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  • 1.
    Aliahmad, Abdulhamid
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    McConville, Jennifer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Urine recycling - Diffusion barriers and upscaling potential; case studies from Sweden and Switzerland2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 414, article id 137583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored why urine recycling systems have failed to gain wide-scale expansion despite their high potential for food and fertilizer security. Additionally, we examined the future perception of urine recycling in Sweden and Switzerland, as these two countries are at the forefront of technological advancement. Along with identifying barriers, we also proposed pathways for overcoming those barriers and achieving the upscale. The analysis was conducted using the technological innovation (TIS) approach, which is technology-focused, i.e., revolves around emerging technologies. Additionally, the study provides a methodological contribution to the innovation systems research by employing the Delphi method in conjunction with urine recycling experts to enforce transparency and prevent bias in the analysis. For urine recycling to overcome its current challenges, actors must work collectively. There needs to be a combination of top-down and bottom-up efforts to achieve the upscaling pathways. Lobbying and knowledge provision are necessary to adjust the current regulatory framework in a manner that provides public and private incentives. For urine recycling to diffuse and break into the mainstream market, we must move beyond enthusiasts, innovators, and niche markets into the mass market (ordinary people); dedicated service providers can facilitate this process. Pilot projects have been found integral to urine recycling upscaling. Future work could conduct life cycle assessments on existing pilot projects to understand the environmental and economic performance of urine recycling systems when scaled up.

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  • 2.
    Barrie, Jack
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Building ecologies of circular intermediaries2020In: Handbook of the circular economy / [ed] Miguel Brandão, David Lazarevic, Göran Finnveden, Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, p. 235-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a circular economy requires deep structural change of entire production-consumption systems. Such a systemic transition will inevitably be hampered by poor knowledge and resource transfer between various levels of society. It is therefore proposed in this chapter that a circular economy requires well-functioning ecosystems of intermediaries who can broker knowledge exchange and collaboration between different societal systems as well as geo-political scales. Sustainability intermediation has been recognised as being critical for lubricating the machinery of societal transitions, however, little is known with regards to the ecology of intermediaries required to achieve a global transition to a circular economy. In light of the challenges surrounding the effective governance of a circular economy transition, the questions this chapter seeks to explore is: how do we begin to nurture adequate ecologies of intermediaries that can facilitate the transition to a circular economy?

  • 3.
    Dahlgren, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drivers for and barriers to biogas use in manufacturing, road transport and shipping: a demand-side perspective2022In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 177-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary environmental problems require a transition to renewable energy. Biogas is one alternative, which besides being renewable has many other benefits. For further expansion of biogas production, it seems necessary to develop new areas of biogas usage where biogas can replace fossil fuels. This article presents an analysis of the drivers for and barriers to increased biogas usage in three sectors where biogas usage is undeveloped in Sweden: manufacturing, road transport and shipping. Several of the identified drivers and barriers, such as unstable and short-term policies, lack of infrastructure, and contract requirements, have also been found in previous studies even though they may be slightly different depending on the context. A new driver observed in this study is that of intergenerational thinking in family-owned businesses. The study also reiterates the significant influence of policy in the form of subsidies, tax exemptions and regulations on the adoption and use of renewable energy in general and biogas specifically. The results suggest the need for future policymaking to be guided by long-term trajectories, which can be a relevant basis for adopters to make investments into biogas technologies.

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  • 4.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mejía Dugand, Santiago
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an overview of interdisciplinary research from Ph.D. students working at the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University, Sweden. Each of the Ph.D. students addresses the overall challenge of sustainability transitions in their research, although the themes and content of research varies considerably between individuals, encompassing research on actors, networks, products, materials, services and systems from the public and private sector, operating locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The scientific literature and methods used to frame and conduct studies varies considerably within the group, as does the individual focus on immediate issues of sustainability.

  • 5.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chimenti, Gianluca
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of local government in governance and diffusion of Mobility-as-a-Service: exploring the views of MaaS stakeholders in Stockholm2020In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 63, no 14, p. 2554-2576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities around the world constitute an emerging market for Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). For local governments, MaaS may offer opportunities to reduce ownership and use of private cars for passenger transport, thereby easing pressures on urban space, the local environment and global climate. By drawing on literature related to socio-technical transitions and the diffusion of environmental innovations, this article analyses survey results of MaaS stakeholders in the City of Stockholm, where several initiatives to facilitate development of MaaS are underway. The results illustrate what stakeholders do and consider important, which kinds of barriers, opportunities and challenges are perceived, and what type of expectations stakeholders share about the role of the City administration in the development of MaaS in Stockholm. In sum, results indicate an important, yet delicate role for local governments in facilitating MaaS, whilst suggesting the need for regional or national regulatory solutions in the longer-term, to ensure legitimacy and transparency.

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  • 6.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy: studies of biogas for transport in two European cities2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 725-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of renewable energy – particularly in transport – in cities may facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels, improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Past studies on this topic have focused on system modelling of diffusion pathways, technology characteristics and also estimations of future availability of renewable energy, whilst neglecting the agency of producers and users. This article assesses barriers to the diffusion of biogas for transportation in cities from a system and actor perspective. Using document studies and interviews in the cities of Basel, Switzerland, and Odense, Denmark, we identify the presence of conflicting political priorities and shifting strategic objectives, resulting in mixed signals concerning the role and viability of biogas for transportation. This underlines the importance of public sector support and coherent design and implementation of strategy and policy enabling the diffusion of renewable energy.

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  • 7.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Promotion of Environmental Technology Export: Governmental Initiatives and Business Concepts2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative and quantitative study examines governmental initiatives and business concepts as approaches to promote the export of environmental technology. Here, environmental technology refers to technologies (products, services, organizational models, and large-scaled technical systems) whose development and use actually provide or intends to provide a better environmental performance than their relevant alternatives from a life cycle perspective. Using literature reviews, surveys and interviews, this thesis collects primary and secondary data from national government level, private Swedish environmental technology firms and Swedish municipality-owned firms.

    Three main research questions guide this thesis. These questions address how different governments in selected countries promote the export of environmental technologies and how private Swedish environmental technology firms perceive the effectiveness of  governmental export promotion initiatives in realising export. In a complementary view, the thesis focuses on fundamental components of business concepts for export of environmental technologies by municipality-owned companies. These three units of analysis (i.e. – governmental initiatives, private companies and municipality-owned companies) are influenced by the characteristics of the environmental technology sector in Sweden.

    The main results from the study suggest three conclusions. First, governmental initiatives intended to promote the export of environmental technology are largely similar to approaches that intend to promote the export of “conventional” technology. These initiatives can be categorised as: financial aid programs, information programs, education and training programs, and trade mobility related programs. When it comes to perceived effectiveness of governmental promotion initiatives by private firms, results indicate that firms that accessed more than one type of governmental promotion, particularly those including financial support, perceived governmental promotion as contributing to realising export. For municipality-owned companies exporting environmental technology, the thesis proposes seven fundamental components of a business concept as: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (private-public partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particular to environmental technologies.

    These results suggest a dynamic balance between generic and tailored export promotion initiatives for environmental technology exporters, with much attention to program implementation as is given to program content formulation. The components proposed for municipality export opens up a potentially new research trajectory on environmentally conscious design that considers technological as well as non-technological changes based on large-scaled environmental technology systems for system-wide environmental improvements.

    List of papers
    1. Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid international and widespread diffusion of environmental technologies remains an essential requirement within the framework of sustainable development. Export offers a desired means for technology diffusion due to its strategic flexibility compared to other means such as foreign direct investment and aid. However, the export of environmental technologies is stifled by market failures. Among other reasons and as a response to such market failures, several governments are formulating initiatives to promote the export of environmental technologies. Although diffusion promotion is highlighted as an important research focus, a systematic overview of governmental initiatives that aim to promote environmental technology export is not available in the literature. This gap in the literature makes it difficult to analyse program effectiveness, and identify best practices. Using documentation from export promotion and export credit agencies in eight selected countries across Asia, Europe, and North America, we discuss governmental initiatives that aim to promote the export of environmental technologies. Our synthesis reveals that governmental promotion can be categorised according to alternative promotional services and is applied across target country(ies), environmental technology type(s), firm size(s),  and firm involvement in export. In addition, using theories from market failure and diffusion studies, we discuss similarities and differences between country initiatives. Trends indicate a focus on support for small and medium sized environmental technology exporters but interesting differences emerge with the choice of target markets, technologies, and the specific export promotion services.

    Keywords
    Environmental technology; Export promotion; Market failure; Governmental initiatives
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108728 (URN)
    Projects
    Megatech
    Funder
    Vinnova
    Available from: 2014-07-02 Created: 2014-07-02 Last updated: 2014-11-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Environmental technology, Technology diffusion, Market failures, Perceived effectiveness, Firm-level analysis
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102196 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.013 (DOI)000356194300023 ()
    Projects
    Megatech
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    3. Design of business concept with environmental technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of business concept with environmental technology
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, strategies for sustainable development are arguably among the most discussed issues among political, public and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by major trends such as climate change, rapid urbanization, critical material and energy resource depletion. To facilitate sustainable development, deep structural and wide reaching changes seem needed in current technologies, infrastructure, businesses and institutions. In the academic discourse, different concepts, methods and tools, have been proposed and continue to be expounded within the framework of sustainable development. Notable among them include the concepts of ecodesign, and product and service systems design. These concepts have contributed to environmental improvements but have been challenged by critics to be expanded beyond products and services to include non-technological changes in order to deliver system wide environmental improvements.

    Departing from this background, the goal of this article is twofold, first to offer an expanded view on environmental conscious design of products and services with large scaled sociotechnical systems and then to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems. In doing this, we offer a new way of describing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems which incorporates non-technological dimensions such as meeting formal and informal expectations. We propose a set of components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology offering. These components are: market (including regulations), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy were  found as particular for environmental technology diffusion.

    Keywords
    Environmental technology, Innovation management, Business model, Technology diffusion
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108729 (URN)
    Projects
    BMEX (Business models for market expansion of Swedish municipal environmental technologies)
    Available from: 2014-07-02 Created: 2014-07-02 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
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    Promotion of Environmental Technology Export: Governmental Initiatives and Business Concepts
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    omslag
  • 8.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Systems and Ecosystems in the Circular Economy: What’s the Difference?2023In: Circular Economy, ISSN 2752-163X, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Systems’ and ‘ecosystems’ are buzz concepts in the circular economy literature. However, the differences between these concepts remain ambiguous. Systems and ecosystems are often used interchangeably and at times confusingly. While conceptual ambiguity offers possibilities for broad interpretations and engagement, it can undermine the relevance of these concepts as analytical lenses to disrupt the linear economy. In this perspective article, I examine whether systems and ecosystems are distinct concepts and how they complement each other. To do so, I analysed these concepts and applied them to a case of biomethane for transportation using scientific literature.  Systems and ecosystems are not mutually exclusive; rather, they offer nuanced perspectives to describe, analyse, and facilitate complex interactions among entities and their external environment. They signify the complexity, interdependency, and co-evolutionary nature of the circular economy. Ecosystems are a subcategory of systems. Differences between the concepts of systems and ecosystems partially arise from their origins, evolution, and the research communities using them. The article shows how systems and ecosystems perspectives can enrich each other and calls for better integration between the two concepts in the circular economy discourse. 

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    Kanda_2023
  • 9.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    New Ventures and Circular Business Models – Overcoming the Liabilities of Newness2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an in-depth exploration of the growth and development processes of circular new ventures. A unique data set followed 70 such ventures longitudinally between 2021 and 2023. One observation is that new ventures tend to take an experimental approach when developing their circular business models to address the real needs of potential customers and capture value based on circularity. Another is that, from their inception, these ventures have an active interest in becoming part of a business ecosystem. Challenges of circular new ventures related to their liabilities of newness include their limited resources, lack of networks and legitimacy which makes it difficult for such ventures to secure strategic partnerships. Thus, contrary to expectations of rapid scale-up, circular new ventures often must partner with and grow slowly with other small and new ventures. 

  • 10.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Marvin, Henry
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges of start-ups developing circular business models2023In: Proceedings of IDEAS 2022 - An InterdisciplinaryConference on Innovation, Design, Entrepreneurship, and Sustainable Systems. / [ed] L. Pereira, P. Krus & M. Klofsten, Springer, 2023, p. 139-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy aims for an effective and efficient resource use. Thus, application of the concept can benefit the sustainability performance of companies. Specifically, business modelling is a key enabler for the transition to a circular economy. However, the related research is dominated by a focus on incumbent companies and their transition from linear to circular business models. This focus risks missing out on actors such as start-ups who can experiment with and develop potentially more radical circular business models. Thus, using interviews with 37 start-ups developing circular business models, we analyzed their characteristics and challenges. Our findings reveal that, such firms encounter general challenges related to circular business modelling and new venture development. Furthermore, such start-ups are often dependent on an ecosystem of actors to create, deliver and capture value based on circular principles. Thus, they encounter challenges to scale up their business based on their liabilities of smallness and dependency. Altogether, these challenges of “circular start-ups” call for a holistic approach to understanding their development process.

    The full text will be freely available from 2024-04-16 09:27
  • 11.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clausen, Jens
    Hannover, Germany.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation: a study of business development organizations and cluster initiatives in a Swedish and a German region2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation continues to gain support as a driving force for sustainable development. In this regard, pressing questions include how to stimulate the development, diffusion and use of eco-innovations. Often, firms engaged with eco-innovation need to connect to intermediary organizations (e.g. business development organizations, regional clusters, universities, financers, incubators) to get hold of necessary resources to tackle the challenges in the innovation process. This article analyses the functions of such intermediary organizations for eco-innovation by focusing on public–owned business development organizations and cluster initiatives in the Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.  We synthesise at least eight functions of intermediaries for eco-innovation as: (i) forecasting and road mapping (ii) resource mobilization (iii) networking and partnerships (iv) commercialization (v) technical consulting (vi) information scanning and distribution (vii) sector branding and legitimation (viii) prototyping and piloting.  The support functions often take a “one-size-fits-all” approach with few initiatives particularly tailored for eco-innovations. This can be explained by the market complementarity roles of public intermediaries, their resource constraints and the cross-sectoral nature of eco-innovation. Even though, intermediary functions are often appreciated by clients and financers, it is often difficult to establish a causal relation between the support and eco-innovation outcomes, a challenge which undermines the existence of intermediaries themselves. Despite these challenges, potential good practices point to a mix between general “one-size-fits-all” and tailored support activities for different types of eco-innovations and firms. Furthermore, interaction between various types of intermediaries is important since there are often numerous actors and initiatives working with eco-innovation which can confuse firms. When it comes to stimulating radical eco-innovations, a proactive approach to intermediation is particularly important. 

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    Kanda et al.,2015b
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    Poster
  • 12.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    del Río, Pablo
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A technological innovation systems approach to analyse the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1136-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on intermediaries faces challenges regarding how to conceptualise and empirically demonstrate the system-level impact of intermediaries. Thus, researchers and policy analysts may experience difficulties in grasping the potential contributions of intermediaries beyond individual projects and firms to aggregate levels of an innovation system. This article combines innovation intermediary and technological innovation systems literature to develop fundamentals of an approach for analysing how organisations acting as intermediaries support firms in eco-innovation and potentially contribute to technological innovation system functions. The operationalisation of the analytical approach is illustrated using case studies on a total of eight support organisations acting as intermediaries in the region of Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. For researchers and policy analysts, the analytical approach presented in this article offers the opportunity for a step-by-step, comprehensive and transparent analysis of different types of intermediaries, their roles, and potential contributions to innovation system functions.

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    fulltext
  • 13.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Geissdoerfer, Martin
    Circular Economy Centre, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    From circular business models to circular business ecosystems2021In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 2814-2829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy aims to minimize resource inputs and waste and emission outputs of the economy and its organizational subsystems. This can benefit both financial and sustainability performance of companies. To analyze industrial implementation of the concept, the prevalent unit of analysis on the firm level is currently the circular business model. Our investigation of nine Swedish biogas companies and one branch organization indicates a range of conceptual shortcomings that challenges this approach. Our comparative case analysis points towards circular ecosystems being a more appropriate concept to describe the high level of coordination between different stakeholders necessary to implement circular systems. This increases the suitability to analyze, plan, and communicate circular economy systems on an organizational level, especially if value chain integration is low. An ecosystem perspective can thus support innovation and entrepreneurship in the context of the circular economy.

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    fulltext
  • 14.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gonzaléz, Pablo del Rio
    Institute for Public Policies and Goods Madrid, Spain..
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A function of innovation systems approach for analysing the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws from two bodies of literature, innovation intermediaries and technological innovation systems, to develop an approach for analysing the functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation. The link between the functions of innovation intermediaries and the functions of technological innovation systems has seldom been explicitly established in the scientific discourse and thus this article contributes to theoretical development in both literatures. To the technological innovation systems literature, this article addresses the lack of attention to the functions of innovation intermediaries who are a critical part in the formation of networks and also contribute to a number of innovation system functions. To the innovation intermediary literature, the functional approach advocates for a synthesis and consensus building in the literature regarding intermediary functions in view of the several redundancies and ambiguities on the subject matter. Empirical operationalization of the analytical approach including methodological choices from case studies in Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany are also discussed. The results of our analysis show that the functions of the innovation intermediaries are particularly relevant for the overall goals of an innovation system as compared to the configuration of intermediary actors. Particular challenges with a functional approach in this context include the difficulties of establishing a causal relation between the support functions of intermediaries and eco-innovation outcomes in firms.

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    Kanda et al.,2015
  • 15.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    An approach for analyzing public support systems for eco-innovations: Lessons from two German and Swedish regions2014In: 18th Annual Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurship Conference, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 16.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drivers for and barriers to the diffusion of biogas technologies through export2021In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 168, article id 120780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology diffusion literature has extensively analysed drivers for and barriers to the adoption of renewable energy technologies. However, there are relatively few studies that analyse drivers and barriers from the perspective of renewable energy technology suppliers. An analysis of the supplier-side is complementary to demand-side studies as policy makers seek to stimulate the international diffusion of renewable energy technologies. The international diffusion of renewable energy technologies is necessary for countries to reach their often-ambitious targets regarding independence from fossil-based energy sources. Thus, the aim of this article is to analyse the drivers for and barriers to the international diffusion of renewable energy technologies from the perspective of technology suppliers. In doing so, a survey was conducted amongst 85 biogas technology suppliers in Sweden, with a 34% response rate. Using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), we analysed differences between their perceived barriers and drivers in the international diffusion of biogas technologies through export. Our findings suggest the need for technology and market-specific export promotion initiatives to complement the generic initiatives available for all exporters and make them more effective.

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  • 17.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Boosting eco-innovation: The role of public support organizations2014In: XXV ISPIM Conference on Innovation for sustainable Economy and Society, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a multidisciplinary and systematic review of 45 journal articles and two case interviews to investigate the role of public support organizations in the development of eco-innovations. Even though eco-innovations are regarded as a driving force within sustainable development, entrepreneurs developing such innovations face barriers such as lack of some technical expertise, limited financial, time and human resources. Generally, two aspects are needed for eco-innovation support i.e. support for technology as well as business development. The selected public support organizations offered business development support through networking, bridging and financing. However, preliminary findings on their current support activities indicate bridging to other actors who can provide technical expertise such as environmental impact assessment and eco-design could be a promising addition to business development. Potential further research includes deeper empirical investigations on the role of public support actors in the development of eco-innovations.

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  • 18.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clausen, Jens
    Borderstep Institute for Innovation and Sustainability.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 205, p. 1006-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation is an approach to environmental sustainability. However, the process of eco-innovation can be challenging especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, SMEs might seek external support to tackle some of their challenges in eco-innovation. In this article, we focus on one type of organization providing and also assisting SMEs to access support, intermediaries, i.e. an organization or body that acts as an agent or broker in the innovation process. Intermediaries support firms in the innovation process through various generic and customised activities. To identify such activities and describe the roles intermediaries take in eco-innovation, we conducted interviews and documentation analysis on selected intermediaries in two regions – Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. The identified roles among our cases include: (i) forecasting and road mapping, (ii) information gathering and dissemination, (iii) fostering networking and partnerships, (iv) prototyping and piloting, (v) technical consulting, (vi) resource mobilisation, (vii) commercialisation, and (viii) branding and legitimation. In relation to the specific characteristics of eco-innovations, the intermediary roles such as prototyping and piloting, information gathering and dissemination, and branding were directly targeted at validating the environmental benefits of eco-innovations to tackle their “double externality” challenge. However, we found little intermediation activities from our cases directed explicitly at policy change for eco-innovation. For policy makers, our results suggest a complementary use of different types of intermediaries to support eco-innovation.

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  • 19.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dugand, Santiago Mejiá
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: An analysis of governmental initiatives from eight countries2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, E-ISSN 2211-4653, Vol. 17, p. 73-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Export represents a means for the diffusion of environmental technologies with potential socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, environmental technology providers experience export barriers which stifle export and thus several governments continue to formulate export promotion initiatives towards this sector. Although export promotion is identified as essential in the environmental technology policy literature, it is yet to receive attention as to which initiatives are available in different countries including their potential relevance for environmental sustainability. Such knowledge is fundamental for policy learning and transfer including identification of good practices.

    To address this knowledge gap, we use market failure and comparative public policy theories to analyse export promotion initiatives from export promotion and export credit agencies across eight countries in Asia, Europe, and North America. Three major conclusions emerge: (1) governmental initiatives to promote environmental technology export can be categorised under financial aid, information provision, education and training, and trade mobility programs; (2) policy choices regarding promotion initiatives are mediated by the institutional context and interests of policy actors (3) relevant aspects of such initiatives for environmental sustainability include the incorporation of particular environmental technology characteristics in initiative formulation, and the prioritisation between different technology and markets types for implementation.

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  • 20.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejia-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental Technology Export Promotion: A study of governmental initiatives in selected countries2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction-This report is based on structured literature reviews and brainstorming sections on governmental export promotion initiatives for environmental technology in selected countries. It is intended to answer two fundamental questions: why governments intervene to promote environmental technology export and how this intervention is actually executed. These questions emerged in-light of two general challenges: 1) the lack of vivid scientific insights with robust theoretical underpinnings on governmental efforts to promote environmental technology export, 2) the necessity to diffuse environmental technology across borders based on the facts that some environmental technologies have a pressing demand in countries other than their home origin and that most emerging economies are now facing environmental challenges which have long existed in many developed countries.

    Approach-A structured literature review which covered public export promotion agencies and export credit agencies in the top three environmental technology exporting countries (Germany, USA, and Japan); Scandinavian environmental technology competitors to Sweden (Finland, Denmark, Norway); other European competitor (Austria) and China as an emerging exporter was employed to identify governmental export promotion initiatives. For a deeper insight Austria, Denmark and Sweden were purposively selected for an analysis into their public ‘‘action’’ plans to promote environmental technology including exports. The empirical findings were then discussed in brainstorming sections using theories and best practices to come out with conclusions, some recommendations and further questions.

    Findings-The economic justification for government involvement in export promotion is based on the theory of asymmetric information and other market failures. The market has so far not shown enough signs of inherently diffusing environmental technologies to the desired societal level, thus the need for government intervention. Governmental intervention for environmental technology export promotion are organised by one or a combination of the following in the reviewed countries: by prioritized target countries; by prioritized environmental technologies; by alternative services (information, financial, training and education, trade and mobility related programs); by firm size (large vs. small) and by firm stage in internationalization. With regards to specific action plans, crosscutting focus remains on support for small and medium enterprises; strategies in Austria and Denmark to promote environmental technologies in aggregation focus on policy information provision to enterprises whiles technology and business development is given priority in Sweden.

    Concluding remarks-The report concludes with some remarks and further questions to stir up the debate and understanding on governmental initiatives for environmental technology export promotion. Highlights include 1) the recommendation for the provision of more detailed market information to export oriented firms recognizing the importance of externalities involved in gathering such information by private firms, 2) the need for mutual collaboration between governmental export promotion agencies and their initiatives which could be confusingly large within a country and  3) a hybridization of focus on policy instruments and technology & business development in-line with the complex ecosystem of interactions between market information and the innovation of environmental technologies.

    Further questions-Several questions remain to be answered. Among them include: 1) Which theories could be used to justify governmental intervention through export promotion of environmental technologies? 2) What, When and How to measure the effectiveness of such governmental export promotion initiatives and 3) How the inherent characteristics of environmental technologies have (or should) influence their export promotion remain to be answered.

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  • 21.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid international and widespread diffusion of environmental technologies remains an essential requirement within the framework of sustainable development. Export offers a desired means for technology diffusion due to its strategic flexibility compared to other means such as foreign direct investment and aid. However, the export of environmental technologies is stifled by market failures. Among other reasons and as a response to such market failures, several governments are formulating initiatives to promote the export of environmental technologies. Although diffusion promotion is highlighted as an important research focus, a systematic overview of governmental initiatives that aim to promote environmental technology export is not available in the literature. This gap in the literature makes it difficult to analyse program effectiveness, and identify best practices. Using documentation from export promotion and export credit agencies in eight selected countries across Asia, Europe, and North America, we discuss governmental initiatives that aim to promote the export of environmental technologies. Our synthesis reveals that governmental promotion can be categorised according to alternative promotional services and is applied across target country(ies), environmental technology type(s), firm size(s),  and firm involvement in export. In addition, using theories from market failure and diffusion studies, we discuss similarities and differences between country initiatives. Trends indicate a focus on support for small and medium sized environmental technology exporters but interesting differences emerge with the choice of target markets, technologies, and the specific export promotion services.

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  • 22.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kivimaa, Paula
    Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU), University of Sussex, United Kingdom; innish Environment Institute (SYKE),Finland.
    What opportunities could the COVID-19 outbreak offer for sustainability transitions research on electricity and mobility?2020In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 68, article id 101666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic is a major landscape shock that is having pervasive effects across socio-technical systems. Due to its recentness, sustainability scientists and other researchers have only started to investigate the implications of this crisis. The COVID-19 outbreak presents a unique opportunity to analyze in real time the effects of a protracted landscape-scale perturbation on the trajectories of sustainability transitions. In this perspective, we explore the ramifications for sustainability transition research on electricity and mobility, drawing from selected examples in Finland and Sweden. The long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to trigger more permanent changes connected to the digitalization of work and other daily activities, thus reducing mobility needs and overall fossil-energy consumption. The crisis may encourage governance systems to be better prepared for different types of shocks in the future, while it also contains a threat of increasingly populist or undemocratic political responses and increased securitization. These developments can guide research by addressing the reproduction of new practices arising from the COVID-19 outbreak to accelerate sustainability transitions, enhancing understanding of the role of governance in transitions, and bringing to attention the ethical and political implications of landscape shocks.

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    Kanda_Kivimaa_2020
  • 23.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henry, Marvin
    Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges of circular new ventures: An empirical analysis of 70 cases2024In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 442, article id 141103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges encountered by established firms transforming their linear business models into circular business models (CBMs) have received extensive research attention. Such firms have experience and market foothold but tend to adopt an incremental approach to CBMs due to risks of business model cannibalization. However, there is relatively limited research on the challenges experienced by new ventures developing CBMs from scratch – circular new ventures. New ventures are often agile, experimental and deploy disruptive CBMs even though they lack resources. The lack of knowledge specific to this topic is constraining for entities such as incubators and accelerators that seek to facilitate the emergence and scale-up of circular new ventures. Furthermore, researchers cannot presume that the challenges experienced by established firms are the same for new ventures when developing CBMs. Thus, the aim of this article is to explore the challenges that new ventures experience while developing circular business models from scratch, synthesize the sources of these challenges and provide practitioner implications to overcome them. In doing so, we studied 70 circular new ventures across Europe. Our article makes four original contributions to the literature. First, our study is seminal in using a large cross-country dataset to qualitatively analyse the empirical challenges of new ventures developing circular business models. Second, we identify which challenges are generic for CBMs, which challenges are specific for certain CBM types and for circular new ventures in particular. Third, we show that the challenges of circular new ventures are determined by their: (i) type of circular business model, (ii) industrial sector, (iii) institutional context, and (iv) new ventures liabilities. Altogether, we highlight that while circular new ventures and new ventures experience several similar challenges, circular new ventures particularly struggle to scale-up due to their liabilities of newness and smallness which limits their resources and legitimacy to enter strategic partnerships crucial for new venture survival.

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  • 24.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuisma, Mika
    Aalto University, School of Business, Finland.
    Kivimaa, Paula
    Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU), University of Sussex, United Kingdom; Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Finland.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conceptualising the systemic activities of intermediaries in sustainability transitions2020In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 36, p. 449-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the literature on sustainability transitions, innovation systems, and eco-innovation by addressing conceptual challenges regarding the systemic activities of inter-mediaries. Specifically, the article addresses a research gap pertaining to the ways in which the systemic activities of (eco-)innovation intermediaries can be conceptualised and empirically demonstrated. Empirically, the paper examines selected intermediaries in the context of support systems for eco-innovators in three regions across Finland, Germany, and Sweden. Drawing from our empirical findings and the literature on intermediaries, we conceptualise three system levels within which intermediation occurs: (i) in-between entities in a network, (ii) in-between networks of entities, and (iii) in-between actors, networks, and institutions. Our discussion suggests a heterogeneity of roles that individual intermediaries take at multiple system levels, complementing an emerging, more nuanced perspective of intermediaries in sustainability transitions. Thus, we suggest the term systemic intermediation for describing the system-level activities of intermediaries.

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  • 25.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An exploratory expansion of the concept of product-service systems beyond products and services2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, p. 185-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) are seen as an important part inmoving towards increased environmental sustainability within the holisticconcept of a circular economy. While PSS are increasingly prevalent inindustry and a multitude of methods and tools have been developed to aidtheir implementation and use, this paper argues that the concept may bemeaningfully extended beyond the design and provision of products andservices alone to include large technical systems. Through a literaturereview and the analysis of four case studies, commonalities anddifferences between PSS and large technical systems are identified. Whilethis only constitutes a first step into the expansion of the scope of PSSand additional, more applied research is required, the PSS concept isdiscussed as a key facilitator of improved environmental performance ofindustrial activities and consumption if applied on a system-level.

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  • 26.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejiá Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental technology exports: Analyzing Swedish government and firms' initiatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries have historically relied to a great extent on exports as an important component of theireconomic system. With the current globalization trends and increased competitiveness, promotingexports has therefore become a common strategy in order to boost economic growth. Exports ofenvironmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and acontribution to global sustainability. For this objective, governments provide different initiativesaimed at promoting foreign commerce among firms. The aim of this article is to assess the perceptionof the effectiveness of governmental initiatives for export promotion among Swedish environmentaltechnology firms. In addition, the article addresses firms’ internal initiatives to reach potential foreignmarkets through the use of modern communication channels. Data about 728 Swedish environmentaltechnology companies was collected and analyzed by using a combination of desktop research and aweb-based survey. The findings show a relatively high export orientation among the respondentcompanies. However, a majority of the respondents claim not to be aware of governmental initiativesthat fit their particular needs. Those who do show a high level of participation in such initiatives, butmost could not relate this participation to successful businesses abroad. From the firms’ perspective,presence on the Internet was considered to be a plausible indicator of their internal initiatives tocapture potential foreign customers. An analysis of the companies’ web sites, their languagecustomization options and the information they provide was undertaken. Results show that a largenumber of companies have functional web sites. However, the percentage of web sites with languagecustomization options was relatively low.The findings suggest that governmental initiatives have to consider the particular composition andneeds of the environmental technology sector in order to be more effective. On the other hand,although companies show to be proactive in the use of the Internet for increasing their outreach,language customization must be addressed as an important component when using such a tool. Bothgovernmental and firms’ initiatives remain important contributions to export success. In this regard,collaboration and communication between governmental export promotion agencies and firmsrepresents an important first step.

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    Kanda et al
  • 27.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

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  • 28.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for sustainable development are arguably part of the most discussed issues among political and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, and critical natural resource depletion. Sustainable development will require deep structural and wide-reaching changes in current institutions, technologies, and businesses. Furthermore, new approaches are needed to facilitate the development, diffusion, and implementation of environmental technologies. In the academic discourse different concepts, e.g., ecodesign and Product/Service System design, have been proposed within the framework of sustainable development. To deliver even more system-wide environmental improvements, these concepts have been challenged to be expanded in focus beyond products and services to include large technical systems encompassing non-technological dimensions. Motivated by these, the goal of this article is twofold. First, to offer an expanded view on ecodesign of product/service systems using a perspective of large technical systems. Second, to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems such as district heating supply, waste management, and renewable energy systems. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and company documentation analysis, this study examines five companies that develop and diffuse large scaled environmental technology systems. As a result of these case studies, we propose components of business concepts that incorporate both technological and non-technological dimensions. Our proposed business concept components are: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particularly important in the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems.

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  • 29.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of business concept with environmental technology2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, strategies for sustainable development are arguably among the most discussed issues among political, public and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by major trends such as climate change, rapid urbanization, critical material and energy resource depletion. To facilitate sustainable development, deep structural and wide reaching changes seem needed in current technologies, infrastructure, businesses and institutions. In the academic discourse, different concepts, methods and tools, have been proposed and continue to be expounded within the framework of sustainable development. Notable among them include the concepts of ecodesign, and product and service systems design. These concepts have contributed to environmental improvements but have been challenged by critics to be expanded beyond products and services to include non-technological changes in order to deliver system wide environmental improvements.

    Departing from this background, the goal of this article is twofold, first to offer an expanded view on environmental conscious design of products and services with large scaled sociotechnical systems and then to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems. In doing this, we offer a new way of describing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems which incorporates non-technological dimensions such as meeting formal and informal expectations. We propose a set of components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology offering. These components are: market (including regulations), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy were  found as particular for environmental technology diffusion.

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  • 30.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zanatta, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Halmstad Univ, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Policy coherence in a fragmented context: the case of biogas systems in Brazil2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 87, article id 102454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy mixes are needed to overcome the different barriers hindering sustainability transitions. This creates the need for policy coherence. Policy coherence studies in sustainability transitions literature are dominated by European cases, limiting their generalizability. This article analyzes policy mixes related to biogas systems and their related coherence issues, and, how that influences biogas production and use in Brazil. We identified policy coherence within and between biogas related sectors and over time, showing how the pre-conditions for biogas production, distribution and use differ considerably between the Brazilian states. This points to a need for decentralized governance structures to enable policy differentiation, as a complement to policy coherence. The article concludes that the characteristics of biogas systems as being locally embedded constitutes a challenge in hierarchical market economies such as Brazil, where policy development, resource mobilization and allocation are highly centralized.

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  • 31.
    Kant, Marvin
    et al.
    Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Innovation intermediaries: What does it take to survive over time?2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 229, p. 911-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation intermediaries are recognised as crucial actors that can facilitate the innovation process, support eco-innovation and contribute to sustainable entrepreneurship. However, little is known about the temporal dimension of innovation intermediaries and how they change over time to survive, which is crucial if intermediaries are to contribute to long term sustainability-oriented transformations. An in-depth case study design with a comparative approach was chosen to examine four innovation intermediaries at different development stages in the related fields of CO2 utilisation and Carbon Capture Storage technology in Europe, the USA, and Australia. This study sheds light on the survival of innovation intermediaries over time: Firstly, by describing the dynamics in an intermediary's (a) characteristics, (b) scope, (c) objectives, and (d) roles and activities. Secondly, by identifying at least four interrelated factors influencing an intermediary's survival: (i) neutrality, (ii) technological context, (iii) shared consensus, and (iv) internal value creation. Thus, this article contributes to the literature by highlighting the complexity and tensions in the survival of intermediaries through an analysis of both internal and contextual factors, as opposed to previous literature which has mainly focused on how intermediaries change their roles and activities over time to survive.

  • 32.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bocken, Nancy
    Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Mian, Sarfraz
    State University of New York Oswego, USA.
    Lamine, Wadid
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Start-ups within entrepreneurial ecosystems: Transition towards circular economy2024In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the role of start-ups within entrepreneurial ecosystems in driving the transition towards a circular economy. It emphasises the importance of understanding and supporting circular start-ups for broader sustainability impacts. Unlike established firms, start-ups can readily adopt ambitious circular business models (CBMs) without the risk of business model cannibalisation and with the agility to adapt to market trends. CBMs enhance value creation, delivery and capture resource flows in an optimised non-linear fashion. Scaling up CBMs is crucial for overall economic, social and environmental benefits. Hence, leveraging the key entrepreneurial ecosystems actors, such as universities, business incubators and related venture development intermediaries, is vital for start-up support. In this special issue, we have invited researchers to submit contributions that delve into the dynamics among start-ups, entrepreneurial ecosystems and the circular economy, aiming to enrich our understanding of the early stage start-up development process with the aim of promoting the circular economy at a firm, regional or national level.

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  • 33.
    Lindfors, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zanatta, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar export: Definitioner, tillämpning och efterfrågan2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att bidra till arbetet med att integrera och beakta olika hållbarhetsaspekter i det svenska exportstödsystemet genom att beskriva hur begreppet hållbar export används samt sammanställa och analysera utbudet av exportfrämjande aktiviteter där hållbarhetsaspekter ingår. Rapporten ger svar på följande frågeställningar:

    1. Hur används och förstås begreppet hållbar export i vetenskaplig litteratur och av svenska exportstödjande aktörer?
    2. Vilka exportfrämjande aktiviteter som integrerar hållbarhetsaspekter erbjuds av svenska exportstödjande aktörer?
    3. Hur upplevs efterfrågan av exportfrämjande aktiviteter som integrerar hållbarhetsaspekter av svenska exportstödjande aktörer?
    4. Hur ser efterfrågan på svenska produkter och tjänster med hög hållbarhetsprestanda ut på mottagande marknader?

    Frågeställningar besvarades genom en tredelad metod bestående av en litteraturstudie som genomlyste både vetenskaplig och så kallad grå litteratur, en enkät som skickades till aktörer inom nätverket för Regional exportsamverkan (RES) och sex fördjupande intervjuer med exportstödjande aktörer.

    Utifrån studien kunde tre olika användningssätt för begreppet hållbar export utrönas. Hållbar export används för det första för att beskriva export av produkter och tjänster med hög hållbarhetsprestanda, det vill säga, produkter och tjänster utformade för att lösa hållbarhetsrelaterade problem (exempelvis renhållningsteknik eller medicinteknik) eller som är, exempelvis, mer miljövänliga än det globala genomsnittet. Här appliceras ett livscykelperspektiv på hållbarhetsprestandan vilket gör att alla delar av exportvarans livscykel inkluderas (från råmaterialutvinning till kassering). Den andra användningen av begreppet är för att beskriva export från företag som aktivt arbetar med att förbättra sin hållbarhet, alltså det används för att beskriva när hållbara företag exporterar. Även här appliceras ett livscykelperspektiv då företagets underleverantörers och kunders hållbarhetsarbete inkluderas. Det tredje användningssättet för hållbar export är för att beskriva att själva exportaffären bidrar till hållbar utveckling. Här fokuseras det ofta på anti-korruption, tillförlitlighet mellan partnerna i exportaffären samt arbetsvillkor och miljöpåverkan i själva implementeringen av exportvaran (exempelvis om något måste monteras på plats).

    På grund av dessa distinkt olika användningssätt och att det upplevs råda stor samstämmighet mellan aktörer som använder begreppet hållbar export så rekommenderas att begreppet fortsätter användas som ett samlingsbegrepp för att innefatta alla dessa tre användningssätt. Detta ger begreppet stor flexibilitet i användning och ökad funktionalitet. Vid behov av mer precist språkbruk bör andra begrepp än hållbar export användas som är anpassade till det specifika behovet. Exempelvis finns flera mer specifika begrepp som inryms i samlingsbegreppet hållbar export, så som miljöteknikexport eller medicinteknikexport, vilka bör användas om användaren vill precisera ett visst fokusområde inom hållbar export.

    I studien identifierades ett brett utbud av exportfrämjande aktiviteter som integrerar hållbarhetsaspekter inom nätverket för RES. I detta utbud dominerar utbildningsaktiviteter vilka syftar till att förmedla kunskap, information eller färdigheter till exporterande företag (exempelvis via coachning, seminarium eller kurser). Inom nätverket finns även aktörer som erbjuder finansiella stödaktiviteter så som kontantstöd, lån eller garanter. En avsaknad av mobilitetsrelaterade stöd identifierades dock men detta kan bero på COVID-pandemin och att det är aktörer utanför RES-nätverket som erbjuder denna typ av stöd. Efterfrågan av stödaktiviteter upplevdes av de tillfrågade aktörerna som varken stor eller liten trots att intresset för hållbar utveckling i exportsammanhang upplevdes som stort. Detta kan eventuellt förklaras med att många av dessa aktiviteter är relativt nya och att företag inte är medvetna om det utbud av stödaktiviteter som finns samt vilka krav som de eventuellt ska uppnå för att ta del av stöden. Om så är fallet bör efterfrågan av dessa aktiviteter öka under de kommande åren förutsatt att stödaktiviteterna fortsätter att erbjudas.

    Från aktörerna i enkät- och intervjustudien framgick att det fanns ett stort intresse för svenska produkter och tjänster med hög hållbarhetsprestanda och att det i allt större grad ställs krav på god affärssed och affärsetik i exportaffärer (exempelvis genom att olika uppförandekoder ska följas). Gällande specifika geografiska marknader kunde studien inte säkerställa huruvida någon specifik marknad efterfrågade hållbar export i större grad eller ställde högre hållbarhetsrelaterade krav på exportvaror. Indikationer gavs utifrån respondenterna att det möjligen fanns större efterfrågan på varor med hög hållbarhetsprestanda i Nordeuropa (Norge, Finland, Danmark, Tyskland och Nederländerna) men att behovet borde vara större i utvecklingsländer där hållbarhetsproblemen ofta är värre. I dessa länder krävs dock ökad beställarkompetens varför svenska stödaktörer som är intresserade av dessa marknader bör rikta in sig på att bygga funktionella marknader på dessa platser vilka i sin tur kan efterfråga svensk export.

    På grund av studiens ringa tidsomfång (studien genomfördes mellan november 2022 och januari 2023) krävs ytterligare studier för att styrka de slutsatser som presenteras i rapport. Utöver detta identifierades andra intressanta områden för fortsatta studier. Exempelvis identifierades att aktörer som erbjuder finansiellt stöd ofta har dialoger med företag runtomkring finansieringsprocessen, varför en studie kring hur dessa dialoger kan bidra till ökad hållbarhet i exportaffären eller i det exporterande företaget skulle vara intressant. Utöver detta vore det intressant att studera den indirekta påverkan som utbudet av stödaktiviteter har på svenska exporterande företag eftersom ett brett erbjudande inom hållbart exportstöd kan indirekt påverka företags strategiska arbete utan att de deltar i stödaktiviteter.

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  • 34.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Zanatta, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Circular economy, varieties of capitalism and technology diffusion: Anaerobic digestion in Sweden and Paraná2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 335, article id 130300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a circular economy relies on systems that facilitate waste recovery and recirculation of resources. These systems are based on certain enabling technologies. The aim of this paper is to explain how socio-economic structures influence the diffusion of such technologies. It applies a framework built on societal embedding and varieties of capitalism to compare the diffusion of anaerobic digestion (AD) in Sweden in northern Europe and Paraná in southern Brazil. Both Sweden and Paraná have experienced accelerated diffusion of AD, but there are significant differences in the respective diffusion patterns. The comparative analysis points to a tradeoff between system complexity and speed of diffusion. It illustrates how AD can be presented as a solution to various problems, and it further shows how the specific problems that gain attention shape diffusion patterns. By showing how socio-economic structures influence the appointment of problem owners, their agency, and legitimate forms of institutional support, the analysis demonstrates how economic systems condition technology diffusion.

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  • 35.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analyzing international city networks for sustainability: A study of five major Swedish cities2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 134, no part A, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies five Swedish cities, their membership in international city networks, the different motivations for such membership, and their administrations’ expected and perceived benefits. Particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such network membership. This study is motivated by the fact that city networks can potentially contribute to global sustainability goals by accelerating the diffusion of innovations, giving members access to bidirectional information flows, improving the user-producer relationship, and providing legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes.

    The study relies on a documentation review, the collection of data from the websites of the studied cities and numerous international city networks, and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks. It was found that four of the five studied cities are active members of international networks for sustainability, but also that there are large gaps between the two largest cities and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical outreach they have through the networks they belong to.

    Some city officials claim that it is easier to be active in national networks than in international networks, due to time requirements and coordination among so many members. However, city officials see benefits for their municipal companies when they are members of international networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that it is difficult to measure direct benefits from network membership, and link improvements in the studied cities to participation in a particular network (with the exception of groups created for a specific infrastructure project, reported as “networks” by the administrations). In addition, there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies. However, the administrations expect indirect benefits such as gaining legitimacy and access to milieus where they can share information and best practices, which could lead to the improvement of both local and global environmental conditions.

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  • 36.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analyzing city networks for the diffusion of environmental innovations: A study of five major Swedish cities2014In: Conference Proceedings, ERSCP 2014, 14-16 October 2014, Portorož, Slovenia / [ed] Rebeka Kovačič Lukman, Peter Glavič, Damijan Koletnik, Peter Virtič and Boris Horvat, Maribor: Nigrad d.d. , 2014, p. 197-206Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies five Swedish municipalities, their memberships in international city networks, the different motivations to be members of them, and the expected and perceived benefits from doing so. A particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such memberships. This study is motivated by the fact that networks have been reported by literature to accelerate the diffusion of innovation, give members access to two-way information flows, improve the user-producer relationship and provide legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes. Using a documentation review and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks, the conclusions relate to the active participation of the studied cities in international networks, but also to the large gaps between the two largest ones and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical reach they have through the networks they belong to. Also, cities see benefits for their municipal companies when they belong to such networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that the benefits from belonging to international networks are difficult to monitor and measure objectively, and that there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies.

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    Analysis_CityNetworks
  • 37.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A typology of intermediary organizations and their impact on sustainability transition policies2018In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, p. 100-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability transitions encompass changes in existing socio-technological systems. In this context, scholars have emphasized the roles that intermediaries can play for sustainability transition. However, in the literature, the organizations or actors considered to act as intermediaries are very diverse and the concept of intermediary is used interchangeably between contexts. There is a risk that policy makers face difficulties understanding differences among intermediaries and consequently use some intermediaries for unfitting purposes. In this article,we propose to identify the similarities and differences among intermediaries, which are relevant for policy design for sustainability transitions. We base our comparison on three main characteristics:intermediaries’ source of funding, their scope of action and the target recipients oftheir services. Our analysis indicates that these differences have an impact on intermediaries’ short-term or long-term orientation, actor-level or system-level focus, and demand-side or supply-side target. We end the article by discussing the implications for policy design.

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  • 38.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chiu, Anthony Shun Fung
    De La Salle University, the Philippines.
    Beyond the global north: Adopting a global perspective for sustainable consumption and production2023In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 193, article id 106965Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 39. Taye, Mesfin
    et al.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement2014In: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/year, far less compared to the estimated 8 weight per cent for European Union countries. However, obsolete electr(on)ics are in urban storages primarily due to a lack of tapping mechanisms. Among several inadequacies of the current handling practices is the absence of an e-waste management framework. Improvement routes discussed include public sensitisation and engagement, capacity building, and future exploitation of potentially suitable end-of-life treatment options including the novel phenomenon of enhanced landfill mining.

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  • 40.
    Taye, Mesfin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mattias, Lindahl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement2013In: 28th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/year, far less compared to the estimated 8 weight per cent for European Union countries. However, obsolete electr(on)ics are in urban storages primarily due to a lack of tapping mechanisms. Among several inadequacies of the current handling practices is the absence of an e-waste management framework. Improvement routes discussed include public sensitisation and engagement, capacity building, and future exploitation of potentially suitable end-of-life treatment options including the novel phenomenon of enhanced landfill mining.

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