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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The fabrication of white light-emitting diodes using the n-ZnO/NiO/p-GaN heterojunction with enhanced luminescence2013In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 8, no 320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cheap and efficient white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are of great interest due to the energy crisis all over the world. Herein, we have developed heterojunction LEDs based on the well-aligned ZnO nanorods and nanotubes on the p-type GaN with the insertion of the NiO buffer layer that showed enhancement in the light emission. Scanning electron microscopy have well demonstrated the arrays of the ZnO nanorods and the proper etching into the nanotubes. X-ray diffraction study describes the wurtzite crystal structure array of ZnO nanorods with the involvement of GaN at the (002) peak. The cathodoluminescence spectra represent strong and broad visible emission peaks compared to the UV emission and a weak peak at 425 nm which is originated from GaN. Electroluminescence study has shown highly improved luminescence response for the LEDs fabricated with NiO buffer layer compared to that without NiO layer. Introducing a sandwich-thin layer of NiO between the n-type ZnO and the p-type GaN will possibly block the injection of electrons from the ZnO to the GaN. Moreover, the presence of NiO buffer layer might create the confinement effect.

  • 2.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study2014In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 430-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO on n-type ZnO nanorods have been decorate on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy,  high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation has shown that the adopted synthesis has led to high crystalline quality nanostructures. Morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures were dominated by a near band gap emission at 380 nm and by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence originates mainly from the ZnO nanorods.

  • 3.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Yaqoob
    Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures2012In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 15424-15437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples.

  • 4.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Metal Oxide Nanostructures2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of nanotechnology is to build self-powered nanosystems that are ultrasmall in size, exhibit super sensitivity, extraordinary multi functionality, and extremely low power consumption. As we all know that 21st century has brought two most important challenges for us. One is energy shortage and the other is global warming. Now to overcome these challenges, it is highly desirable to develop nanotechnology that harvests energy from the environment to fabricate self-power and low-carbon nanodevices. Therefore a self-power nanosystem that harvests its operating energy from the environment is an attractive proposition. This is also feasible for nanodevices owing to their extremely low power consumption. One advantageous approach towards harvesting energy from the environment is the utilization of semiconducting piezoelectric materials, which facilitate the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. Among many piezoelectric materials ZnO has the rare attribute of possessing both piezoelectric and semiconducting properties. But most applications of ZnO utilize either the semiconducting or piezoelectric property, and now it’s time to fully employ the coupled semiconducting-piezoelectric properties to form  the basis for electromechanically coupled nanodevices. Since wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) is structurally noncentral symmetric and has the highest piezoelectric tensor among tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors, therefore it becomes a promising candidate for energy harvesting applications. ZnO is relatively biosafe and biocompatible as well, so it can be used at large scale without any harm to the living environment.

    The synthesis of another transition metal oxide known as Co3O4 is also important due to its potential usage in the material science, physics and chemistry fields. Co3O4 has been studied extensively due to low cost, low toxicity, the most naturally abundant, high surface area, good redox, easily tunable surface and structural properties. These significant properties enable Co3O4 fruitful for developing variety of nanodevices. Co3O4 nanostructures have been focused considerably in the past decade due to their high electro-chemical performance, which is essential for developing highly sensitive sensor devices.

    I started my work with the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures with a focus to improve the amount of harvested energy by utilizing oxygen plasma treatment. Then I grow ZnO nanorods on different flexible substrates, in order to observe the effect of substrate on the amount of harvested energy. After that I worked on understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the resulting output potential generated from ZnO nanorods. My next target belongs to an innovative approach in which AFM tip decorated with ZnO nanorods was utilized to improve the output energy. Then I investigated Co3O4 nanostructures though the effect of anions and utilized one of the nanostructure to develop a fast and reliable pH sensor. Finally to take the advantage of higher degree of redox chemistry of NiCo0O4 compared to the single phase of nickel oxide and cobalt oxide, a sensitive glucose sensor is developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase.

    However, there were problems with the mechanical robustness, lifetime, output stability and environmental adaptability of such devices, therefore more work is going on to find out new ways and means in order to improve the performance of fabricated nanogenerators and sensors.

    List of papers
    1. The improved piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with oxygen plasma treatment on the single layer graphene coated polymer substrate
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The improved piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with oxygen plasma treatment on the single layer graphene coated polymer substrate
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 2, p. 455-459Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The step towards the fabrication of nanodevices with improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in this study, oxygen plasma treated ZnO nanorods based piezoelectric nanogenerator is developed on the single layer graphene coated PET flexible polymer substrate. ZnO nanorods on the single layer graphene are grown by hydrothermal growth method and the structural study is carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The oxygen plasma treated sample of ZnO nanorods showed significant increase in the piezoelectric potential which could be due to the decrease in the defects levels in the ZnO and also increase in the mechanical properties of ZnO nanorods. Furthermore X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that the filling of vacancies by oxygen in the matrix of ZnO using oxygen plasma treatment has gave an enhanced piezoelectric potential compared to the sample of ZnO nanorods not treated with oxygen plasma. In addition to XPS experiment, cathodoluminescence (CL) technique was used for the determination of defect level in the ZnO nanorods after the treatment of oxygen plasma and the obtained information supported the XPS data of oxygen plasma treatment sample by showing the decreased level of defect levels in the prepared sample. From the XPS and CL studies, it is observed that the defect level has significant influence on the piezoelectric potential of the ZnO nanostructures.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2014
    Keywords
    piezoelectric nanogenerator; plasma treatment; single layer graphene; zinc oxide
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105762 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201300330 (DOI)000332000500030 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-07 Created: 2014-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    2. The effect of oxygen-plasma treatment on the mechanical andpiezoelectrical properties of ZnO nanorods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of oxygen-plasma treatment on the mechanical andpiezoelectrical properties of ZnO nanorods
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 608, p. 235-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on piezoelectric response and on the mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods synthesized on FTO by using ACG method. XRD and SEM techniques have shown highly dense and uniformly distributed nanorods. The piezoelectric properties and mechanical stability of as-grown and oxygen plasma treated samples were investigated by using nanoindentation technique. The comparison of load–displacement curves showed that the oxygen plasma treated samples are much stiffer and show higher generated piezo-voltage. This study demonstrates that the oxygenplasma treatment is a good option to fabricate reliable and efficient nanodevices for enhanced generation of piezoelectricity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108547 (URN)10.1016/j.cplett.2014.06.018 (DOI)000340202600042 ()
    Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    3. Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Energy Harvesting and Systems, ISSN 2329-8774, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The step toward the fabrication of nanodevices with low cost and improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in the present study, different flexible substrates like common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil have been utilized to harvest electrical energy. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by using lowtemperature aqueous chemical growth method. The obtained ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned, uniformly distributed over the substrates and exhibited good crystal quality. The structural study was carried out by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The piezoelectric properties of ZnO NRs were investigated by the help of an atomic force microscope using contact mode. The measurements of generated piezoelectricity were around 16.2 mV, 23.2 mV, 38.5 mV and 43.3 mV for common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil, respectively. This investigation is an important step in order to study the effect of different substrates influencing the magnitude of the output voltage under identical growth and measurement conditions. We expect that this study will help identify the most suitable flexible substrate for harvesting energy. It also offers a promising alternative powering source for the next generation nanodevices using non-conventional substrates like aluminum foil. Moreover, the use of aluminum foil as flexible and low cost substrate may pave the way to develop devices in different fields including energy harvesting.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Walter de Gruyter, 2014
    Keywords
    ZnO nanorods, flexible substrates, aqueous chemical growth, atomic force microscope
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108226 (URN)10.1515/ehs-2013-0025 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Use of ZnO nanorods grown AFM tip in the architecture of piezoelectric nanogenerator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of ZnO nanorods grown AFM tip in the architecture of piezoelectric nanogenerator
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Micro & Nano Letters, ISSN 1750-0443, E-ISSN 1750-0443, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 539-543Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The piezoelectric potential output has been studied using a ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown atomic force microscope (AFM) tip in lieu of the normally used AFM tip. The ZnO NRs were synthesised on the AFM tip and on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate using the aqueous chemical growth method. The as-grown ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned and uniform both on the tip and on the substrate. The structural study was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The piezoelectric properties of as-grown ZnO NRs were investigated using an AFM in contact mode. In comparison to the AFM tip without ZnO NRs, extra positive voltage peaks were observed when the AFM tip with ZnO NRs was used. The pair of ZnO NRs on the AFM tip and on the FTO glass substrate together worked as two oppositely gliding walls (composed of ZnO NRs) and showed an enhancement in the amount of the harvested energy as much as eight times. This approach demonstrates that the use of the AFM tip with ZnO NRs is not only a good alternative to improve the design of nanogenerators to obtain an enhanced amount of harvested energy but is also simple, reliable and cost-effective.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108893 (URN)10.1049/mnl.2014.0237 (DOI)000341502400012 ()
    Available from: 2014-07-11 Created: 2014-07-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    5. Effect of anions on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method and their pH sensing application
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of anions on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method and their pH sensing application
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 717-718, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A fast, reliable, accurate, precise and sensitive pH sensor device is highly demanding for the monitoring of pH in biological, clinical and food industry samples. In this research work, the effect of anions on the morphology of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures is investigated using low temperature chemical approach for the growth. Different anions have shown visible effect on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for the material characterization. This study has shown highly dense, uniform and good crystal quality of fabricated Co3O4 nanostructures. The nanostructures obtained from the cobalt chloride were used for the development of potentiometric pH sensor electrode. The pH sensor electrode showed excellent linearity and close to Nernstian response for the pH range of 3-13 with a sensitivity of -58.45 mV/pH. Moreover, the proposed sensor showed a fast response time of 53 s, and acceptable reducibility and repeatability. The highly sensitive and a fast time response of the proposed sensor device indicate its potential application for the monitoring of pH from real samples including biological fluids.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Anion effect; Cobalt oxide nanostructures; Morphology; pH sensor; Potentiometric response
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106984 (URN)10.1016/j.jelechem.2014.01.011 (DOI)000335112200011 ()
    Available from: 2014-06-04 Created: 2014-06-02 Last updated: 2014-10-27Bibliographically approved
    6. Synthesis of Three Dimensional Nickel Cobalt Oxide Nanoneedles on Nickel Foam, Their Characterization and Glucose Sensing Application
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of Three Dimensional Nickel Cobalt Oxide Nanoneedles on Nickel Foam, Their Characterization and Glucose Sensing Application
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 5415-5425Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, NiCo2O4 nanostructures are fabricated in three dimensions (3D) on nickel foam by the hydrothermal method. The nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanostructures exhibit nanoneedle-like morphology grown in 3D with good crystalline quality. The nanomaterial is composed of nickel, cobalt and oxygen atoms. By using the favorable porosity of the nanomaterial and the substrate itself, a sensitive glucose sensor is proposed by immobilizing glucose oxidase. The presented glucose sensor has shown linear response over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0.005 mM to 15 mM with a sensitivity of 91.34 mV/decade and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The NiCo2O4 nanostructures-based glucose sensor has shown excellent reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The sensor showed negligible response to the normal concentrations of common interferents with glucose sensing, including uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. All these favorable advantages of the fabricated glucose sensor suggest that it may have high potential for the determination of glucose in biological samples, food and other related areas.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2014
    Keywords
    nickel cobalt oxide nanostructures; nickel foam; glucose sensor; potentiometric method
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108230 (URN)10.3390/s140305415 (DOI)000336783300082 ()
    Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates2014In: Energy Harvesting and Systems, ISSN 2329-8774, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The step toward the fabrication of nanodevices with low cost and improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in the present study, different flexible substrates like common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil have been utilized to harvest electrical energy. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by using lowtemperature aqueous chemical growth method. The obtained ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned, uniformly distributed over the substrates and exhibited good crystal quality. The structural study was carried out by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The piezoelectric properties of ZnO NRs were investigated by the help of an atomic force microscope using contact mode. The measurements of generated piezoelectricity were around 16.2 mV, 23.2 mV, 38.5 mV and 43.3 mV for common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil, respectively. This investigation is an important step in order to study the effect of different substrates influencing the magnitude of the output voltage under identical growth and measurement conditions. We expect that this study will help identify the most suitable flexible substrate for harvesting energy. It also offers a promising alternative powering source for the next generation nanodevices using non-conventional substrates like aluminum foil. Moreover, the use of aluminum foil as flexible and low cost substrate may pave the way to develop devices in different fields including energy harvesting.

  • 6.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The improved piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with oxygen plasma treatment on the single layer graphene coated polymer substrate2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 2, p. 455-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The step towards the fabrication of nanodevices with improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in this study, oxygen plasma treated ZnO nanorods based piezoelectric nanogenerator is developed on the single layer graphene coated PET flexible polymer substrate. ZnO nanorods on the single layer graphene are grown by hydrothermal growth method and the structural study is carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The oxygen plasma treated sample of ZnO nanorods showed significant increase in the piezoelectric potential which could be due to the decrease in the defects levels in the ZnO and also increase in the mechanical properties of ZnO nanorods. Furthermore X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that the filling of vacancies by oxygen in the matrix of ZnO using oxygen plasma treatment has gave an enhanced piezoelectric potential compared to the sample of ZnO nanorods not treated with oxygen plasma. In addition to XPS experiment, cathodoluminescence (CL) technique was used for the determination of defect level in the ZnO nanorods after the treatment of oxygen plasma and the obtained information supported the XPS data of oxygen plasma treatment sample by showing the decreased level of defect levels in the prepared sample. From the XPS and CL studies, it is observed that the defect level has significant influence on the piezoelectric potential of the ZnO nanostructures.

  • 7.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of Three Dimensional Nickel Cobalt Oxide Nanoneedles on Nickel Foam, Their Characterization and Glucose Sensing Application2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 5415-5425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, NiCo2O4 nanostructures are fabricated in three dimensions (3D) on nickel foam by the hydrothermal method. The nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanostructures exhibit nanoneedle-like morphology grown in 3D with good crystalline quality. The nanomaterial is composed of nickel, cobalt and oxygen atoms. By using the favorable porosity of the nanomaterial and the substrate itself, a sensitive glucose sensor is proposed by immobilizing glucose oxidase. The presented glucose sensor has shown linear response over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0.005 mM to 15 mM with a sensitivity of 91.34 mV/decade and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The NiCo2O4 nanostructures-based glucose sensor has shown excellent reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The sensor showed negligible response to the normal concentrations of common interferents with glucose sensing, including uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. All these favorable advantages of the fabricated glucose sensor suggest that it may have high potential for the determination of glucose in biological samples, food and other related areas.

  • 8.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of anions on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method and their pH sensing application2014In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 717-718, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast, reliable, accurate, precise and sensitive pH sensor device is highly demanding for the monitoring of pH in biological, clinical and food industry samples. In this research work, the effect of anions on the morphology of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures is investigated using low temperature chemical approach for the growth. Different anions have shown visible effect on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for the material characterization. This study has shown highly dense, uniform and good crystal quality of fabricated Co3O4 nanostructures. The nanostructures obtained from the cobalt chloride were used for the development of potentiometric pH sensor electrode. The pH sensor electrode showed excellent linearity and close to Nernstian response for the pH range of 3-13 with a sensitivity of -58.45 mV/pH. Moreover, the proposed sensor showed a fast response time of 53 s, and acceptable reducibility and repeatability. The highly sensitive and a fast time response of the proposed sensor device indicate its potential application for the monitoring of pH from real samples including biological fluids.

  • 9.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbassi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of CuO/ZnO Composite Nanostructures, Their Optical Characterization and Valence Band Offset Determination by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy2014In: Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, ISSN 1555-130X, E-ISSN 1555-1318, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 348-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and its composite nanostructures is an appealing issue in order to have highly efficient optoelectronic devices in the future. Zinc oxide, copper oxide (CuO) and their composite nanostructures were grown by the hydrothermal growth technique. The structural properties of the grown ZnO, CuO and their composite NSs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. UV-visible spectroscopy, Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence techniques were used for the study of optical properties of the as synthesized nanomaterials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the valence band offset of the CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. Cathodoluminescence study of pure ZnO nanorods showed more insight for lateral luminescence compared to the top surface of the nanorods which opened a novel investigation in the area of optical properties of ZnO nanomaterial. While the room temperature cathodoluminescence spectra of CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures have demonstrated excellent luminescence in the UV region compared to the cathodoluminescence spectra observed at 4 K. The measured values for valence band offset and conduction band offset are found to be 2.83 eV and 0.73 eV, respectively for the prepared CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. It was observed that CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures have type-II band alignment. The conclusion from both the cathodoluminescence and the photoluminescence studies showed that the luminescence in the visible region is only originated from the ZnO nanomaterial and that the CuO absorbs this visible emission as it covers the ZnO. This provides evidence suggesting that the use of CuO/ZnO in the fabrication of LEDs in the visible range is not appropriate.

  • 10.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Use of ZnO nanorods grown AFM tip in the architecture of piezoelectric nanogenerator2014In: Micro & Nano Letters, ISSN 1750-0443, E-ISSN 1750-0443, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 539-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piezoelectric potential output has been studied using a ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown atomic force microscope (AFM) tip in lieu of the normally used AFM tip. The ZnO NRs were synthesised on the AFM tip and on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate using the aqueous chemical growth method. The as-grown ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned and uniform both on the tip and on the substrate. The structural study was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The piezoelectric properties of as-grown ZnO NRs were investigated using an AFM in contact mode. In comparison to the AFM tip without ZnO NRs, extra positive voltage peaks were observed when the AFM tip with ZnO NRs was used. The pair of ZnO NRs on the AFM tip and on the FTO glass substrate together worked as two oppositely gliding walls (composed of ZnO NRs) and showed an enhancement in the amount of the harvested energy as much as eight times. This approach demonstrates that the use of the AFM tip with ZnO NRs is not only a good alternative to improve the design of nanogenerators to obtain an enhanced amount of harvested energy but is also simple, reliable and cost-effective.

  • 11.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of Post Growth Annealing on the Structural and Electrical Properties of ZnO/CuO Composite Nanostructures2014In: Acta Physica Polonica. A, ISSN 0587-4246, E-ISSN 1898-794X, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 849-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, ZnO/CuO composite nanostructures have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method. To observe the effect of post growth annealing (500 degrees C, 1 min) on the structural properties of ZnO nanorods scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques have been utilized. SEM images of post growth annealed (post growth annealed) sample reveal that the average diameter of ZnO NRs has considerably increased in comparison with as grown sample. Moreover after post growth annealing the ZnO NRs showed more clearly hexagonal wurtzite structure. Beside this the NRs are also uniform and well aligned with a high aspect ratio of similar to 10. In XRD pattern the strongly intense (002) peak of the post growth annealing sample suggest that the crystal quality of the NRs have also been improved significantly. Since the structural improvement have a significant impact on charge transport properties as well, therefore the effect of post growth annealed has also been investigated by the electrical characterization of ZnO/CuO based heterojunction. The current-voltage measurements of the post growth annealed sample showed improvement in the current in comparison with as grown sample. The impedance study has also confirmed that the post growth annealed has influence on the electrical properties. The presented post growth annealed heterojunction of ZnO/CuO may have space in applications like sensors and oxide based diodes in the devices fabrication.

  • 12.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect of oxygen-plasma treatment on the mechanical andpiezoelectrical properties of ZnO nanorods2014In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 608, p. 235-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on piezoelectric response and on the mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods synthesized on FTO by using ACG method. XRD and SEM techniques have shown highly dense and uniformly distributed nanorods. The piezoelectric properties and mechanical stability of as-grown and oxygen plasma treated samples were investigated by using nanoindentation technique. The comparison of load–displacement curves showed that the oxygen plasma treated samples are much stiffer and show higher generated piezo-voltage. This study demonstrates that the oxygenplasma treatment is a good option to fabricate reliable and efficient nanodevices for enhanced generation of piezoelectricity.

  • 13.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide nanorods grown on textile cotton fabric2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores piezoelectricity generation from ZnO nanorods, which were grown on silver coated textile cotton fabrics using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. The morphology and crystal structure studies were carried out by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic and high resolution transmission electron microscopic techniques, respectively. ZnO nanorods were highly dense, well aligned, uniform in spatial distribution and exhibited good crystal quality. The generation of piezoelectricity from fabricated ZnO nanorods grown on textile cotton fabrics was measured using contact mode atomic force microscopy. The average output voltage generated from ZnO nanorods was measured to be around 9.5 mV. This investigation is an important achievement regarding the piezoelectricity generation on textile cotton fabric substrate. The fabrication of this device provides an alternative approach for a flexible substrate to develop devices for energy harvesting and optoelectronic technology on textiles.

  • 14.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of transport properties of copper/zinc-oxide-nanorods-based Schottky diode fabricated on textile fabric2013In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 125006-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a copper/zinc-oxide (ZnO)-nanorods-based Schottky diode was fabricated on the textile fabric substrate. ZnO nanorods were grown on a silver-coated textile fabric substrate by using the hydrothermal route. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used for the structural study. The electrical characterization of copper/ZnO-nanorods-based Schottky diodes was investigated by using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and an impedance spectrometer. The current density-voltage (J-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were used to estimate the electrical parameters. The threshold voltage (V-th), ideality factor (eta), barrier height (phi(b)), reverse saturation current density (J(s)), carrier concentration (N-D) and built-in potential (V-bi) were determined by using experimental data and (simulated) curve fitting. This study describes the possible fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices on textile fabric substrate with an acceptable performance.

  • 15.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of junction properties of gold-zinc oxide nanorods-based Schottky diode by means of frequency dependent electrical characterization on textile2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 3434-3441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present work is an effort to reveal the junction properties of gold/zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods-based Schottky diode by using the frequency dependent electrical properties. The most important electrical parameters such as conductance, resistance, capacitance, and impedance were studied as function of frequency across the series of AC voltages. Moreover, current density-voltage (J-V) was measured to know the performance of present Schottky diode. The effect of native defects was also studied by using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured at different accelerating voltage. The textile substrate was used for the growth of ZnO nanorods by using the aqueous chemical growth method and Schottky diode fabrication. Diode fabrication on textile fabric is a step forward toward the fabrication of electronic devices on nonconventional, economical, soft, light weight, flexible, wearable, washable, recyclable, reproducible, and nontoxic substrate.

  • 16.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoneedles on conductive textile for harvesting piezoelectric potential2014In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 612, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keeping the fact in mind that different morphologies have strong influence on piezoelectric properties, ZnO NNs were synthesized on textile for harvesting piezoelectricity. Piezoelectric potential was captured from ZnO NNs grown on textile by using AFM in contact mode. Structural study was carried out by using FESEM, HRTEM and XRD techniques. The recorded output potential and current was more than 45 mV and 150 nA. The combination of ZnO NNs and textile can be used effectively for energy harvesting applications and the use of textile fabric can pave the way for cheap, flexible, wearable, washable and environment friendly nanodevices.

  • 17.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate2014In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 47, no 34, p. 345102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research is devoted to understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the piezoelectric potential generated from vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), which were grown on a conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate by using the aqueous chemical growth method. The piezoelectric voltage was harvested from vertically aligned ZnO NRs having different physical parameters by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode and the variation in the generated piezoelectricity was investigated. The generated output potential indicates that different physical parameters such aspect ratio, crystal size and lattice internal crystal strain have a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which were grown on a textile fabric. Presented results indicate that textiles can be used as an alternative substrate just like the other conventional substrates, because our results are similar/better than many reported works on conventional substrates.

  • 18.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of direct and converse piezoelectric responses from zinc oxide nanowires grown on a conductive fabric2015In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 212, no 3, p. 579-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite zinc oxide nanowires were grown on conductive commercial textile fabric as piezoelectric material. Aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method was used for the synthesis of ZnO nanowires. Field emission surface scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for surface and structural analysis of grown nanowires. The mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the nanowires were investigated by nanoindantation. Piezoelectric potentials up to 0.013 V were measured in response to direct applied loads in the range 0 - 11 mN. Also, a DC voltage was applied for measurement of converse piezoelectric response under a low constant applied force (~5 μN) and the piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 33.2 pm/V. This study performed on commercial conductive textile demonstrates the feasibility to fabricate wearable nanogenerator clothing.

  • 19.
    Willander, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, K.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    UV detectors and LEDs in different metal oxide nanostructures2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different composite nanostructures based pn-junctions have been synthesized using the low temperature hydrothermal chemical growth. The composite nanostructures based pn junctions demonstrated here include p-NiO/n-ZnO, p-CuO/n-ZnO, and p-NiO/n-TiO2. Structural characterization of these composite nanostructures based pn-junctions was performed by different complementary tools and the results indicated that reasonable device quality crystals have been achieved. His act was also confirmed by the rectifying electrical behavior observed from these junctions. Further, the different composite nanostructures based junctions were used to demonstrate UV detectors and visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating with acceptable performance.

  • 20.
    Zainelabdin, Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zaman, Siama
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis and Characterization of CuO/ZnO Composite Nanostructures: Precursor’s Effects, and their Optical Properties2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A two steps hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures (NSs) on glass substrate. The CuO NSs were selectively assembled on the lateral surface of ZnO nanorods (NRs) upon short growth duration. While the CuO NSs were entirely covered the surface of ZnO NRs at extended growth durations. The growth kinetics of CuO NSs is strongly dependent on the nature and the pH value of the precursor solution. When a single precursor solution of copper nitrate was applied in the synthesis process, a coral-like CuO/ZnO NSs were obtained. However, by adding a pH controlling agent to the precursor solution significant increase in the size of the grown CuO NSs was observed. The results revealed that the grown CuO NSs were robustly adhered to ZnO NRs, however, no explicit epitaxial relationship was found. The ZnO NRs band to band and defects emissions ratio was decreased compared to that of pure ZnO NRs, suggesting that oxygen vacancies are the probable growth sites of CuO NSs. The CuO/ZnO composite NSs exhibited a broad light absorption covering the whole visible range compared to the constituent materials. The low growth temperatures along with the optical properties of CuO/ZnO suggest these composite NSs may carry great potentials in light harvesting, sensing and emitting applications.

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