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  • 1.
    Dahlgren, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Drivers for and barriers to biogas use in manufacturing, road transport and shipping: a demand-side perspective2019Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary environmental problems require a transition to renewable energy. Biogas is one alternative, which besides being renewable has many other benefits. For further expansion of biogas production, it seems necessary to develop new areas of biogas usage where biogas can replace fossil fuels. This article presents an analysis of the drivers for and barriers to increased biogas usage in three sectors where biogas usage is undeveloped in Sweden: manufacturing, road transport and shipping. Several of the identified drivers and barriers, such as unstable and short-term policies, lack of infrastructure, and contract requirements, have also been found in previous studies even though they may be slightly different depending on the context. A new driver observed in this study is that of intergenerational thinking in family-owned businesses. The study also reiterates the significant influence of policy in the form of subsidies, tax exemptions and regulations on the adoption and use of renewable energy in general and biogas specifically. The results suggest the need for future policymaking to be guided by long-term trajectories, which can be a relevant basis for adopters to make investments into biogas technologies.

  • 2.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mejía Dugand, Santiago
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an overview of interdisciplinary research from Ph.D. students working at the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University, Sweden. Each of the Ph.D. students addresses the overall challenge of sustainability transitions in their research, although the themes and content of research varies considerably between individuals, encompassing research on actors, networks, products, materials, services and systems from the public and private sector, operating locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The scientific literature and methods used to frame and conduct studies varies considerably within the group, as does the individual focus on immediate issues of sustainability.

  • 3.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy: studies of biogas for transport in two European cities2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 725-742Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of renewable energy – particularly in transport – in cities may facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels, improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Past studies on this topic have focused on system modelling of diffusion pathways, technology characteristics and also estimations of future availability of renewable energy, whilst neglecting the agency of producers and users. This article assesses barriers to the diffusion of biogas for transportation in cities from a system and actor perspective. Using document studies and interviews in the cities of Basel, Switzerland, and Odense, Denmark, we identify the presence of conflicting political priorities and shifting strategic objectives, resulting in mixed signals concerning the role and viability of biogas for transportation. This underlines the importance of public sector support and coherent design and implementation of strategy and policy enabling the diffusion of renewable energy.

  • 4.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Promotion of Environmental Technology Export: Governmental Initiatives and Business Concepts2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative and quantitative study examines governmental initiatives and business concepts as approaches to promote the export of environmental technology. Here, environmental technology refers to technologies (products, services, organizational models, and large-scaled technical systems) whose development and use actually provide or intends to provide a better environmental performance than their relevant alternatives from a life cycle perspective. Using literature reviews, surveys and interviews, this thesis collects primary and secondary data from national government level, private Swedish environmental technology firms and Swedish municipality-owned firms.

    Three main research questions guide this thesis. These questions address how different governments in selected countries promote the export of environmental technologies and how private Swedish environmental technology firms perceive the effectiveness of  governmental export promotion initiatives in realising export. In a complementary view, the thesis focuses on fundamental components of business concepts for export of environmental technologies by municipality-owned companies. These three units of analysis (i.e. – governmental initiatives, private companies and municipality-owned companies) are influenced by the characteristics of the environmental technology sector in Sweden.

    The main results from the study suggest three conclusions. First, governmental initiatives intended to promote the export of environmental technology are largely similar to approaches that intend to promote the export of “conventional” technology. These initiatives can be categorised as: financial aid programs, information programs, education and training programs, and trade mobility related programs. When it comes to perceived effectiveness of governmental promotion initiatives by private firms, results indicate that firms that accessed more than one type of governmental promotion, particularly those including financial support, perceived governmental promotion as contributing to realising export. For municipality-owned companies exporting environmental technology, the thesis proposes seven fundamental components of a business concept as: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (private-public partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particular to environmental technologies.

    These results suggest a dynamic balance between generic and tailored export promotion initiatives for environmental technology exporters, with much attention to program implementation as is given to program content formulation. The components proposed for municipality export opens up a potentially new research trajectory on environmentally conscious design that considers technological as well as non-technological changes based on large-scaled environmental technology systems for system-wide environmental improvements.

    Delarbeid
    1. Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries
    2013 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid international and widespread diffusion of environmental technologies remains an essential requirement within the framework of sustainable development. Export offers a desired means for technology diffusion due to its strategic flexibility compared to other means such as foreign direct investment and aid. However, the export of environmental technologies is stifled by market failures. Among other reasons and as a response to such market failures, several governments are formulating initiatives to promote the export of environmental technologies. Although diffusion promotion is highlighted as an important research focus, a systematic overview of governmental initiatives that aim to promote environmental technology export is not available in the literature. This gap in the literature makes it difficult to analyse program effectiveness, and identify best practices. Using documentation from export promotion and export credit agencies in eight selected countries across Asia, Europe, and North America, we discuss governmental initiatives that aim to promote the export of environmental technologies. Our synthesis reveals that governmental promotion can be categorised according to alternative promotional services and is applied across target country(ies), environmental technology type(s), firm size(s),  and firm involvement in export. In addition, using theories from market failure and diffusion studies, we discuss similarities and differences between country initiatives. Trends indicate a focus on support for small and medium sized environmental technology exporters but interesting differences emerge with the choice of target markets, technologies, and the specific export promotion services.

    Emneord
    Environmental technology; Export promotion; Market failure; Governmental initiatives
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108728 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    Megatech
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vinnova
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-07-02 Laget: 2014-07-02 Sist oppdatert: 2014-11-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 222-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Environmental technology, Technology diffusion, Market failures, Perceived effectiveness, Firm-level analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102196 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.013 (DOI)000356194300023 ()
    Prosjekter
    Megatech
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-12-03 Laget: 2013-12-03 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06
    3. Design of business concept with environmental technology
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Design of business concept with environmental technology
    2013 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, strategies for sustainable development are arguably among the most discussed issues among political, public and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by major trends such as climate change, rapid urbanization, critical material and energy resource depletion. To facilitate sustainable development, deep structural and wide reaching changes seem needed in current technologies, infrastructure, businesses and institutions. In the academic discourse, different concepts, methods and tools, have been proposed and continue to be expounded within the framework of sustainable development. Notable among them include the concepts of ecodesign, and product and service systems design. These concepts have contributed to environmental improvements but have been challenged by critics to be expanded beyond products and services to include non-technological changes in order to deliver system wide environmental improvements.

    Departing from this background, the goal of this article is twofold, first to offer an expanded view on environmental conscious design of products and services with large scaled sociotechnical systems and then to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems. In doing this, we offer a new way of describing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems which incorporates non-technological dimensions such as meeting formal and informal expectations. We propose a set of components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology offering. These components are: market (including regulations), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy were  found as particular for environmental technology diffusion.

    Emneord
    Environmental technology, Innovation management, Business model, Technology diffusion
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108729 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    BMEX (Business models for market expansion of Swedish municipal environmental technologies)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-07-02 Laget: 2014-07-02 Sist oppdatert: 2015-06-02bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 5.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clausen, Jens
    Hannover, Germany.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation: a study of business development organizations and cluster initiatives in a Swedish and a German region2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation continues to gain support as a driving force for sustainable development. In this regard, pressing questions include how to stimulate the development, diffusion and use of eco-innovations. Often, firms engaged with eco-innovation need to connect to intermediary organizations (e.g. business development organizations, regional clusters, universities, financers, incubators) to get hold of necessary resources to tackle the challenges in the innovation process. This article analyses the functions of such intermediary organizations for eco-innovation by focusing on public–owned business development organizations and cluster initiatives in the Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.  We synthesise at least eight functions of intermediaries for eco-innovation as: (i) forecasting and road mapping (ii) resource mobilization (iii) networking and partnerships (iv) commercialization (v) technical consulting (vi) information scanning and distribution (vii) sector branding and legitimation (viii) prototyping and piloting.  The support functions often take a “one-size-fits-all” approach with few initiatives particularly tailored for eco-innovations. This can be explained by the market complementarity roles of public intermediaries, their resource constraints and the cross-sectoral nature of eco-innovation. Even though, intermediary functions are often appreciated by clients and financers, it is often difficult to establish a causal relation between the support and eco-innovation outcomes, a challenge which undermines the existence of intermediaries themselves. Despite these challenges, potential good practices point to a mix between general “one-size-fits-all” and tailored support activities for different types of eco-innovations and firms. Furthermore, interaction between various types of intermediaries is important since there are often numerous actors and initiatives working with eco-innovation which can confuse firms. When it comes to stimulating radical eco-innovations, a proactive approach to intermediation is particularly important. 

  • 6.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    del Río, Pablo
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A technological innovation systems approach to analyse the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, s. 1136-1148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on intermediaries faces challenges regarding how to conceptualise and empirically demonstrate the system-level impact of intermediaries. Thus, researchers and policy analysts may experience difficulties in grasping the potential contributions of intermediaries beyond individual projects and firms to aggregate levels of an innovation system. This article combines innovation intermediary and technological innovation systems literature to develop fundamentals of an approach for analysing how organisations acting as intermediaries support firms in eco-innovation and potentially contribute to technological innovation system functions. The operationalisation of the analytical approach is illustrated using case studies on a total of eight support organisations acting as intermediaries in the region of Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. For researchers and policy analysts, the analytical approach presented in this article offers the opportunity for a step-by-step, comprehensive and transparent analysis of different types of intermediaries, their roles, and potential contributions to innovation system functions.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-04-20 16:36
  • 7.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gonzaléz, Pablo del Rio
    Institute for Public Policies and Goods Madrid, Spain..
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A function of innovation systems approach for analysing the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws from two bodies of literature, innovation intermediaries and technological innovation systems, to develop an approach for analysing the functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation. The link between the functions of innovation intermediaries and the functions of technological innovation systems has seldom been explicitly established in the scientific discourse and thus this article contributes to theoretical development in both literatures. To the technological innovation systems literature, this article addresses the lack of attention to the functions of innovation intermediaries who are a critical part in the formation of networks and also contribute to a number of innovation system functions. To the innovation intermediary literature, the functional approach advocates for a synthesis and consensus building in the literature regarding intermediary functions in view of the several redundancies and ambiguities on the subject matter. Empirical operationalization of the analytical approach including methodological choices from case studies in Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany are also discussed. The results of our analysis show that the functions of the innovation intermediaries are particularly relevant for the overall goals of an innovation system as compared to the configuration of intermediary actors. Particular challenges with a functional approach in this context include the difficulties of establishing a causal relation between the support functions of intermediaries and eco-innovation outcomes in firms.

  • 8.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    An approach for analyzing public support systems for eco-innovations: Lessons from two German and Swedish regions2014Inngår i: 18th Annual Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurship Conference, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Boosting eco-innovation: The role of public support organizations2014Inngår i: XXV ISPIM Conference on Innovation for sustainable Economy and Society, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a multidisciplinary and systematic review of 45 journal articles and two case interviews to investigate the role of public support organizations in the development of eco-innovations. Even though eco-innovations are regarded as a driving force within sustainable development, entrepreneurs developing such innovations face barriers such as lack of some technical expertise, limited financial, time and human resources. Generally, two aspects are needed for eco-innovation support i.e. support for technology as well as business development. The selected public support organizations offered business development support through networking, bridging and financing. However, preliminary findings on their current support activities indicate bridging to other actors who can provide technical expertise such as environmental impact assessment and eco-design could be a promising addition to business development. Potential further research includes deeper empirical investigations on the role of public support actors in the development of eco-innovations.

  • 10.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clausen, Jens
    Borderstep Institute for Innovation and Sustainability.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 205, s. 1006-1016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation is an approach to environmental sustainability. However, the process of eco-innovation can be challenging especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, SMEs might seek external support to tackle some of their challenges in eco-innovation. In this article, we focus on one type of organization providing and also assisting SMEs to access support, intermediaries, i.e. an organization or body that acts as an agent or broker in the innovation process. Intermediaries support firms in the innovation process through various generic and customised activities. To identify such activities and describe the roles intermediaries take in eco-innovation, we conducted interviews and documentation analysis on selected intermediaries in two regions – Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. The identified roles among our cases include: (i) forecasting and road mapping, (ii) information gathering and dissemination, (iii) fostering networking and partnerships, (iv) prototyping and piloting, (v) technical consulting, (vi) resource mobilisation, (vii) commercialisation, and (viii) branding and legitimation. In relation to the specific characteristics of eco-innovations, the intermediary roles such as prototyping and piloting, information gathering and dissemination, and branding were directly targeted at validating the environmental benefits of eco-innovations to tackle their “double externality” challenge. However, we found little intermediation activities from our cases directed explicitly at policy change for eco-innovation. For policy makers, our results suggest a complementary use of different types of intermediaries to support eco-innovation.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-09-17 10:56
  • 11.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dugand, Santiago Mejiá
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: An analysis of governmental initiatives from eight countries2016Inngår i: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, E-ISSN 2211-4653, Vol. 17, s. 73-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Export represents a means for the diffusion of environmental technologies with potential socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, environmental technology providers experience export barriers which stifle export and thus several governments continue to formulate export promotion initiatives towards this sector. Although export promotion is identified as essential in the environmental technology policy literature, it is yet to receive attention as to which initiatives are available in different countries including their potential relevance for environmental sustainability. Such knowledge is fundamental for policy learning and transfer including identification of good practices.

    To address this knowledge gap, we use market failure and comparative public policy theories to analyse export promotion initiatives from export promotion and export credit agencies across eight countries in Asia, Europe, and North America. Three major conclusions emerge: (1) governmental initiatives to promote environmental technology export can be categorised under financial aid, information provision, education and training, and trade mobility programs; (2) policy choices regarding promotion initiatives are mediated by the institutional context and interests of policy actors (3) relevant aspects of such initiatives for environmental sustainability include the incorporation of particular environmental technology characteristics in initiative formulation, and the prioritisation between different technology and markets types for implementation.

  • 12.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejia-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental Technology Export Promotion: A study of governmental initiatives in selected countries2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction-This report is based on structured literature reviews and brainstorming sections on governmental export promotion initiatives for environmental technology in selected countries. It is intended to answer two fundamental questions: why governments intervene to promote environmental technology export and how this intervention is actually executed. These questions emerged in-light of two general challenges: 1) the lack of vivid scientific insights with robust theoretical underpinnings on governmental efforts to promote environmental technology export, 2) the necessity to diffuse environmental technology across borders based on the facts that some environmental technologies have a pressing demand in countries other than their home origin and that most emerging economies are now facing environmental challenges which have long existed in many developed countries.

    Approach-A structured literature review which covered public export promotion agencies and export credit agencies in the top three environmental technology exporting countries (Germany, USA, and Japan); Scandinavian environmental technology competitors to Sweden (Finland, Denmark, Norway); other European competitor (Austria) and China as an emerging exporter was employed to identify governmental export promotion initiatives. For a deeper insight Austria, Denmark and Sweden were purposively selected for an analysis into their public ‘‘action’’ plans to promote environmental technology including exports. The empirical findings were then discussed in brainstorming sections using theories and best practices to come out with conclusions, some recommendations and further questions.

    Findings-The economic justification for government involvement in export promotion is based on the theory of asymmetric information and other market failures. The market has so far not shown enough signs of inherently diffusing environmental technologies to the desired societal level, thus the need for government intervention. Governmental intervention for environmental technology export promotion are organised by one or a combination of the following in the reviewed countries: by prioritized target countries; by prioritized environmental technologies; by alternative services (information, financial, training and education, trade and mobility related programs); by firm size (large vs. small) and by firm stage in internationalization. With regards to specific action plans, crosscutting focus remains on support for small and medium enterprises; strategies in Austria and Denmark to promote environmental technologies in aggregation focus on policy information provision to enterprises whiles technology and business development is given priority in Sweden.

    Concluding remarks-The report concludes with some remarks and further questions to stir up the debate and understanding on governmental initiatives for environmental technology export promotion. Highlights include 1) the recommendation for the provision of more detailed market information to export oriented firms recognizing the importance of externalities involved in gathering such information by private firms, 2) the need for mutual collaboration between governmental export promotion agencies and their initiatives which could be confusingly large within a country and  3) a hybridization of focus on policy instruments and technology & business development in-line with the complex ecosystem of interactions between market information and the innovation of environmental technologies.

    Further questions-Several questions remain to be answered. Among them include: 1) Which theories could be used to justify governmental intervention through export promotion of environmental technologies? 2) What, When and How to measure the effectiveness of such governmental export promotion initiatives and 3) How the inherent characteristics of environmental technologies have (or should) influence their export promotion remain to be answered.

  • 13.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid international and widespread diffusion of environmental technologies remains an essential requirement within the framework of sustainable development. Export offers a desired means for technology diffusion due to its strategic flexibility compared to other means such as foreign direct investment and aid. However, the export of environmental technologies is stifled by market failures. Among other reasons and as a response to such market failures, several governments are formulating initiatives to promote the export of environmental technologies. Although diffusion promotion is highlighted as an important research focus, a systematic overview of governmental initiatives that aim to promote environmental technology export is not available in the literature. This gap in the literature makes it difficult to analyse program effectiveness, and identify best practices. Using documentation from export promotion and export credit agencies in eight selected countries across Asia, Europe, and North America, we discuss governmental initiatives that aim to promote the export of environmental technologies. Our synthesis reveals that governmental promotion can be categorised according to alternative promotional services and is applied across target country(ies), environmental technology type(s), firm size(s),  and firm involvement in export. In addition, using theories from market failure and diffusion studies, we discuss similarities and differences between country initiatives. Trends indicate a focus on support for small and medium sized environmental technology exporters but interesting differences emerge with the choice of target markets, technologies, and the specific export promotion services.

  • 14.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An exploratory expansion of the concept of product-service systems beyond products and services2018Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, s. 185-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) are seen as an important part inmoving towards increased environmental sustainability within the holisticconcept of a circular economy. While PSS are increasingly prevalent inindustry and a multitude of methods and tools have been developed to aidtheir implementation and use, this paper argues that the concept may bemeaningfully extended beyond the design and provision of products andservices alone to include large technical systems. Through a literaturereview and the analysis of four case studies, commonalities anddifferences between PSS and large technical systems are identified. Whilethis only constitutes a first step into the expansion of the scope of PSSand additional, more applied research is required, the PSS concept isdiscussed as a key facilitator of improved environmental performance ofindustrial activities and consumption if applied on a system-level.

  • 15.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental technology exports: Analyzing Swedish government and firms' initiatives2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries have historically relied to a great extent on exports as an important component of theireconomic system. With the current globalization trends and increased competitiveness, promotingexports has therefore become a common strategy in order to boost economic growth. Exports ofenvironmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and acontribution to global sustainability. For this objective, governments provide different initiativesaimed at promoting foreign commerce among firms. The aim of this article is to assess the perceptionof the effectiveness of governmental initiatives for export promotion among Swedish environmentaltechnology firms. In addition, the article addresses firms’ internal initiatives to reach potential foreignmarkets through the use of modern communication channels. Data about 728 Swedish environmentaltechnology companies was collected and analyzed by using a combination of desktop research and aweb-based survey. The findings show a relatively high export orientation among the respondentcompanies. However, a majority of the respondents claim not to be aware of governmental initiativesthat fit their particular needs. Those who do show a high level of participation in such initiatives, butmost could not relate this participation to successful businesses abroad. From the firms’ perspective,presence on the Internet was considered to be a plausible indicator of their internal initiatives tocapture potential foreign customers. An analysis of the companies’ web sites, their languagecustomization options and the information they provide was undertaken. Results show that a largenumber of companies have functional web sites. However, the percentage of web sites with languagecustomization options was relatively low.The findings suggest that governmental initiatives have to consider the particular composition andneeds of the environmental technology sector in order to be more effective. On the other hand,although companies show to be proactive in the use of the Internet for increasing their outreach,language customization must be addressed as an important component when using such a tool. Bothgovernmental and firms’ initiatives remain important contributions to export success. In this regard,collaboration and communication between governmental export promotion agencies and firmsrepresents an important first step.

  • 16.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 222-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

  • 17.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, s. 156-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for sustainable development are arguably part of the most discussed issues among political and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, and critical natural resource depletion. Sustainable development will require deep structural and wide-reaching changes in current institutions, technologies, and businesses. Furthermore, new approaches are needed to facilitate the development, diffusion, and implementation of environmental technologies. In the academic discourse different concepts, e.g., ecodesign and Product/Service System design, have been proposed within the framework of sustainable development. To deliver even more system-wide environmental improvements, these concepts have been challenged to be expanded in focus beyond products and services to include large technical systems encompassing non-technological dimensions. Motivated by these, the goal of this article is twofold. First, to offer an expanded view on ecodesign of product/service systems using a perspective of large technical systems. Second, to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems such as district heating supply, waste management, and renewable energy systems. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and company documentation analysis, this study examines five companies that develop and diffuse large scaled environmental technology systems. As a result of these case studies, we propose components of business concepts that incorporate both technological and non-technological dimensions. Our proposed business concept components are: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particularly important in the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems.

  • 18.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Design of business concept with environmental technology2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, strategies for sustainable development are arguably among the most discussed issues among political, public and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by major trends such as climate change, rapid urbanization, critical material and energy resource depletion. To facilitate sustainable development, deep structural and wide reaching changes seem needed in current technologies, infrastructure, businesses and institutions. In the academic discourse, different concepts, methods and tools, have been proposed and continue to be expounded within the framework of sustainable development. Notable among them include the concepts of ecodesign, and product and service systems design. These concepts have contributed to environmental improvements but have been challenged by critics to be expanded beyond products and services to include non-technological changes in order to deliver system wide environmental improvements.

    Departing from this background, the goal of this article is twofold, first to offer an expanded view on environmental conscious design of products and services with large scaled sociotechnical systems and then to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems. In doing this, we offer a new way of describing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems which incorporates non-technological dimensions such as meeting formal and informal expectations. We propose a set of components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology offering. These components are: market (including regulations), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy were  found as particular for environmental technology diffusion.

  • 19.
    Kant, Marvin
    et al.
    Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Innovation intermediaries: What does it take to survive over time?2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 229, s. 911-930Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation intermediaries are recognised as crucial actors that can facilitate the innovation process, support eco-innovation and contribute to sustainable entrepreneurship. However, little is known about the temporal dimension of innovation intermediaries and how they change over time to survive, which is crucial if intermediaries are to contribute to long term sustainability-oriented transformations. An in-depth case study design with a comparative approach was chosen to examine four innovation intermediaries at different development stages in the related fields of CO2 utilisation and Carbon Capture Storage technology in Europe, the USA, and Australia. This study sheds light on the survival of innovation intermediaries over time: Firstly, by describing the dynamics in an intermediary's (a) characteristics, (b) scope, (c) objectives, and (d) roles and activities. Secondly, by identifying at least four interrelated factors influencing an intermediary's survival: (i) neutrality, (ii) technological context, (iii) shared consensus, and (iv) internal value creation. Thus, this article contributes to the literature by highlighting the complexity and tensions in the survival of intermediaries through an analysis of both internal and contextual factors, as opposed to previous literature which has mainly focused on how intermediaries change their roles and activities over time to survive.

  • 20.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analyzing international city networks for sustainability: A study of five major Swedish cities2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 134, nr part A, s. 61-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies five Swedish cities, their membership in international city networks, the different motivations for such membership, and their administrations’ expected and perceived benefits. Particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such network membership. This study is motivated by the fact that city networks can potentially contribute to global sustainability goals by accelerating the diffusion of innovations, giving members access to bidirectional information flows, improving the user-producer relationship, and providing legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes.

    The study relies on a documentation review, the collection of data from the websites of the studied cities and numerous international city networks, and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks. It was found that four of the five studied cities are active members of international networks for sustainability, but also that there are large gaps between the two largest cities and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical outreach they have through the networks they belong to.

    Some city officials claim that it is easier to be active in national networks than in international networks, due to time requirements and coordination among so many members. However, city officials see benefits for their municipal companies when they are members of international networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that it is difficult to measure direct benefits from network membership, and link improvements in the studied cities to participation in a particular network (with the exception of groups created for a specific infrastructure project, reported as “networks” by the administrations). In addition, there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies. However, the administrations expect indirect benefits such as gaining legitimacy and access to milieus where they can share information and best practices, which could lead to the improvement of both local and global environmental conditions.

  • 21.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analyzing city networks for the diffusion of environmental innovations: A study of five major Swedish cities2014Inngår i: Conference Proceedings, ERSCP 2014, 14-16 October 2014, Portorož, Slovenia / [ed] Rebeka Kovačič Lukman, Peter Glavič, Damijan Koletnik, Peter Virtič and Boris Horvat, Maribor: Nigrad d.d. , 2014, s. 197-206Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies five Swedish municipalities, their memberships in international city networks, the different motivations to be members of them, and the expected and perceived benefits from doing so. A particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such memberships. This study is motivated by the fact that networks have been reported by literature to accelerate the diffusion of innovation, give members access to two-way information flows, improve the user-producer relationship and provide legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes. Using a documentation review and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks, the conclusions relate to the active participation of the studied cities in international networks, but also to the large gaps between the two largest ones and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical reach they have through the networks they belong to. Also, cities see benefits for their municipal companies when they belong to such networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that the benefits from belonging to international networks are difficult to monitor and measure objectively, and that there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies.

  • 22.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A typology of intermediary organizations and their impact on sustainability transition policies2018Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, s. 100-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability transitions encompass changes in existing socio-technological systems. In this context, scholars have emphasized the roles that intermediaries can play for sustainability transition. However, in the literature, the organizations or actors considered to act as intermediaries are very diverse and the concept of intermediary is used interchangeably between contexts. There is a risk that policy makers face difficulties understanding differences among intermediaries and consequently use some intermediaries for unfitting purposes. In this article,we propose to identify the similarities and differences among intermediaries, which are relevant for policy design for sustainability transitions. We base our comparison on three main characteristics:intermediaries’ source of funding, their scope of action and the target recipients oftheir services. Our analysis indicates that these differences have an impact on intermediaries’ short-term or long-term orientation, actor-level or system-level focus, and demand-side or supply-side target. We end the article by discussing the implications for policy design.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-07-07 00:01
  • 23. Taye, Mesfin
    et al.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement2014Inngår i: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/year, far less compared to the estimated 8 weight per cent for European Union countries. However, obsolete electr(on)ics are in urban storages primarily due to a lack of tapping mechanisms. Among several inadequacies of the current handling practices is the absence of an e-waste management framework. Improvement routes discussed include public sensitisation and engagement, capacity building, and future exploitation of potentially suitable end-of-life treatment options including the novel phenomenon of enhanced landfill mining.

  • 24.
    Taye, Mesfin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mattias, Lindahl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement2013Inngår i: 28th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/year, far less compared to the estimated 8 weight per cent for European Union countries. However, obsolete electr(on)ics are in urban storages primarily due to a lack of tapping mechanisms. Among several inadequacies of the current handling practices is the absence of an e-waste management framework. Improvement routes discussed include public sensitisation and engagement, capacity building, and future exploitation of potentially suitable end-of-life treatment options including the novel phenomenon of enhanced landfill mining.

1 - 24 of 24
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