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  • 1.
    Amon, Marri
    et al.
    Maailma Keelte Ja Kultuuride Kolledž, Tartu Ülikool, Tartu, Estonia.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ebalohklause eesti keeles: ühest seni tähelepanuta jäänud lauseliigist [Pseudo-cleft: on a hitherto undescribed syntactic construction in Estonian]2022In: Emakeele seltsi aastaraamat, ISSN 0206-3735, Vol. 67, p. 7-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper asks whether there are any pseudo-cleft structures in Estonian. Grammars do not account for them, but we found fitting examples from both spoken and written usage, in particular from public speeches. Functionally, they are similar to what has been described in other languages: what-initial constructions project longer explanations and launch new topics, thereby structuring discourse and (re-)engaging participants. Since studies on pseudo-clefts in spoken interaction have revealed a high degree of structural variability even in languages that make prolific use of them, such as French and Hebrew, we suggest that they are also grammaticized in Estonian.

  • 2.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Getting Ready to Move as a Couple: Accomplishing Mobile Formations in a Dance Class2014In: Space and Culture, ISSN 1206-3312, E-ISSN 1552-8308, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 107-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on how students in a Lindy Hop dance class move into a complex mobile formation as a sequentially relevant response to a directive embedded in the teachers verbal and embodied instructions of the next task for practice. This sequence of actions accomplishes a transition from a stationary constellation of observing students to a mobile circle of practicing dance couples. The article describes in detail how instruction is turned into practice in an emergent way, in and through the simultaneous accountable production and reception of qualitative instruction, practice proposals, structuring instructions, and count-ins. The analysis shows how student behavior is oriented to the couple as a relevant mobile formation and how couples gradually become more synchronized with each other.

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  • 3.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keevallik, LeeloLinköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Multimodal interaktionsanalys2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När vi kommunicerar och deltar i olika aktiviteter tolkar vi inte bara det som sägs, utan vi läser också av blickriktningar, kropps­position och mycket annat som finns närvarande i situationen. Ömsesidig förståelse åstadkoms alltså i flera dimensioner, eller modaliteter. Denna bok är den första på svenska som introducerar det mångfacetterade forskningsområde som kallas multimodal interaktionsanalys. Detta fält intresserar sig för hur människor tillsammans utför handlingar med hjälp av språkliga, kroppsliga och materiella resurser. Bokens första del presenterar perspektivets teoretiska grunder och förklarar hur en interaktionsanalytisk studie kan genomföras ”från ax till limpa”. Bokens andra del introducerar ett antal centrala kommunikativa resurser, från röst och gester till objekt och teknologier. I den tredje och mest omfångsrika delen ges en lång rad exempel på hur man genom multimodal interaktionsanalys kan nå nya insikter inom olika forskningsområden. Multimodal interaktionsanalys vänder sig till studenter och forskare som vill förstå hur det egentligen går till när människor agerar och skapar mening tillsammans.

  • 4.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Multimodal interaktionsanalys: att studera mänskligt samspel2020In: Multimodal interaktionsanalys / [ed] Mathias Broth, Leelo Keevallik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, p. 19-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Multimodal interaktionsanalys syftar till att förstå människors agerande genom att studera naturligt förekommande aktiviteter där deltagarna gör något tillsammans. Multimodal betyder att man i sin kommunikation använder sig av flera modaliteter, såsom språket, ansiktet, händerna och övriga kroppen; interaktion syftar på samspel, det som händer när människor deltar i en gemensam aktivitet och med analys avses här att göra beskrivningar av hur, i detalj, deltagare i aktiviteter åstadkommer det de gör. I detta första kapitel redogör vi för fältets grunder.

  • 5.
    Grigorjev, Piret
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Niit, Ellen
    Estonia.
    Paldre, Leho
    Estonia.
    Sak, Kristi
    Estnoia.
    Veismann, Ann
    Estonia.
    Kihnu murde assimileerumise mustreid Manilaiul [The patterns of assimilation of Kihnu dialect on Manilaid]1997In: Pühendusteos Huno Rätsepale, 28.12.1997 / [ed] Mati Erelt, Meeli Sedrik, Ellen Uuspõld, Tartu: Tartu Ülikool , 1997, p. 26-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Kihnu murde assimileerumise mustreid Manilaiul [The patterns of assimilation of Kihnu dialect on Manilaid]
  • 6. Habicht, Külli
    et al.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Tragel, Ilona
    Keele muutumine kasutuskontekstis.2006In: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 1502-1521, no 8, p. 609-625Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hakulinen, Auli
    et al.
    Helsingfors Universitet, Finland.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Suomen ja viron kyl(lä)/küll ja kieltolausen sanajärjestys. [Finnish and Estonian kyl(lä)/küll and the word order of negative clauses.]2016In: Lähivôrdlusi. Lähivertailuja, ISSN 1736-9290, E-ISSN 2228-3854, Vol. 26, p. 84-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks comparatively at the Finnish kyl(lä) and Estonian küll, which function as an epistemic adverb and a particle in both languages, and have a common origin in the noun ‘abundance’. Even though the word is mostly used to formulate positive answers, it also occurs in negative utterances. This is the focus of the current paper, which at the same time touches on the complex area of word order. 

    Even though both languages feature more or less free pragmatic word order, the patterns for negative utterances which contain both the negation word ei and kyl(lä)/küll are varied, especially regarding the placement of adverbs and particles. On the basis of conversational data the study establishes four patterns for Finnish((X+)ei,en+X+kyl(lä);ei+X+kyllä#;ei+V+kyl(lä)+Y;X+ei+ kyl(lä) +Y, where X denotes one or several noun phrases and Y an adverbial) and three patterns for Estonian (X + ei + V (+X) + küll + other; ei + V + küll# (+ other); X/Y + küll + ei + V + other), where only the last one is frequent. Accordingly, Finnish reveals more flexibility in word order and negation-initial patterns, while in Estonian ei regularly follows küll, which is impossible in Finnish. The negation word and the finite verb have to occur near each other in Estonian but not in Finnish.

    In order to analyze the interactional functions of these patterns, the conversation analytic method is used which makes it possible to reveal participants’ local understanding of each prior action. The study shows that there are two relatively small functional areas where the word order patterns coincide in Finnish and Estonian: in a concessive use ((X+) ei, en + V + kyl(lä)/küll), and when kyl(lä)/küll is used as an utterance-final epistemic marker. The latter pattern, however, is extremely rare in Estonian, and has developed a special implication of ‘as a matter of fact’ in Finnish. 

    In other functions, the word order is different. In particular, in answers to polar questions the ordering of the negation word and kyl(lä) or küll is the opposite, with negation preceding kyl(lä) in Finnish and following küll in Estonian. While in Finnish the word kyl(lä) functions as an epistemic reassurance for the recipient, in Estonian the küll + ei pattern is typically used for building contrast with the prior and setting the initial element into focus. Regardless of the phonological and historical similarity, the syntactic patterns for this adverb/ particle are different, which may reflect more overarching differences in word order between the two languages – something that remains to be explored. At least when it comes to kyl(lä) and küll, Finnish word order is more flexible, while Estonian displays a distinct grammaticalized pattern. Accordingly, the function of the “same” epistemic word emerges in a more content-related manner in Finnish, where it expresses speaker certainty, and as more of a syntactic device in Estonian, where it marks another element in the clause as being contrasted. This illustrates the decisive role of interactional and syntactic context in (the development of) word meaning. 

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  • 8.
    Hakulinen, Auli
    et al.
    Finska, finskugriska och nordiska institutionen, Helsingfors universitet, Finland.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Institutionen för moderna språk, Uppsala universitet.
    Lindström, Jan
    Finskugriska och nordiska avdelningen, Helsingfors universitet, Finland.
    kuule, kule, hördu — projicerande praktiker i finska, estniska och svenska samtal2003In: Grammatik och Samtal: Studier till minne av Mats Eriksson / [ed] Bengt Nordberg, Leelo Keevallik Eriksson, Kerstin Thelander och Mats Thelander, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet , 2003, p. 199-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är inte ovanligt att vissa grupper av verb, som beskriver mänskliga aktiviteter, har syntaktiska egenskaper - eller funktionspotential - som avviker frän andra typer av verb. Som exempel kan nämnas verb som betyder 'låta', 'vänta', 'tänka' och 'säga', vilka i vissa sammanhang förlorar några av sina verbtypiska drag, bl.a. transitivitet. I finskan är det sålunda möjligt att säga Anna mä yritän, bokstavligt 'låt jag försöker' i stället för 'lät mig försöka', i estniskan Oota ma tulen 'vänta jag kommer' i stället för 'vänta på mig tills jag kommer' och i svenskan Tänk jag har också alldeles glömt det där i stället för' {tänk/jag tänker} på att jag också alldeles har glömt det där'. I dessa syntaktiskt speciella användningar förefaller verbets funktion vara på glid från ett »fullt» verb till något slags samtalsreglerande signal (jfr Hellberg 1985:27 för tänk, Keevallik 2001 för oota 'vänta')....

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    kuule, kule, hördu — projicerande praktiker i finska, estniska och svenska samtal
  • 9.
    Hennoste, Tiit
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Pajusalu, Karl
    Introduction (Estonian Sociolinguistics)1999In: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, ISSN 0165-2516, E-ISSN 1613-3668, Vol. 139, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Embodied interaction2020In: Handbook of pragmatics: 23rd annual installment / [ed] Jan-Ola Östman, Jef Verschueren, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2020, p. 111-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying interaction as embodied means that, in addition to verbal information, we take into account the contribution of the participants’ bodies. On the one hand, speaking itself is embodied, as language is produced in the vocal tract and with a variety of functional prosodies. On the other hand, we also use gesture, posture, gaze and movement to make sense to each other, often with the support of the materialities in the environment. Embodied interaction analysis centrally targets the question how human beings use their available bodily and material resources to bring about social action that is treated as meaningful by other participants (Streeck, Goodwin and LeBaron 2011). It dissects both the verbal and embodied methods of action formation at various occasions, and thus does not inevitably treat language as the most important vehicle of meaning. This approach accounts for a wider range of human activity, by covering the embodied aspects of everyday conversation, but also by elucidating the role of language in highly embodied activities.

  • 11.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”More than meets the eye”: Accessing senses in social interaction2021In: Social Interaction: Video Based Studies of Human Sociality, ISSN 2446-3620, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prosody is used for real-time exercising of other bodies2023In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 88, p. 52-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the lexico-grammatical and embodied practices in various instructional activities have been explored in-depth (Keevallik, 2013; Simone & Galatolo, 2020), the vocal capacities deployed by instructors have not been in focus. This study looks at how a Pilates instructor coaches student bodies by modulating the prosodic production of verbal instructions and adjusting vocal quality in reflexive coordination with the students ongoing movements. We show how the body of one participant can be expressed and enhanced by anothers voice in a simultaneous assembly of action and argue for the dialogical conceptualization of a speaker. These voice-body assemblies constitute evidence of how actions were brought about jointly rather than constructed individually.

  • 13.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Löfgren, Agnes
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Suspending Syntax: Bodily Strain and Progressivity in Talk2021In: Frontiers in Communication, E-ISSN 2297-900X, Vol. 6, article id 663307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People speak not only under relaxed conditions but also during strenuous activities, and grammatical resources can be used to achieve displays of strain. This study looks at the relationship between progressivity of talk and bodily strain, focusing on the practice of temporarily suspending syntax while the speaker is accomplishing a physically challenging task. Based on examples from two different physical activities, rock climbing and opera rehearsals, the paper argues that the practice of suspending syntax is a resource available across contexts to render prominence to the strained body and highlight ongoing movement or other bodily action. By placing the strain-based display of incapacity to talk at a moment when the emerging syntactic structure is incomplete, participants maintain rights to resume talk while also presenting themselves as possessing the physical capacity to do so. Suspending syntax is shown to be a minutely timed speakers technique that takes advantage of the emergent nature of syntax and that demonstrates how speakers organize language in relation to the sensing and moving body.

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  • 14.
    Kahlin, Linda
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sweden.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Soderlundh, Hedda
    Sodertorn Univ, Sweden.
    Weidner, Matylda
    Kazimierz Wielki Univ, Poland.
    Translanguaging as a resource for meaning-making at multilingual construction sites2022In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communication, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 261-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate spoken professional interaction at construction sites in Sweden, where workers from Poland, Ukraine and Estonia are temporarily employed as carpenters, ground workers and kitchen installers. We study how the workers use resources associated with different languages and how these resources are mobilized along with embodied resources for meaning-making. The analysis aims at investigating what social space the workers construct by going between or beyond different linguistic structures, as defined in the theory of translanguaging. The study is based on Linguistic Ethnography and Conversation Analysis is used for close analysis. We focus on instances of translanguaging, such as Swedish-sounding institutionalized keywords, practices of receptive multilingualism and the search for communicative overlaps in repertoires. The findings from busy construction sites show that the stratifying aspect gives some workers a voice in the organization, while others remain silent. Hence, it is primarily professionals functioning as team leaders, who talk to different occupational categories and use resources associated with different languages. The data provide an opportunity to investigate the theory of translanguaging and its transformative power in relation to professional settings that are linguistically diverse, but also strictly hierarchical.

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  • 15.
    Katila, Julia
    et al.
    Tampere Univ, Finland.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cries of Pleasure and Pain: Vocalizations Communicating How Touch Feels in Romantic Relationships2023In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 330-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on interaction has recently ventured into the domain of sensoriality, hitherto considered inaccessible for video analysis. This article contributes to this emerging field by targeting the interface of touch and vocal sound, dissecting the intersubjective potential of sounding when bodies are intertwined. Studying naturally occurring affective episodes between romantic partners at their homes with the methods of multimodal interaction analysis, we demonstrate how vocalization can express comfort and thus lead to extension of mutual bodily contact, or inform of discomfort, which leads to swift release of the problematic contact. We argue that, by providing immediate and nuanced access to other participants' ongoing bodily experiences, haptic sensoriality is partially distributed into the auditory domain. The relevance of progressivity in body contact is continuously negotiated and has moral, social, and relational implications, providing grounds for continuous realization of consent. Data are in Finnish.

  • 16.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    A Case of Stable Variation in Spoken Standard Estonian1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Abandoning dead ends: The Estonian junction marker maitea 'I dont know'2016In: JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS, ISSN 0378-2166, Vol. 106, p. 115-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the claim ma ei tea, lit. I not know, often pronounced as maitea in Estonian conversation. In contrast to earlier findings on I dont know as an epistemic hedge and non-answer (based on, among others, English data) the current study shows that maitea accomplishes a specific non-epistemic function in Estonian conversation, as a means of recovering from dead ends in real time. It is deployed for abandoning units-in-progress and discarding stalled topical sequences, and then contingently launching new ones. The paper demonstrates how the meaning of maitea emerges differently in sequential contexts where displays of knowledge have been made relevant, as opposed to when they have not, and thus contributes to the theoretical understanding of meaning as a situated achievement, in particular when it comes to ephemeral cognitive concepts such as "knowing". (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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    Abandoning dead ends: The Estonian junction marker maitea 'I dont know'
  • 18.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Accomplishing continuity across sequences and encounters: No(h)-prefaced initiations in Estonian2013In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 57, p. 274-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiating actions, such as the introduction of a topic or the initiation of a sequence in a conversation, are social accomplishments. The study focuses on the Estonian no(h)-preface in turns that initiate action sequences and often also a locally new topic in a human encounter. It argues that these no(h)-prefaced turns accomplish continuity beyond the current event and thereby index a long-term involvement between the participants. By marking the turn as warranted by an earlier action trajectory, the no(h)-preface contributes to achieving continuity of action across intervening sequences and encounters. The data come from 70 hours of recordings primarily of phone calls.

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  • 19.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Balti keelepoliitika õigustuseks [Justifying language policies in the Baltics]2009In: Sirp, ISSN 1406-6254, Vol. 40, no 0kt 30, p. 5-5Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [et]

    Gabrielle Hogan-Brun, Uldis Ozolins, Meilutė Ramonienė, Mart Rannut, Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States. Current Issues in Language Planning, Volume 8, Issue 4 January 2008, lk 469–631.    Oleme veendunud, et väljaspool Balti riike elavad inimesed ei saa õieti aru, miks meie keelepoliitika on just selline, nagu ta on. Sealjuures on seda kogu taasiseseisvusaja saatnud erakordselt suur rahvusvaheline tähelepanu. Sellest ajendatuna on neli keele- ja poliitikateadlast kirjutanud monograafia, mille eesmärgiks on asetada kolme Balti riigi viimase aja keelepoliitika ajaloolisse konteksti. Raamatu üks põhieesmärke ongi väidelda, et keelealaste otsuste tegemisel ei ole võimalik lähtuda ainult käesolevast hetkest, vaid peab arvestama ka ajaloolist tausta. Seisukoht, mis kodusele lugejale on intuitiivselt endastmõistetav. 

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    Balti keelepoliitika õigustuseks [Justifying language policies in the Baltics]
  • 20.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Bodily quoting in dance correction2010In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 401-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on research into reported speech and enactments, this study explores a new aspect of  quoting by looking at how dance teachers ascribe body movements to students. Whether words or movements are quoted depends on the activity the participants are engaged in and what they aim to accomplish. Within corrective teaching sequences at dance classes bodily quotes serve to contrast incorrect performance with the correct one and display features such as decomposition, highlighting, and exaggeration. They afford simultaneous production of demonstration and description. The paper argues that a quote can only be understood as such within the local context and, even in the case of bodily quoting, with adequate ascription. Quoting other bodies is an inherently multimodal achievement, where vocal as well as bodily resources are implemented to construct a coherent course of action. The study is based on video-recorded data in three languages, Swedish, Estonian and English.

  • 21.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    Clause combining and sequenced actions: the Estonian complementizer and pragmatic particle et2008In: Crosslinguistic Studies of Clause Combining.: The multifunctionality of conjunctions / [ed] Ritva Laury, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins , 2008, p. 125-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage patterns of the Estonian complementizer et in sequentially embedded actions show that it functions as an evidential particle. In oral as well as Internet interaction, clause-initial et attributes upcoming content to the previous speaker/writer and thereby incorporates another voice. Clause-combining with et is thus a common achievement of the participants performing sequenced actions in real time. The development of this complementizer and evidential from an original deictic item most probably started in reported speech, where the recurrent repetition of et may have resulted in the incorporation of the last instance into the following clause.

  • 22.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Clauses emerging as epistemic adverbs in Estonian conversation2010In: Linguistica Uralica, ISSN 0868-4731, E-ISSN 1736-7506, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 81-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper shows how four combinations of 1st person pronoun + epistemic verb emerge as adverbs in contemporary spoken Estonian, arguing that word classes have fuzzy boundaries. Excerpts from naturally occurring conversations demonstrate how ma tean ‘I know’, ma usun ‘I believe’, ma arvan ‘I think’, and mai tea ‘I don’t know’ are used in varying positions in relation to the commented clause with the prosody that usually suggests their integration into these units. The items display somewhat divergent semantics as compared to their components, expressing degrees of epistemic certainty and uncertainty as well as personalized stance.

  • 23.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Finsk-ugriska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Collaborating towards Coherence: Lexical Cohesion in English DiscourseSanna-Kaisa Tanskanen, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 2006, 192 pp., $1582009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 1071-1073Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Institutionen för moderna språk, Uppsala universitet.
    Colloquial Estonian2004In: Estonian Language / [ed] Mati Erelt, Estonian Academy Publishers, Tallinn , 2004, p. 342-378Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term Colloquial Estonian denotes a non-standard spoken variety of Estonian that is understood more or less in the entire speech community, and that is characteristically used in informal everyday settings. The term colloquial, although not commonly used in Estonian linguistics, is introduced here as a practical solution for this book, in which we already have included chapters on dialects and the standard (written) language....

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    Colloquial Estonian
  • 25.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Compromising progressivity: 'no'-prefacing in Estonian2012In: Pragmatics: Quarterly Publication of the International Pragmatics Association, ISSN 1018-2101, E-ISSN 2406-4238, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 119-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative polar particles have generally been characterized as items for expressing disagreement or responding negatively to polar questions. What has been lacking in these accounts is attention to embodied activities. This paper studies the usage of the Estonian negative particle ei as a preface in real-time activities, showing that it halts the ongoing action, often for the sake of achieving intersubjective understanding and establishing epistemic authority. The paper shows how other matters besides logic and truth-conditions define the meaning of the negative particle. Analysis of linguistic function demands transgressing the boundaries of language and scrutiny of co-present interaction in its temporal emergence. The paper argues that several discourse functions of ei are also more accurately described from the vantage point of its usage in multimodal face-to-face settings than from the logical properties that the item happens to display in limited sequential contexts after yes/no interrogatives.

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    Keevallik progressivity 2012
  • 26.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Construction of identity in the Estonian refugee community in Sweden2010In: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 177-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social constructionist approaches underline that identity is constantly negotiated. It emerges in everyday actions and behavioral patterns, fleeting comments by the participants in the social events. Values and attitudes are promoted and confronted. This paper studies membership categorization and pragmatic code-switching in the Swedish Estonian refugee community, demonstrating the fragile balance between the ‘Estonian’ and the ‘Swedish’. The speakers orient to Estonian Estonian as the target variety, while frequently using Swedish for sense-making. The analysis is based on audio and video recordings of Swedish Estonian club activities and research interviews. 

  • 27.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Coordinating the temporalities of talk and dance.2015In: Temporality in Interaction / [ed] Arnulf Deppermann, Suzanne Günthner, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 309-336Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the coordination of vocal and bodily behavior in the multilayered activity of dance teaching, where teachers simultaneously explain and perform. The aim is to show how talk is adjusted to the rhythm and character of the dance on the one hand, and how dance is fitted into the evolving grammar on the other. The study focuses on the emergence of specialized grammar that is capable of incorporating embodied demonstrations. The temporalities of talk and dance are mutually adjusted and intertwined in the teachersí actions, resulting in inherently multimodal patterns of sense-making that are applied for various instructive and other social tasks. Calling into question the analytic boundary between grammar and the body, the paper argues that projection cross-cuts modalities.

  • 28.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Eestikeelse telefonivestluse erijooned [Särdrag i estniska telefonsamtal]2011In: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 0131-1441, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 389-391Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Estnisk invandraridentitet bland flyktingar, 60 år senare.2006In: Vandring och Förvandling. Förflyttning, förändring, framtid.: Humanistdagarna 2004, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Estonian reduplication in action sequences2001In: Nordic and Baltic Morphology: Papers from a NorFA Course, Tartu, June 2000., p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Estonian no(o)(h) in turns and sequences: families of function2016In: NU/NÅ: A family of discourse markers across the languages of Europe and beyond / [ed] Peter Auer and Yael Maschler, Berlin Boston: De Gruyter , 2016, p. 213-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Everyday Construction of Identity in the Estonian Refugee Community in Sweden2010In: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 177-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social constructionist approaches underscore that identity is constantly negotiated. It emerges as values and attitudes are promoted and confronted in everyday actions, behavioral patterns and fleeting comments by participants in social events. This article analyzes membership categorization and pragmatic code-switching in the Swedish Estonian refugee community, demonstrating the fragile balance between 'Estonian' and 'Swedish'. The speakers orient to Estonian Estonian as the target variety of language, while frequently using Swedish for sense-making. The analysis is based on audio and video recordings of Swedish Estonian club activities and research interviews.

  • 33.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    From discourse pattern to epistemic marker: Estonian (ei) tea 'don't know'.2006In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 173-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    In contemporary informal Estonian, the negative verb form ei tea ‘don’t know’ has become a routinized part of generic questions, in which the agent is left unexpressed. This pattern is in accordance with the general impersonal and reference-avoiding style of conversing in Estonia. The study outlines a continuum of synchronic usages from the original expressions sa ei tea ‘you don’t know’ and ma ei tea ‘I don’t know’ to the epistemic usages of (ei) tea, which are specifically tied to the speech act of questioning. The data is interactional and the analysis relies on the interpretation of (ei) tea-questions by the participants themselves, following the methodology of conversation analysis. It is demonstrated that the development of (ei) tea displays phonological and semantic erosion, pragmatic strengthening, subjectification, and decategorialization. Thus, grammaticalization theory is here combined with interactional linguistics in order to display the emergence of a grammatical structure from a discourse pattern.

  • 34.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    From Interaction to Grammar: Estonian Finite Verb Forms in Conversation2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the research tradition of interactional linguistics. It demonstrates how interactional patterns and sequences of actions are, or emerge as, part of the syntagmatic structure of a language, and why the transitions from interaction to grammar as well as from content to function items, are to be regarded as gradual and continuous. Grammar may arise from discourse through frequent implementation of linguistic items in specific social actions that are carried out in certain sequential positions in conversation. The developments proposed for the items in this study, bear numerous similarities to the processes of grammaticalization.

    The data consists of 319 authentic phone calls, recorded in Estonia in 1997/98. All in all, more than 10 hours of talk has been examined, about two thirds of which consist of everyday calls between family members and friends. The rest are telemarketing calls from a newspaper publishing office.

    This is a predominantly qualitative study of 11 finite verb forms in Estonian that display features of development into pragmatic particles or adverbs. It is argued that in order to adequately account for how finite verb forms such as kuule ‘hear!’, ma ei tea ‘I don’t know’, tähendab ‘(it) means’, or oota ‘wait!’ come to be used as particles, it is necessary to look closely at what kinds of actions they frequently implement in the everyday life of the speakers. It is shown, for example, that the jussive form olgu ‘be’ implements conversational closings, and that tead ‘you know’ projects news deliveries and enhances interpersonal involvement. It is also shown that some of the items, such as ütleme ‘let’s say’ rather belong to the formal registers. Methodologically, the study applies conversation analysis with its detailed examination of pieces of recordings and respect to details contingent on each individual action sequence. The idea of gradual semantic change has been borrowed from grammaticalization theory. In addition, the arguments are supported by counts from the current corpus.

  • 35.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grammar for adjusting assumptions: the Estonian enclitic -gi/-ki in interaction2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 2879-2896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article shows how a bound morpheme, the enclitic -gi/-ki in Estonian, functions in the domain of interpersonal relations and mutual knowledge calibration in conversation. Speakers use the enclitic with verbs in order to adjust some assumption previously held by themselves or by their interlocutors. When formulating contributions in talk, participants always display assumptions about matters at hand as well as about what they believe other participants know. Furthermore, when accomplishing a first action in a sequence, they display an assumption that the next speaker will align in her action. All these assumptions are subject to adjustment by other participants who may present themselves as more knowledgeable on the subject matter or more entitled to provide opinions about it. The enclitic is used in reactive turns to indicate better epistemic access and higher authority in relation to a prior speaker, which may result in a disaligning action.

  • 36.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grammatical coordination of embodied action: The Estonian ja 'and' as a temporal coordinator of Pilates moves2020In: Emergent Syntax for Conversation: Clausal Patterns and the Organization of Action / [ed] Yael Maschler, Simona Pekarek Doehler, Jan Lindström, Leelo Keevallik, Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2020, 1, p. 221-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the Estonian coordinating conjunction ja ‘and’ in video- recorded Pilates classes, focusing on the instructors’ practical problem of making the students perform proper movement sequences. It shows how grammatical coordination emerges within a multimodal activity in which the instructor’s talk both directs and responds to student performance. As opposed to the frequent juxtaposition of clauses without connectors, explicit coordination with ja isused for the overall structuring of the class as well as the temporal extensionof talk to achieve synchronicity of vocal and embodied behavior. In contrast to formal theories that consider grammar as a device for coherent expression of pre-planned propositions, this study argues that grammatical structure emerges as part of practical action across participants and modalities.

  • 37.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication.
    Grammatik2020In: Multimodal interaktionsanalys / [ed] Mathias Broth, Leelo Keevallik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, p. 77-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunikation brukar förknippas med språk i någon form. För att kommunicera med svensktalande personer behöver man behärska ord på svenska och veta hur man kombinerar dessa på ett begripligt sätt. Men språket i sig räcker inte för att vi ska förstå varandra i varje konkret situation. Om jag säger "Ta bort den där" så måste du koppla ihop uttrycket "den där" med en gest och koppla gesten till ett objekt i rummet, för att förstå vad jag menar och hur du kan reagera på mitt önskemål. Multimodal interaktionsanalys utgår ifrån att talarna förenar grammatiska resurser - ord, morfologi och syntax - med relevanta aspekter av kontexten, och därmed kan visa hur förståelsen uppnås mellan dig och mig i stunden. I detta kapitel fokuseras grammatikens roll i denna komplexa verklighet.

  • 38.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Grammatika suhtluses [Grammar in Interaction]2002In: Teoreetiline keeleteadus Eestis, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Having a ball: immaterial objects in dance instruction2014In: Interacting with objects: language, materiality, and social activity / [ed] Maurice Nevile, Pentti Haddington, Trine Heinemann, Mirka Rauniomaa, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 249-268Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at how immaterial objects are manipulated into being for pedagogical purposes. Dance teachers employ objects to visualize subtle tactile and kinaesthetic experiences. The objects emerge in a situated manner within activity metaphors where alternative bodily activities are juxtaposed with the dance movement, taking for granted that these alternative activities are tacitly known or more basic. The objects have a temporally limited existence within activity metaphors that involve verbal explanations as well as embodied demonstrations of both the dance and the alternative activity. Furthermore, participants are shown to orient differently to mere object-implying gestures as opposed to fully-fledged whole-body enactments. In the latter, objects may be maintained collectively across time.

  • 40.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Here in time and space: decomposing movement in dance instruction2013In: Interaction and mobility: language and the body in motion / [ed] Pentti Haddington, Lorenza Mondada, Maurice Nevile, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2013, p. 345-370Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do people use language, gestures and the materialenvironment around themfor interacting in mobile situations? Interaction and Mobility brings together international scholars who use video-recordings from real-life everyday settings to study how people interact in diverse mobile situations as part of activities such as walking, driving, flying, dancing and gaming. This book isvaluablefor anyone interested in multimodal interaction and mobility.

  • 41.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    Hinnangu grammatikast [On the grammar of assessments]2010In: Eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse ajakiri, ISSN 1736-8987, E-ISSN 2228-1339, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 147-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [et]

    Artikkel käsitleb lauseid, mis algavad hinnangusõnaga ja mida on traditsiooniliselt käsitletud aluslauseliste tarinditena. Võttes arvesse morfosüntaktilisi, semantilisi, järjendilisi ja intonatsioonilisi piiranguid, argumenteeritakse, et pigem tuleks tarindit analüüsida kui kommentaari ja lause kombinatsiooni. Kommentaar sisaldab hinnangusõna või -fraasi ja lause hinnatavat. Hinnangulausel on seega eesti keeles oma eripärane grammatiline vorm. Tarindi peamiseks eeliseks on võimalus kommenteerida eelnevat, minnes samas kohe edasi järgmise vaatenurga või teema juurde. Materjal pärineb nii suulistest kui kirjalikest allikatest ja peamiselt suhtluskeskkondadest, st suulisest vestlusest ja interneti jututubadest.

  • 42.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Informatsioonikäsitluse partikkel ahah telefonivestluses [The particle of information management ahah in Estonian phone conversations]1999In: Emakeele seltsi aastaraamat, ISSN 0206-3735, Vol. 43, p. 34-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Internal development and borrowing of pragmatic particles: the Estonian vaata/vat 'look', näed 'you see' and vot.2008In: Finnisch-ugrische Mitteilungen, ISSN 0341-7816, Vol. 30/31, p. 23-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper compares the pragmatic usage patterns of the Estonian particles vaata/vat ‘look’, näed ‘you see’ and vot in interaction. The two first of these have most probably developed language-internally — the frequent usage of a particular verb form in a specific function has resulted in its grammaticalization as a particle. Näed is predominantly an evidential particle and vaata/vat an explanatory and focusing particle. The particularized forms may be phonologically assimilated or shortened and they do not behave as predicates. No arguments can be attached to them and they have acquired new functions that instead concern text structure and interaction. The Russian loanword vot, on the other hand, has been stigmatized in Estonian linguistics and instead, the literary form vaat has been officially promoted. The present article shows why this is a mistake. The particle vot may occasionally fulfill the same functions as näed and vaata/vat but it also displays completely idiosyncratic interactional functions, such as topic closure and handing over the turn to the interlocutor who can then introduce a new topic or alternatively a closure of the conversation. The nature of these efficacious particles can only be revealed in conversational sequences and for their adequate analysis one has to account for the dynamics of interaction.

  • 44.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Institutionen för moderna språk,Uppsala universitet.
    Interrogative "complements" and question design in Estonian2011In: 'Subordination' in Conversation: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective / [ed] Ritva Laury & Ryoko Suzuki, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 37-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some interrogative subject and object complement clauses are not treated as subordinate in Estonian interaction. They are interactionally profiled, as participants answer them as questions. Grammatically, they behave like independent clauses, displaying inversion and the turn-final question particle vä/ve. The main clauses considered in the chapter, ütle/öelge ‘say!’, räägi ‘talk/tell!’, ei tea ‘not know’, and uvitav ‘interesting’, instead function as (epistemic) particles projecting and designing questions in a sequentially and interpersonally sensitive way

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    Interrogative "complements" and question design in Estonian
  • 45.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Keelekontakt ja pragmaatika. [Language contact and pragmatics.]2006In: Teoreetiline keeleteadus Eestis II., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Keelendid et ja nii et vestluses [The linguistic units et and nii et in conversation]2000In: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 0131-1441, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 344-358Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kroppsrörelser istället för ord2019In: Sånt vi bara gör / [ed] Jenny Nilsson, Susanne Nylund Skoog, Fredrik Scott, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2019, p. 261-263Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Käskiv kõneviis nõustuvas voorus ja vastuste tüpoloogia [Imperative in complying turns and the typology of answers]2009In: Emakeele seltsi aastaraamat, ISSN 0206-3735, Vol. 54, p. 94-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imperative has traditionally been treated as a grammatical feature characteristic of first pair parts in adjacency pairs, expressing orders, requests, challenges, and demands. These actions make relevant compliance as the next action. In a number of languages, however, among them in Estonian, imperative is also used in second pair parts. It occurs as a response to a proposal that is expressed in first person but implies collaboration on behalf of the recipient. As a rule, the verb from the first pair part of the adjacency pair (proposal) is repeated in the complying imperative response. The sequence proposal in 1st person – compliance in 2nd person imperative constitutes a grammatical configuration that results form the particular interactional goals of the speakers. Without taking into consideration the specifics of social actions and their sequencing the configuration is impossible to characterize, as the syntax of the proposals varies.

    As an alternative to the generic response with particle jaa/jah, a verb repeat is a more independent action that enhances the social and deontic force of the answer. By complying with a verb, the speaker makes a stronger commitment to the proposed activity.

    Verb repeats, albeit not in the imperative, are also possible as responses to proposals in other persons in Estonian. In addition, they occur as responses to yes/no questions. The latter pattern has been described as a typological feature in world’s languages. It seems that the possibility of imperative responses co-occurs with verb repeat responses to questions. In varieties of Estonian that have been in close contact with languages that do not reuse verbs in the same way, such as Swedish, verbs are instead replaced with ’do’ in the second pair part.

    The study is based on spoken language corpora.

  • 49.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linguistic structures emerging in the synchronization of a pilates class2020In: Moblizing others: grammar and lexis within larger activities / [ed] Carmen Taleghani-Nikazm, Emma Betz, Peter Golato, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2020, p. 147-173Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter targets grammar in the interactive process between a Pilates teacher and the exercising students, an activity context in which instruction and compli- ance can be designed to merge in time. It shows how linguistic structure, such as counts, formula, and phrases, emerges step-by-step sensitively to the others’ cur- rently moving bodies. At the same time, the situation-designed structures direct the students through the partially known moves. In contrast to formal theories that consider grammar as a device for coherent expression of propositions, this study argues that grammatical structure emerges through recurrent use in a spe- cific activity context. The video-recorded data is in Estonian.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linking performances: The temporality of contrastive grammar2017In: Linking Clauses and Actions in Social Interaction / [ed] R. Laury, M. Etelämäki & E. Couper-Kuhlen, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2017, p. 54-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
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