determining the morphology and pore structure ofthe films. Air annealing of the as-prepared films resulted in polycrystalline NiO films with morphologiessimilar to those of their hydroxide precursors.

  • 26.
    Willander, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, K.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    UV detectors and LEDs in different metal oxide nanostructures2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different composite nanostructures based pn-junctions have been synthesized using the low temperature hydrothermal chemical growth. The composite nanostructures based pn junctions demonstrated here include p-NiO/n-ZnO, p-CuO/n-ZnO, and p-NiO/n-TiO2. Structural characterization of these composite nanostructures based pn-junctions was performed by different complementary tools and the results indicated that reasonable device quality crystals have been achieved. His act was also confirmed by the rectifying electrical behavior observed from these junctions. Further, the different composite nanostructures based junctions were used to demonstrate UV detectors and visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating with acceptable performance.

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