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  • 1.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Johan
    Arcona AB, Sweden.
    Hyll, Henrik
    NCC Construction.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Optimity AB.
    Westin, Arvid
    Arcona AB.
    Hur taktisk planering kan underlätta resursplanering i byggbranschen – Processer och IT-verktyg2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna artikel är att visa på hur resurser inom byggföretag kan planeras på taktisk nivå med hjälp av optimeringsverktyg. Den rådande högkonjunkturen i Sverige med högre efterfrågan från beställare än vad byggentreprenörerna kan levererar måste entreprenörerna aktivt välja vilka projekt man ska gå in med anbud på. Beslutet måste vara välgrundat på information gällande efterfrågade projekt, tillgängliga resurser och potentiell vinstmarginal på projekten. Det är här taktisk planering kommer in genom att balansera potentiella projekt med den kapacitet byggföretaget har för att kunna gå in med anbud på de projekt som genererar högst vinstmarginal. Genom att studera två byggföretag (NCC och Arcona) presenteras processer och IT-verktyg för taktisk planering inom bygg. I NCC:s fall har fokus legat på att skapa sammanhållna processer och IT-verktyg för att hämta in data om framtida projekt och aktivt välja rätt projekt baserat på vilka reseurs dessa kräver, vilken kapacitet man har tillgängliga när projektet startar och vad vinstmarginalen blir. I Arconas fall har fokus legat på att skapa sammanhållna processer och IT-verktyg för att balanser aktiviteter och materialbehov genom hela byggprojektet.  På så sätt kan man i framtiden bättre planera behovet av kapacitet i deras nyutvecklade terminallösning baserat på hur mycket material som kan tänkas flöda genom den mht framtida projekt. Resultatet från studien visar på behovet av taktisk planering bland byggföretagen och hur den planeringen agerar som en länk mellan strategiska beslut och operativt arbete. Detta är ett viktigt bidrag för byggföretagen då de har beslutsstöd för att kunna fatta ett välgrundat beslut på vilka projekt man ska gå in med anbud på.

     

  • 2.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shurrab, Hafez
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Torres, Joan
    Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT).
    Exploring contextual variables of tactical planning within the construction industry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to explore what context dependencies within the planning environment of the construction industry that need to be considered designing tactical planning processes. The preliminary result using a Delphi study including architects, clients, contractors, researchers, and suppliers indicates that the top five most important context dependencies are: Several kinds of stakeholders, Several planning phases, Lack of standardisation in planning, Low information sharing, and Opportunistic behaviour. Based on the patterns between the different expert groups two propositions are developed, indicating lack of shared understanding of planning between different stakeholders in construction and a project focus when thinking of planning.

  • 3.
    Persson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adapting the SCOR Make Process to the Construction Industry Settings2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2009, Linköping University has been running the Builder’s SCOR project. The project is supported by the research collaboration Brains&Bricks where Linköping University, the construction company Peab, and the municipality of Katrineholm participates to enhance the efficiency of the construction industry. The Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR) is based on the SCOR model (Supply Chain Operations Reference Model) developed and supported by Supply Chain Council (SCC, 2012, SCOR, 2010). The BSCOR project is divided into several sub-projects and is still on-going. This paper reports on the third phase in the project where the Make-process of SCOR is converted to BSCOR in terms of process definitions. The first phase, the pilot study, used the SCOR model in a construction setting and evaluated how useful the model was. This work is reported in Johansson and Persson (2011) and Persson et al. (2009), where the need for something very similar to the BSCOR model is argued. The second phase included a case study of a mid-range construction project (turnover of € 1 – 10 million) where the SCOR-processes Source and Deliver were studied. This resulted in new definitions of processes and metrics in order to take the unique conditions of the construction industry into consideration. The work is reported in Persson and Thunberg (2012) and Thunberg (2011). The third phase, in this paper, studies the Make-processes in construction through two case studies of midrange construction projects. This paper outlines the results of the case studies and defines the processes in Make at the three different levels of BSCOR. As the last phase, Deliver and Plan will be studied through interviews with personnel from construction companies as well as from companies that order and buy construction projects. A study on adapting the Return-process is not conducted as the results from Thunberg (2011) indicate that faulty construction materials are seldom returned. With the four phases outlined here, a complete BSCOR model will be defined and used in several construction projects. The aim is to broaden the scope of use to other construction companies outside the collaboration of Brains&Bricks.

  • 4.
    Persson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adapting the SCOR model to the construction industry settings2012In: Nofoma 2012 - Proceedings of the 24th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference, 7-8 June, Naantali, Finland / [ed] Juuso Töyli, Laura Johansson, Harri Lorentz, Lauri Ojala and Sini Laari, Åbo, Finland: Turku School of Economics , 2012, , p. 20p. 719-737Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to improve construction logistics by introducing an adapted version of the SCOR (Supply Chain Operations and Reference) model. Sub-processes and metrics related to the Deliver and Source processes in the SCOR model that are in need of changes to adapt SCOR to the construction industry settings are identified.

    Design/methodology/approach

    By observing the Deliver and Source processes and metrics in the SCOR model at a construction site, suggestions for important changes that need to be made to the SCOR model are given. This is done by using case study as a research method for theory building.

    Findings

    Findings from the case study result in proposals for new Deliver and Source  sub-processes, changes in current sub-processes and new metrics. These changes constitute the first version of the Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR).

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper presents the work of finding important changes related to the main processes Deliver (delivery of materials from supplier to site) and Source (receiving materials at site) in the SCOR model. Future work will consider important changes related to the main processes Make, Deliver (from site to customer), Plan and Return.

    Originality/value

    This paper analyses which parts of the SCOR model that need (or not need) to be adapted to embrace construction industry settings, resulting in a draft of a model based on the SCOR model that comprehends construction industry settings. Accordingly, this can lead to a better adaption of the processes and metrics to map, control, and coordinate the supply chain which can result in an increased profit for construction companies.

  • 5.
    Persson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logistikverktyg visar flödet på byggarbetsplatsen2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Developing a Framework for Supply Chain Planning in Construction2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain management (SCM) has been stressed as a remedy to many of the underlying issues in the construction industry. However, the positive examples where SCM has been successfully utilised and diminished the lingering issues in construction is scarce. The question is why. Previous studies have stressed the importance of planning both the construction project as such but also the supply chain and the logistics. As an important part of SCM, supply chain planning (SCP) focuses on planning different aspects of the supply chain through involving different members of the supply chain in the planning process. SCP in construction is scarce as the planning of the logistics in general. Failing to plan the supply chain, involving supply chain members in the planning, and integrating the processes of planning the supply chains and the construction project can be one reason for the low numbers of successful SCM adoption in construction. In improving the SCP in construction, this thesis develops a SCP framework for construction that involves the main contractor, subcontractors, and suppliers. The aim is to improve SCP, collaboration, and eliminate many of the common problems in construction through a SCM and SCP perspective.

    The developed framework is based on an existing planning framework for sales and operations planning. This framework is generic and synthesises planning in general. It consists of identifying/developing: outcomes, input, organisation, process, key performance measurements, and IT-tools. It is thus necessary to investigate what these aspects means in a construction context. Four research objects will be fulfilled:

    Objective 1. Identify common logistical problems and linkages between them

    Objective 2. Develop a SCP process

    Objective 3. Develop a SCP organisation

    Objective 4. Identify performance measurements

    List of papers
    1. Using the SCOR model’s performance measurements to improve construction logistics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the SCOR model’s performance measurements to improve construction logistics
    2014 (English)In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 25, no 13/14, p. 1056-1078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, construction material supplier and construction site performance are assessed according to the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model. Current applicable literature focuses mainly on assessing the main contractor’s ability to construct a building according to customer requirements, i.e. construction performance. Omitting supplier performance when evaluating construction performance reduces the ability to improve the construction supply chain, as reasons for cost and time overruns and quality deficiencies will often be overlooked. In this paper, the SCOR metrics perfect order fulfilment (POF), source cycle time (SCT) and cost to source(CS) are measured to assess construction supplier reliability and construction site responsiveness. The values for POF, SCT and CS are measured to be 38%, 134 min and EUR 249, respectively. The practical implications are summarised in five improvement suggestions concerning communication, predefined material allocation, supplier performance assessment, delivery verification and notification and use of the SCOR model.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2014
    Keywords
    construction industry, construction logistics, construction SCM, performance measurement, SCOR
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96788 (URN)10.1080/09537287.2013.808836 (DOI)000343288400002 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Adapting the SCOR model to the construction industry settings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adapting the SCOR model to the construction industry settings
    2012 (English)In: Nofoma 2012 - Proceedings of the 24th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference, 7-8 June, Naantali, Finland / [ed] Juuso Töyli, Laura Johansson, Harri Lorentz, Lauri Ojala and Sini Laari, Åbo, Finland: Turku School of Economics , 2012, , p. 20p. 719-737Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to improve construction logistics by introducing an adapted version of the SCOR (Supply Chain Operations and Reference) model. Sub-processes and metrics related to the Deliver and Source processes in the SCOR model that are in need of changes to adapt SCOR to the construction industry settings are identified.

    Design/methodology/approach

    By observing the Deliver and Source processes and metrics in the SCOR model at a construction site, suggestions for important changes that need to be made to the SCOR model are given. This is done by using case study as a research method for theory building.

    Findings

    Findings from the case study result in proposals for new Deliver and Source  sub-processes, changes in current sub-processes and new metrics. These changes constitute the first version of the Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR).

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper presents the work of finding important changes related to the main processes Deliver (delivery of materials from supplier to site) and Source (receiving materials at site) in the SCOR model. Future work will consider important changes related to the main processes Make, Deliver (from site to customer), Plan and Return.

    Originality/value

    This paper analyses which parts of the SCOR model that need (or not need) to be adapted to embrace construction industry settings, resulting in a draft of a model based on the SCOR model that comprehends construction industry settings. Accordingly, this can lead to a better adaption of the processes and metrics to map, control, and coordinate the supply chain which can result in an increased profit for construction companies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Åbo, Finland: Turku School of Economics, 2012. p. 20
    Keywords
    Construction, Logistics, SCOR, SCM, Metrics
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78800 (URN)978-952-249-204-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    NOFOMA 2012 - The 24th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference, 7-8 June, Naantali, Finland
    Available from: 2012-06-20 Created: 2012-06-20 Last updated: 2016-10-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Developing an organisation and process for supply chain planning in construction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing an organisation and process for supply chain planning in construction
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings from the 23rd EurOMA conference 2016, 19-21st ofJune 2013, Trondheim Norway, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain planning (SCP) can be a facilitator for involving supply chain members in improving operations. Lack of integrating supply chain members has been argued to cause a lack of communication and low productivity. The  purpose is to develop an organisation and process for SCP in construction, which is done via a focus group study with participants from key supply chain  members. The contributions include a suggestion of how to organise SCP in construction, containing inputs, outcomes, process descriptions, meetings, etc. The main outcome of the SCP process is a balanced material delivery schedule, updated regularly, integrating supply chain members.

    Keywords
    Construction, Supply chain management, Supply chain planning
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131616 (URN)
    Conference
    23rd EurOMA conference 2016, 19-21st of June 2013, Trondheim Norway
    Available from: 2016-09-28 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Doktor ska motverka usel effektivitet2016In: ByggindustrinArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Forskning: Så kan byggprocessen snabbas på2016In: Byggaren : nyhetsforum för fackmannen, ISSN 2000-7280Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Ny byggforskning en milstolpe för LiU2013In: Norrköpings tidningarArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Nytt verktyg för att hitta brister i leveranser2013In: Ny TeknikArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance Measurements for Improving Construction Logistics - A Case Study2011In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2011: Logistik i praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Fredrik Persson; Martin Rudberg, Stockholm: Logistikföreningen Plan , 2011, p. 109-124Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the spring of 2010 a case study with the ambition to measure the construction site logistics in terms of Perfect Order Fulfilment and the movement of goods was conducted. It was found that less than 38 % of all incoming deliveries to the specific site were delivered correctly, regarding item, quantity, damage, documentation, and delivery date. Due to the inadequate management of delivery performance and logistics, extra movements of goods are prominent. During a period of 20 workdays a cost of about 30 000 SEK was spent on moving goods, many of these movements could be seen as unnecessary and could be avoided with proper planning. 

  • 12.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards a Framework for Process Mapping and Performance Measurement in Construction Supply Chains2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to develop a framework for process mapping and performance measurement in construction supply chains. This is done as current literature suggest that many of the problems that cause the cost- and time overruns in construction can be mitigated by implementing supply chain management (SCM) principles. For example, temporary organisations, fragmentation, etc. can affect the time and cost as work and information among members easily are delayed and even distorted. It is also recognised by many authors that planning the construction work and logistics often are tainted with synchronisation and coordination problems between supply chain members. It is deemed necessary with a framework for mapping logistic activities and measuring supply chain performance. Up until now, there exists no framework for mapping the whole construction supply chain and measuring its performance, that encompasses the whole chain from raw material to the finished building.

    As stated above, the purpose with this thesis is to develop such a framework. In order to do so an existing framework is used as a basis, the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model. The SCOR model consists of five process groups (Plan, Source, Make, Deliver, and Return) hierarchically structured in three levels and some 500 predefined performance metrics. This framework is proven fruitful in other industries but it is also proven by other authors in the field suitable as a basis for a construction adapted version. Other frameworks do exist, but none of these are as comprehensive as the SCOR model. Resent research also suggests that the SCOR model is possible to adjust to unique industry settings. It is identified in this study that the SCOR model has to be adapted to the characteristics of the construction industry. Therefore, the framework presented in this thesis is developed via adaption of the SCOR model to the characteristics of the construction industry. In doing so, a total of four research objectives corresponding to the process groups in the SCOR model are considered for adapting the SCOR model. The Return process, however, is not included in this thesis.

    Objective 1. Adapt the SCOR model’s Deliver process to the characteristics of the construction industry.

    Objective 2. Adapt the SCOR model’s Source processes to the characteristics of the construction industry.

    Objective 3. Adapt the SCOR model’s Make processes to the characteristics of the construction industry.

    Objective 4. Adapt the SCOR model’s Plan processes to the characteristics of the construction industry.

    The main method utilised in the study is case study research. The results are derived from a total of three case studies. The SCOR model is applied to the cases as it is. Through observing how suitable the framework is for the industry the four aforementioned objectives are addressed. Except from direct observations (with time measurements), other data gathering methods utilised are questionnaires and interviews.

    The adapted version of the SCOR model is entitled the Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR). Findings from the studies indicate that necessary changes to the SCOR model concerns how the material flow in the processes are separated. The SCOR model suggests separating materials based on type of end product (e.g. Make-to-Stock – MTS, Make-to-Order – MTO, or Engineer-to-Order – ETO character). In the BSCOR model, the flow of materials are separated based on who orders them (the main contractor or any of the subcontractors), rather than type of material. The BSCOR model also suggests how the planning process should be organised in order to overcome coordination issues. Finally, one measurement included in the BSCOR model is to keep track of whether an incoming delivery of construction materials is notified in time. An order is not perfectly delivered if it is not notified in time.

    One managerial contribution with the study is a framework for mapping supply chain activities and measuring supply chain performance. The framework also offers the ability to measure how the supply chain of a company performs compared to other companies’ supply chains. The study contributes to the academia as it fills the gap of a lack in frameworks suitable for mapping and measuring construction logistics. It also contributes in reporting on the current logistics status in the construction industry.

    List of papers
    1. Using the SCOR model’s performance measurements to improve construction logistics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the SCOR model’s performance measurements to improve construction logistics
    2014 (English)In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 25, no 13/14, p. 1056-1078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, construction material supplier and construction site performance are assessed according to the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model. Current applicable literature focuses mainly on assessing the main contractor’s ability to construct a building according to customer requirements, i.e. construction performance. Omitting supplier performance when evaluating construction performance reduces the ability to improve the construction supply chain, as reasons for cost and time overruns and quality deficiencies will often be overlooked. In this paper, the SCOR metrics perfect order fulfilment (POF), source cycle time (SCT) and cost to source(CS) are measured to assess construction supplier reliability and construction site responsiveness. The values for POF, SCT and CS are measured to be 38%, 134 min and EUR 249, respectively. The practical implications are summarised in five improvement suggestions concerning communication, predefined material allocation, supplier performance assessment, delivery verification and notification and use of the SCOR model.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2014
    Keywords
    construction industry, construction logistics, construction SCM, performance measurement, SCOR
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96788 (URN)10.1080/09537287.2013.808836 (DOI)000343288400002 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Adapting the SCOR model to the construction industry settings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adapting the SCOR model to the construction industry settings
    2012 (English)In: Nofoma 2012 - Proceedings of the 24th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference, 7-8 June, Naantali, Finland / [ed] Juuso Töyli, Laura Johansson, Harri Lorentz, Lauri Ojala and Sini Laari, Åbo, Finland: Turku School of Economics , 2012, , p. 20p. 719-737Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to improve construction logistics by introducing an adapted version of the SCOR (Supply Chain Operations and Reference) model. Sub-processes and metrics related to the Deliver and Source processes in the SCOR model that are in need of changes to adapt SCOR to the construction industry settings are identified.

    Design/methodology/approach

    By observing the Deliver and Source processes and metrics in the SCOR model at a construction site, suggestions for important changes that need to be made to the SCOR model are given. This is done by using case study as a research method for theory building.

    Findings

    Findings from the case study result in proposals for new Deliver and Source  sub-processes, changes in current sub-processes and new metrics. These changes constitute the first version of the Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR).

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper presents the work of finding important changes related to the main processes Deliver (delivery of materials from supplier to site) and Source (receiving materials at site) in the SCOR model. Future work will consider important changes related to the main processes Make, Deliver (from site to customer), Plan and Return.

    Originality/value

    This paper analyses which parts of the SCOR model that need (or not need) to be adapted to embrace construction industry settings, resulting in a draft of a model based on the SCOR model that comprehends construction industry settings. Accordingly, this can lead to a better adaption of the processes and metrics to map, control, and coordinate the supply chain which can result in an increased profit for construction companies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Åbo, Finland: Turku School of Economics, 2012. p. 20
    Keywords
    Construction, Logistics, SCOR, SCM, Metrics
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78800 (URN)978-952-249-204-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    NOFOMA 2012 - The 24th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference, 7-8 June, Naantali, Finland
    Available from: 2012-06-20 Created: 2012-06-20 Last updated: 2016-10-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Adapting the SCOR Make Process to the Construction Industry Settings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adapting the SCOR Make Process to the Construction Industry Settings
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2009, Linköping University has been running the Builder’s SCOR project. The project is supported by the research collaboration Brains&Bricks where Linköping University, the construction company Peab, and the municipality of Katrineholm participates to enhance the efficiency of the construction industry. The Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR) is based on the SCOR model (Supply Chain Operations Reference Model) developed and supported by Supply Chain Council (SCC, 2012, SCOR, 2010). The BSCOR project is divided into several sub-projects and is still on-going. This paper reports on the third phase in the project where the Make-process of SCOR is converted to BSCOR in terms of process definitions. The first phase, the pilot study, used the SCOR model in a construction setting and evaluated how useful the model was. This work is reported in Johansson and Persson (2011) and Persson et al. (2009), where the need for something very similar to the BSCOR model is argued. The second phase included a case study of a mid-range construction project (turnover of € 1 – 10 million) where the SCOR-processes Source and Deliver were studied. This resulted in new definitions of processes and metrics in order to take the unique conditions of the construction industry into consideration. The work is reported in Persson and Thunberg (2012) and Thunberg (2011). The third phase, in this paper, studies the Make-processes in construction through two case studies of midrange construction projects. This paper outlines the results of the case studies and defines the processes in Make at the three different levels of BSCOR. As the last phase, Deliver and Plan will be studied through interviews with personnel from construction companies as well as from companies that order and buy construction projects. A study on adapting the Return-process is not conducted as the results from Thunberg (2011) indicate that faulty construction materials are seldom returned. With the four phases outlined here, a complete BSCOR model will be defined and used in several construction projects. The aim is to broaden the scope of use to other construction companies outside the collaboration of Brains&Bricks.

    Publisher
    p. 20
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-101963 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
    4. Coordinated supply chain planning in construction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinated supply chain planning in construction
    2013 (English)In: 7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 546-556Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to analyse how supply chain planningin construction can be better coordinated, both concerning the supply chain assuch and concerning activities on-site. A literature review and a case studyidentify a number of problems that occur due to poor coordination. To mitigatethese problems it is suggested that a structured framework, like the SupplyChain Operations Reference (SCOR) model, can facilitate the implementation ofsupply chain management so as to enhance coordination and supply chainperformance in the construction industry. The use of a structured model isargued to improve the integration of subcontractors and suppliers in the maincontractor’s planning process. The focus is on the so called “Plan” process in theSCOR model, which is the process that is used to coordinate supply chainactivities in all parts of the supply chain, including site activities. Thefindings identify which parts of the SCOR Plan process that need to be adjustedto fit the construction industry and how it can facilitate the synchronisationbetween the main contractor and its subcontractors. The main contribution is thedevelopment of a model for mapping and managing the construction planning process,so as to enhance coordination and the performance of the construction supplychain.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013
    Keywords
    BSCOR, Construction logistics, Construction planning, Planning framework, SCOR, Supply chain management
    National Category
    Construction Management Building Technologies Transport Systems and Logistics Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96754 (URN)9788232102730 (ISBN)
    Conference
    7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation, 12-14 June 2013, Trondheim, Norway
    Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-08-26 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bringing planning back into the picture: How can supply chain planning aid in dealing with supply chain related problems in construction?2018In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 425-442, article id RCME-MS-16-2640R3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several supply chain related problems facing the construction industry, such as poor construction site logistics, lack of communication and trust. These problems can jeopardise construction projects through delays and cost overruns. Supply chain planning, a part of supply chain management (SCM), can be used as a tool to deal with these problems. The purpose of this paper is to study how linkages between common supply chain related problems in construction can be illustrated and to demonstrate how they could be resolved through supply chain planning. Firstly, we identify how the linkages between common problems can be illustrated, and secondly the role of supply chain planning in resolving these problems. A conceptual model is developed that was verified using three cases with Swedish gypsum and kitchen supply chains. The model is shown to be useful in illustrating how supply chain problems occurring at executional level on-site are related to problems originating in lack of planning at company/pre-construction level. The study thus demonstrates how supply chain planning can aid in resolving supply chain problems. The paper contributes by bringing planning back into the picture and by showing how supply chain planning can help to adopt SCM in construction.

  • 14.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Supplier and contractor perspectives on supply chain planning problems in construction: A multiple case study2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction supply chain planning (SCP) is often associated with problems. An earlier study categorized the problems into material flow, communication, and complexity. The purpose of this study is to identify different construction supply chain actors’ perspectives on these SCP problems. Results show that all actors identify the problems but there are diverse opinions on their origin and cause. Links between the executional problems the site managers see and the SCP development problems seen by others are identified. One contribution is the importance of SCP in an early phase of the project including also actors outside the contractor. 

  • 15.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The information exchange pyramid in construction supply chains2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Johan
    Arcona, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hyll, Henrik
    NCC Construction, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Optimity Software, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westin, Arvid
    Arcona, Stockholm, Sweden.
    PLANNING IN CONSTRUCTION - HOW ARE THE DIFFERENT PLANNING PROCESSES LINKED?2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 33rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE, ARCOM (Association of Researchers in Construction Management) / [ed] Chan, P W and Neilson, C J, ARCOM, Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a current debate among construction researchers that resources and materials are not efficiently coordinated between projects, which in the long-run can negatively affect productivity and profitability. Other industries have improved resource utilisation with a hierarchical perspective on planning and tactical planning, the MPC perspective (Manufacturing Planning and Control). Adopting this way of planning among construction contractors would allow for improved coordination and resource utilisation as an overview of the project portfolio is taken. However, this perspective is new to construction contractors and learnings need to be gathered for understanding MPC in a construction context. The purpose of this paper is by taking a MPC perspective to increase the understanding of how resources and materials can be coordinated within a contractor’s project portfolio on a tactical level. The study is based on case studies within two Swedish contractors. The study presents a structure for how to include a tactical planning process within a contractor’s overall planning and what the main components are of this process.

  • 17.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kjellsdotter Ivert, Linea
    Stiftelsen Chalmers industriteknik, Göteborg.
    Liljestrand, Kristina
    Stiftelsen Chalmers industriteknik, Göteborg.
    Behovet av informationsdelning i byggbranschen2018In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2018. Artiklar från konferensen på Tekniska högskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping 23-24 oktober 2018, Jönköping: Jönköping University , 2018, p. 233-247Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökade efterfrågan om att digitalisera informationsflödet i byggbranschen har fått företagen att inse behovet av att veta vilken information som behöver delas och vem som har behov av informationen. Syftet med denna artikel är att identifiera behovsområden för informationsdelning i gränssnittet mellan försörjningskedjan och byggprocessen i byggprojekt mellan olika aktörer för att identifiera potentialer för förbättring. D.v.s. identifiera vilken information som behöver delas och med vem för att i framtiden kunna skapa t.ex. digitala lösningar som möjliggör automatisk hämtning och uppdatering mellan olika IT-system. För att utröna vilket informationsbehov som finns i branschen genomfördes ett 20-tal semistrukturerade intervjuer med aktörer som återspeglar olika perspektiv i gränssnittet mellan försörjningskedjan och byggprocessen: beställare (inkl. kommuner), entreprenörer, installatörer, maskinuthyrare, materialleverantörer, återvinningsföretag och transportörer. Resultatet visar på att informationsbehovet delvist är liknande när det gäller leveransinformation men skiljer sig en del när det gäller projektinformation. Detta indikerar att informationsbehov kan ses som en ”pyramid” av flera lager med information där understa lagret är leveransinformation som alla upplever behov av. Mellersta lagret är leveransplanering som beställare, entreprenörer, installatörer, maskinuthyrare, materialleverantörer och återvinningsföretag behöver. Det översta lagret utgörs av  projektinformation som beställare, entreprenörer och installatörer behöver. Trots olika perspektiv så är en stor del av informationsbehovet lika, vilket är av vikt för entreprenören att förstå. Detta bidrar även till en tydligare bild av vilken information som behövs av vem. Resultatet ger även bidrag till den rådande forskningen och samhällsdebatten om digitalisering och informationsdelning i byggbranschen. Fortsatta studier behöver bl.a. titta på vem som ska vara ansvarig för insamlandet av informationen, hur den ska digitaliseras och hur den ska hållas à jour.

  • 18.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Developing an organisation and process for supply chain planning in construction2016In: Proceedings from the 23rd EurOMA conference 2016, 19-21st ofJune 2013, Trondheim Norway, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain planning (SCP) can be a facilitator for involving supply chain members in improving operations. Lack of integrating supply chain members has been argued to cause a lack of communication and low productivity. The  purpose is to develop an organisation and process for SCP in construction, which is done via a focus group study with participants from key supply chain  members. The contributions include a suggestion of how to organise SCP in construction, containing inputs, outcomes, process descriptions, meetings, etc. The main outcome of the SCP process is a balanced material delivery schedule, updated regularly, integrating supply chain members.

  • 19.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A logistics framework for improving construction supply chain performance2013In: Procs 29th Annual ARCOM Conference / [ed] Smith, S.D; Ahiaga-Dagbui, D.D, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management (ARCOM) , 2013, , p. 11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, attention has been placed on the logistics activities in construction projects in order to reduce total costs. The construction industry is experiencing poor productivity, resulting from an inability of contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers to cooperate efficiently. Research on logistics in construction lacks a holistic perspective and tends to focus on one activity at a time. This research presents the Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR) to be used for logistics improvements in construction. The model is based on the Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR model) covering the total supply chain. The BSCOR model is empirically derived through five case studies at different construction sites over a period of five years. This has resulted in a model covering the activities Source, Build, and Plan, that describes the flow of materials to and on the site and how ownership passes to the client. With the BSCOR model, contractors can map the material and information flows between supply chain members with standardized process definitions. It is also possible to precisely measure the supply chain performance and to know where to put improvements efforts. The main intention with the BSCOR model is to help the industry reduce costs and increase productivity.

  • 20.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using the SCOR model’s performance measurements to improve construction logistics2014In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 25, no 13/14, p. 1056-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, construction material supplier and construction site performance are assessed according to the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model. Current applicable literature focuses mainly on assessing the main contractor’s ability to construct a building according to customer requirements, i.e. construction performance. Omitting supplier performance when evaluating construction performance reduces the ability to improve the construction supply chain, as reasons for cost and time overruns and quality deficiencies will often be overlooked. In this paper, the SCOR metrics perfect order fulfilment (POF), source cycle time (SCT) and cost to source(CS) are measured to assess construction supplier reliability and construction site responsiveness. The values for POF, SCT and CS are measured to be 38%, 134 min and EUR 249, respectively. The practical implications are summarised in five improvement suggestions concerning communication, predefined material allocation, supplier performance assessment, delivery verification and notification and use of the SCOR model.

  • 21.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coordinated supply chain planning in construction2013In: 7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 546-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to analyse how supply chain planningin construction can be better coordinated, both concerning the supply chain assuch and concerning activities on-site. A literature review and a case studyidentify a number of problems that occur due to poor coordination. To mitigatethese problems it is suggested that a structured framework, like the SupplyChain Operations Reference (SCOR) model, can facilitate the implementation ofsupply chain management so as to enhance coordination and supply chainperformance in the construction industry. The use of a structured model isargued to improve the integration of subcontractors and suppliers in the maincontractor’s planning process. The focus is on the so called “Plan” process in theSCOR model, which is the process that is used to coordinate supply chainactivities in all parts of the supply chain, including site activities. Thefindings identify which parts of the SCOR Plan process that need to be adjustedto fit the construction industry and how it can facilitate the synchronisationbetween the main contractor and its subcontractors. The main contribution is thedevelopment of a model for mapping and managing the construction planning process,so as to enhance coordination and the performance of the construction supplychain.

  • 22.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Categorising on-site problems: A supply chain management perspective on construction projects2017In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 90-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to identify and categorise common on-site problems from a supply chain management (SCM) perspective and to trace the origin of these problems in the construction project process, the supply chain or in the intersection between these processes. This allows for identification of how on-site problems affect SCM in construction projects and how they can be mitigated.

    Design/methodology/approach – A literature review in combination with semi-structured interviews was used to identify on-site problems. This enabled triangulation and strengthened both construct validity and internal validity.

    Findings – On-site problems can be categorised in one of the four following categories: material flows, internal communication, external communication or complexity. The first category has its origin in the supply chain, the second in the construction project process, the third in the supply chain-construction process intersection on site and the fourth in the construction project as a whole. The findings conclude that on-site problems often originate from construction companies’ lack of supply chain orientation.

    Research limitations/implications – It is suggested that supply chain planning (SCP) can facilitate on-site problem mitigation in construction project management. This extends the body of knowledge of SCP in construction project management and supports the development of effective on-site construction project management.

    Practical implications – The results show that SCP can aid construction project management in handling on-site problems earlier in the project process.

    Originality/value – The main value lies in extending the body of knowledge in construction project management research by applying an SCM perspective and by introducing SCP to support more effective construction project management

  • 23.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Identifying and positioning construction supply chain planning problems2014In: Proceedings 30th Annual Association of Researchers in Construction Management Conference, ARCOM, Reading: ARCOM, Association of Researchers in Construction Management c/o School of Construction Management and Engineering , 2014, , p. 10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry struggles with an ineffective supply chain. A literature review, in combination with an empirical study aims at identifying and positioning perceived supply chain planning problems. The empirical part is a series of semi- structured interviews with construction site managers, purchase coordinators, and a project leader. Most site managers are responsible for mid-sized turnkey contracts, which enable comparison. Findings show that most of the supply chain planning problems relate to lack of coordination between actors, and that many of the problems discovered on-site originate from the supply process or the design process. Through proactive coordination of the actors in the supply chain planning process and the actors in the construction process, the problems on-site causing “fire-fighting”- activities could be reduced. 

1 - 23 of 23
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