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  • 1.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hackl, Roman
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster2014In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 71, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the production of biofuels from algae cultivated in municipal wastewater in Gothenburg, Sweden. A possible biorefinery concept is studied based on two cases; Case A) combined biodiesel and biogas production, and Case B) only biogas production. The cases are compared in terms of product outputs and impact on global CO2 emissions mitigation. The area efficiency of the algae-based biofuels is also compared with other biofuel production routes. The study investigates the collaboration between an algae cultivation, biofuel production processes, a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial cluster for the purpose of utilizing material flows and industrial excess heat between the actors. This collaboration provides the opportunity to reduce the CO2 emissions from the process compared to a stand-alone operation. The results show that Case A is advantageous to Case B with respect to all studied factors. It is found that the algae-based biofuel production routes investigated in this study has higher area efficiency than other biofuel production routes. The amount of algae-based biofuel possible to produce corresponds to 31 MWfuel for Case A and 26 MWfuel in Case B.

  • 2.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms2012In: : European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy – now introduces a new series of events, focusing on, Papendal Hotel and Conference Centre, Arnhem, The Netherlands 11–14 September 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments in energy efficient technologies. This paper investigates to what extent energy management practices influence firms estimation of energy efficiency potentials. Further it investigates two Swedish policy programs that promote industrial energy management practices: The Programme For improving Energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (PFE) and the energy audit program and whether these have increased energy management practices in Swedish firms. A multiple case study has been conducted in order to investigate energy practices in firms in different industrial sectors. Employment of energy management varies between firms. The firms estimate equal energy efficiency potentials from implementation of energy efficient technology as for energy management practices. In total the firms estimate energy efficiency potentials of 12 %. The study shows that firms that have participated in the programs work more actively with energy management. This can be illustrated by the fact that 75 % of the firms that have not participated in any of the programs lack a person responsible for energy management and 50 % also lack a long term energy strategy. For firms that have participated in the programs the corresponding figures are 30 % and 33 %. The results indicate an untapped potential of energy efficiency measures that could be reached through increased energy management in Swedish industries.

  • 3.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency through industrial excess heat recovery-policy impacts2015In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU target on energy efficiency implies a 20 % reduction in the use of primary energy by implementation of energy efficiency measures. Not all potential cost-effective measures for improved energy efficiency are implemented. This energy efficiency gap is explained by market barriers. Policy instruments can be used to overcome these barriers. The target could, for example, be obtained through industrial excess heat recovery; but there is a knowledge gap on factors affecting excess heat utilization. In this study, interviews were carried out with energy managers in order to study excess heat utilization from industrys perspective. The study seeks to present how excess heat recovery can be promoted or discouraged through policy instruments, and several factors are raised in the paper. The interviews revealed that excess heat recovery is generally referred to in terms of heat deliveries to the district heating network. One may need to look for innovative recovery solutions, and policies are needed to bring these solutions into action. Due to inefficient conversion for heat-driven electricity generation, a system favoring this implementation could favor an inefficient system. Beyond external instruments, internal goals, visions, and the importance of energy as a priority were shown to be important in the work with improved energy management.

  • 4.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Vikor
    Institutionen för energi och miljö, Värmeteknik och maskinlära, Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Hackl, Roman
    Institutionen för energi och miljö, Värmeteknik och maskinlära, Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Integrated Algae Cultivation for Biofuels Production in Industrial Clusters2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Declining fossil resources and the issue of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases make global action towards a more sustainable society inevitable. The EU decided in 2007 that 20 % of the union´s energy use should origin from renewable resources by the year 2020. One way of achieving this goal is to increase the utilisation of biofuels.

    Today 2nd generation biofuels are being developed. They are seen as a more sustainable solution than 1st generation biofuels since they have a higher area efficiency (more fuel produced per area) and the biomass can be cultivated at land which is not suitable for food crops. One of these 2nd generation biofuels are fuels derived from microalgae.

    In this study a thorough literature survey has been conducted in order to assess the State-of-the-Art in algae biofuels production. The literature review showed the importance of a supplementary function in conjunction with algae cultivation and therefore algae cultivation for municipal wastewater treatment and capturing CO2 emissions from industry was included in the study. It was assumed that all the wastewater of the city of Gothenburg, Sweden, was treated by algae cultivation.

    A computer model of the whole production process has been developed, covering; algae cultivation in conjunction with wastewater treatment, algae harvesting and biofuels production. Two different cases are modelled; a first case including combined biodiesel and biogas production, and a second case investigating only biogas production. Both cases have been evaluated in terms of product outputs, CO2 emissions savings and compared to each other in an economic sense.

    Utilising the nutrients in the wastewater of Gothenburg it is possible to cultivate 29 ktalgae/year. In the biogas case it is possible to produce 205 GWhbiogas/year. The biogas/biodiesel case showed a production potential of 63 GWhbiodiesel/year and 182 GWhbiogas/year. There is a deficit of carbon in the wastewater, hence CO2 is injected as flue gases from industrial sources. The biodiesel/biogas case showed an industrial CO2 sequestration capacity of 24 ktCO2/year while in the biogas case 22.6 ktCO2/year, could be captured. Estimating the total CO2 emissions savings showed 46 ktCO2/year in the biodiesel/biogas case and 38 ktCO2/year for the biogas case. The importance of including wastewater treatment in the process was confirmed, as it contributes with 13.7 ktCO2/year to the total CO2 emissions savings.

    Economic comparison of the two cases showed that biodiesel in conjunction with biogas production is advantageous compared to only biogas production. This is mainly due to the higher overall fuel yield and the high willingness to pay for biodiesel. The total incomes from biodiesel/biogas sales were calculated to 221 million SEK/year and 193 million SEK/year for biogas. It was found that the higher incomes from biodiesel/biogas sales repay the increased investment for the biodiesel process in approximately 3 years.

  • 5.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using industrial excess heat in District Heating (DH) networks reduces the need for primary energy and is considered efficient resource use. The conditions of Swedish DH markets are under political discussion in the Third Party Access (TPA) proposal, which would facilitate the delivery of firms' industrial excess heat to DH networks. This paper estimates and discusses the untapped potential for excess heat deliveries to DH networks and considers whether the realization of this potential would be affected by altered DH market conditions. The results identify untapped potential for industrial excess heat deliveries, and calculations based on estimated investment costs and revenues indicate that realizing the TPA proposal could enable profitable excess heat investments.

  • 6.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND CO2 REDUCTIONS USING INDUSTRIAL EXCESS HEAT2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The adopted Energy Efficiency Directive stresses the importance of using excess heat as a way to reach the EU target of primary energy consumption. Utilization of industrial excess heat may result in decreased energy demand, CO2 emissions reduction, and economic gains. In this study, an energy systems analysis is performed with the aim of investigating how excess heat should be used, and the impact of global CO2 emissions. The manner in which the heat is recovered will affect the system. The influence of excess heat recovery and the trade-off between heat recovery for heating or cooling applications and electricity production has been investigated using the energy systems modeling tool reMIND. The model has been optimized with regard to system cost. The results show that it is favorable to recover the available excess heat in all the investigated energy market scenarios, and that electricity production is not a part of the optimal solution. The trade-off between utilization of excess heat in the heating or cooling system depends on the energy market prices and the type of heat production. The introduction of excess heat also reduces the CO2 emissions in the system for all the studied energy market scenarios.  

  • 7.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biogas production supported by excess heat - A systems analysis within the food industry2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 91, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Restenergi inom industrin i Östergötlands och Örebro län: Resultat av enkätundersökning av 85 företag2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under våren 2011 har Länsstyrelsen Östergötlands län och Länsstyrelsen i Örebro län inventerat restenergin inom industrin i Östergötlands och Örebro län. Enkäten som skickades ut utformades i samarbete med Linköpings Universitet och skickades ut till 85 industrier i länen.

    Syfte: Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka mängden tillgänglig restenergi i industrin inom Östergötlands och Örebro län. Enkäten syftade till att få fram värmetillgången inom företagen, dels total tillgång i länen och dels spillvärme per län. Syftet med rapporten är också att översiktligt undersöka möjliga användningsområden för den tillgängliga restvärmen. Genom användning av energiinnehållet för uppvärmningsbehov internt eller som när-/fjärr-värme kan användningen av fossila bränslen och el minskas.

    Metod: Metoden som användes för att uppfylla ovanstående syfte är en enkätstudie. Tillsammans med Energisystem vid Linköpings universitet tog Länsstyrelsen fram en lista på frågor inför enkätutskicket. 85 företag inom Östergötlands och Örebro län valdes ut och en enkät sammanställdes av Länsstyrelsen i Östergötlands, Länsstyrelsen i Örebro län och Linköpings Universitet. Företagen är verksamma inom miljö, verkstads-, stål-, glas-, gruv-, kemi-, pappers-, drivmedel- och betongindustrin. Informationen om enkäten skickades ut under våren och sommaren via e-post och svar har inkommit från 28 företag via webbaserade enkätplattformen. Bland de 28 företagen som svarade på enkäten har 9 företag mindre än 50 anställda och ytterligare 15 företag mindre än 500 anställda.

    I den andra delen av studien studeras möjliga användningsområden för användning av den tillgängliga restenergin i länen.

  • 9.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    System studies of the use of industrial excess heat2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy, materials, and by-products, can be exchanged between companies, having positive effects in the form of improved resource efficiency, environmental benefits, and economic gains. One such energy stream that can be exchanged is excess heat, that is, heat generated as a by-product during, for example, industrial production. Excess heat will continue to play an important role in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve energy efficiency. Using excess heat is therefore currently emphasized in EU policy as a way to reach EU climate targets.

    This thesis examines the opportunities of manufacturing industries to use industrial excess heat, and how doing so can positively affect industry, society, and the climate. Since different parts of the energy system are entangled, there is an inherent complexity in studying these systems and introducing excess heat in one part of the energy system may influence other parts of the system. This analysis has accordingly been conducted by combining studies from various perspectives, by applying both quantitative and qualitative methods and covering a broad range of aspects, such as technical possibilities as well as climate, policy, economics, and resource aspects.

    The results identify several opportunities and benefits accruing from excess heat use. Although excess heat is currently partly used as a thermal resource in district heating in Sweden, this thesis demonstrates that significant untapped excess heat is still available. The mapping conducted in the appended studies identifies excess heat in different energy carriers, mainly low-temperature water. Analysis of excess heat use in different recovery options demonstrated greater output when using excess heat in district heating than electricity production. Optimizing the trade-offs in excess heat used in a district heating network, heat-driven cooling, and electricity production under different energy market conditions while minimizing the system cost, however, indicated that the attractiveness of excess heat in district heating depends on the type of heat production in the system. Viewing excess heat as a low-cost energy source also makes it economically interesting, and creates opportunities to invest in excess heat-recovery solutions. Excess heat is often viewed as CO2 neutral since unused excess heat may be regarded as wasted energy. The GHG mitigation potential of using excess heat, however, was found to be ambiguous. The appended studies demonstrate that using excess heat for electricity production or for applications that reduce the use of electricity reduces GHG emissions. The effects of using excess heat in district heating, on the other hand, depend on the energy market development, for example, the marginal electricity production and marginal use of biomass, and on the type of district heating system replaced. The interviews performed reveal that energy policy does influence excess heat use, being demonstrated both to promote and discourage excess heat use. Beyond national energy policies, internal goals and core values were identified as important for improved energy efficiency and increased excess heat use.

    List of papers
    1. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
    2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, whichwould create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the useof primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present differentmeasures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the developmentof the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the mostto global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of theexcess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden.Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system andheat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions,six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrialexcess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recoverymeasures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be suppliedfrom this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzedscenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production frombiomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Industrial excess heat; Heat recovery; Electricity generation; District heating; CO2 emission; Energy market scenario
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102611 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2013.09.052 (DOI)000330494600041 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Industrial excess heat use: Systems analysis and CO2 emissions reduction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial excess heat use: Systems analysis and CO2 emissions reduction
    2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 152, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The adopted energy efficiency directive stresses the use of excess heat as a way to reach the EU target of primary energy use. Use of industrial excess heat may result in decreased energy demand, CO2 emissions reduction, and economic gains. In this study, an energy systems analysis is performed with the aim of investigating how excess heat should be used, and the impact on CO2 emissions. The manner in which the heat is recovered will affect the system. The influence of excess heat recovery and the trade-off between heat recovery for heating or cooling applications and electricity production has been investigated using the energy systems modeling tool reMIND. The model has been optimized by minimizing the system cost. The results show that it is favorable to recover the available excess heat in all the investigated energy market scenarios, and that heat driven electricity production is not a part of the optimal solution. The trade-off between use of recovered excess heat in the heating or cooling system depends on the energy market prices and the type of heat production. The introduction of excess heat reduces the CO2 emissions in the system for all the studied energy market scenarios. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Excess heat; Waste heat; Energy systems modeling; CO2 emission reduction; Heat recovery
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120206 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.023 (DOI)000356745200019 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-07-21 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. Biogas production supported by excess heat - A systems analysis within the food industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas production supported by excess heat - A systems analysis within the food industry
    2015 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 91, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Systems analysis; Biogas production; Industrial excess heat; Climate impact; Investment opportunity; Synergies
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114983 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.12.017 (DOI)000348887000025 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2015-03-10 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-26
    4. Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 71, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the production of biofuels from algae cultivated in municipal wastewater in Gothenburg, Sweden. A possible biorefinery concept is studied based on two cases; Case A) combined biodiesel and biogas production, and Case B) only biogas production. The cases are compared in terms of product outputs and impact on global CO2 emissions mitigation. The area efficiency of the algae-based biofuels is also compared with other biofuel production routes. The study investigates the collaboration between an algae cultivation, biofuel production processes, a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial cluster for the purpose of utilizing material flows and industrial excess heat between the actors. This collaboration provides the opportunity to reduce the CO2 emissions from the process compared to a stand-alone operation. The results show that Case A is advantageous to Case B with respect to all studied factors. It is found that the algae-based biofuel production routes investigated in this study has higher area efficiency than other biofuel production routes. The amount of algae-based biofuel possible to produce corresponds to 31 MWfuel for Case A and 26 MWfuel in Case B.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Algae; Biofuel; Biogas; Biodiesel; Biorefinery; Industrial excess heat
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113047 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.10.019 (DOI)000345349500011 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Energy Systems Programme - Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    5. Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot
    2012 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Using industrial excess heat in District Heating (DH) networks reduces the need for primary energy and is considered efficient resource use. The conditions of Swedish DH markets are under political discussion in the Third Party Access (TPA) proposal, which would facilitate the delivery of firms' industrial excess heat to DH networks. This paper estimates and discusses the untapped potential for excess heat deliveries to DH networks and considers whether the realization of this potential would be affected by altered DH market conditions. The results identify untapped potential for industrial excess heat deliveries, and calculations based on estimated investment costs and revenues indicate that realizing the TPA proposal could enable profitable excess heat investments.

    Keywords
    Excess heat; District heating; Third party access (TPA)
    National Category
    Chemical Engineering Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86547 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.031 (DOI)000312620000035 ()
    Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    6. Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective
    2015 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 100, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    European policy promotes increased use of excess heat as a means to increase the efficiency of resourceuse. By studying possible effects on greenhouse gases, this article aims to analyze and discuss systemaspects of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating. Effects on greenhouse gas emissions arestudied by applying different energy market conditions with different system boundaries in time andspace. First, life cycle assessment is used to assess the introduction of excess heat in district heating in acontemporary system with different geographical system boundaries. Thereafter, future energy marketscenarios for Europe are investigated to explore possible future outcomes. This study concludes that boththe heat production system and the energy market conditions affect the system emission effects of usingexcess heat in district heating. Industrial excess heat in district heating can be beneficial even if it leadsto reduced local electricity production when unused biomass can be used to replace fossil fuels. It isrecommended that a strengthened EU policy should encourage the use of biomass where it has the mostfavorable effects from a systems perspective to ensure emission reductions when industrial excess heatis used in district heating.

    Keywords
    Industrial excess heat, industrial waste heat, district heating, ENPAC, LCA, emission mitigation
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118080 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.04.010 (DOI)000356750300009 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2015-05-21 Created: 2015-05-21 Last updated: 2018-09-17
    7. Energy efficiency through industrial excess heat recovery-policy impacts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency through industrial excess heat recovery-policy impacts
    2015 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The EU target on energy efficiency implies a 20 % reduction in the use of primary energy by implementation of energy efficiency measures. Not all potential cost-effective measures for improved energy efficiency are implemented. This energy efficiency gap is explained by market barriers. Policy instruments can be used to overcome these barriers. The target could, for example, be obtained through industrial excess heat recovery; but there is a knowledge gap on factors affecting excess heat utilization. In this study, interviews were carried out with energy managers in order to study excess heat utilization from industrys perspective. The study seeks to present how excess heat recovery can be promoted or discouraged through policy instruments, and several factors are raised in the paper. The interviews revealed that excess heat recovery is generally referred to in terms of heat deliveries to the district heating network. One may need to look for innovative recovery solutions, and policies are needed to bring these solutions into action. Due to inefficient conversion for heat-driven electricity generation, a system favoring this implementation could favor an inefficient system. Beyond external instruments, internal goals, visions, and the importance of energy as a priority were shown to be important in the work with improved energy management.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2015
    Keywords
    Industrial excess heat; Industrial waste heat; Energy efficiency; Energy policy; Heat recovery; Interviews
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114229 (URN)10.1007/s12053-014-9277-3 (DOI)000347554100002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Energy Systems Programme - Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-04
  • 10.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, whichwould create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the useof primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present differentmeasures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the developmentof the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the mostto global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of theexcess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden.Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system andheat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions,six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrialexcess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recoverymeasures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be suppliedfrom this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzedscenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production frombiomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low.

  • 11.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Industrial excess heat use: Systems analysis and CO2 emissions reduction2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 152, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adopted energy efficiency directive stresses the use of excess heat as a way to reach the EU target of primary energy use. Use of industrial excess heat may result in decreased energy demand, CO2 emissions reduction, and economic gains. In this study, an energy systems analysis is performed with the aim of investigating how excess heat should be used, and the impact on CO2 emissions. The manner in which the heat is recovered will affect the system. The influence of excess heat recovery and the trade-off between heat recovery for heating or cooling applications and electricity production has been investigated using the energy systems modeling tool reMIND. The model has been optimized by minimizing the system cost. The results show that it is favorable to recover the available excess heat in all the investigated energy market scenarios, and that heat driven electricity production is not a part of the optimal solution. The trade-off between use of recovered excess heat in the heating or cooling system depends on the energy market prices and the type of heat production. The introduction of excess heat reduces the CO2 emissions in the system for all the studied energy market scenarios. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 100, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European policy promotes increased use of excess heat as a means to increase the efficiency of resourceuse. By studying possible effects on greenhouse gases, this article aims to analyze and discuss systemaspects of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating. Effects on greenhouse gas emissions arestudied by applying different energy market conditions with different system boundaries in time andspace. First, life cycle assessment is used to assess the introduction of excess heat in district heating in acontemporary system with different geographical system boundaries. Thereafter, future energy marketscenarios for Europe are investigated to explore possible future outcomes. This study concludes that boththe heat production system and the energy market conditions affect the system emission effects of usingexcess heat in district heating. Industrial excess heat in district heating can be beneficial even if it leadsto reduced local electricity production when unused biomass can be used to replace fossil fuels. It isrecommended that a strengthened EU policy should encourage the use of biomass where it has the mostfavorable effects from a systems perspective to ensure emission reductions when industrial excess heatis used in district heating.

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