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  • 1.
    Bauhr, Monika
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Charron, Nicholas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue? Public Opinion and the Aid-Corruption Paradox2013In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 568-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the "aid-corruption paradox," namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid fatigue can be substantially altered if aid is motivated by moral reasons for helping poor countries or if the purpose of aid is understood to improve governance. In new member states (NMS-12), the effect is reduced if respondents believe that the result of aid can serve national interests. The results provide new insights into the public opinion/development policy nexus, which suggest a number of salient policy recommendations and future areas for research.

  • 2.
    Bauhr, Monika
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Sweden .
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    How Do International Organizations Promote Quality of Government? Contestation, Integration, and the Limits of IO Power2012In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 541-566Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do international organizations (IOs) promote quality of government (QoG) and reduce corruption? IOs play a central role in most accounts of power in international relations. However, our understanding of how IOs exercise power seldom moves beyond the traditional materialnormative dimensions of power. We suggest that an important dimension to understand IO power is the contestationintegration dimension, where IOs can exercise power either by integrating countries into networks of cultural exchange or by contesting existing orders. By analyzing multilateral aid data and building on recent advances in our understanding of the effectiveness of IO anti-corruption work, we apply this framework to show how the contestationintegration dimension helps us understand the success or failure of anti-corruption strategies. We show that when IOs contest existing orders using governance rankings and aid conditionality, they suffer from ideational shortcomings, including lack of objective data and contested policy advice. In contrast, measures based on integration, such as the membership process of IOs or interaction with IOs, are more likely to suffer from internal procedural shortcomings, such as IOs failing to internalize and mainstream the norms that they seek to promote. Our findings have implications for both understanding conditions that limit the diffusion of the international anti-corruption agenda and advancing our knowledge of IO power and its limits.

  • 3.
    Bauhr, Monika
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Resisting Transparency: Corruption, Legitimacy, and the Quality of Global Environmental Policies2012In: Global Environmental Politics, ISSN 1526-3800, E-ISSN 1536-0091, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The domestic endorsement and institutionalization of transparency is of central importance to the implementation of global environmental policies. Studies often contend that interaction with international organizations (IOs) promotes domestic support for transparency. This article qualifies this conclusion and suggests that the positive effects of interaction with international organizations depend on the quality of IO decision-making processes, defined as their fairness, predictability, and effectiveness. Unfair, ineffective, and unpredictable decision-making processes in IOs can increase corruption, reduce legitimacy, and make officials blame transparency for unsatisfactory decision-making. The results build on a study of government officials in developing countries responsible for managing funds from the Clean Development Mechanism and the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Our findings suggest that government officials who perceive IO systems as unfair, ineffective, and unpredictable cultivate an adversarial relationship with media and NGOs and become more critical of the benefits of transparency.

  • 4.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Views on alternative forums for effectively tackling climate change2015In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 864-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This year (2015) marks the 21st formal anniversary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and in December a new climate treaty is expected to be reached. Yet, the UNFCCC has not been successful in setting the world on a path to meet a target to prevent temperatures rising by more than 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels(1). Meanwhile, other forums, such as the G20 and subnational forums, have increasingly become sites of climate change initiatives(2-6). There has, however, so far been no systematic evaluation of what forums climate change policymakers and practitioners perceive to be needed to effectively tackle climate change. Drawing on survey data from two recent UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP), we show that there exists an overall preference for state-led, multilateral forums. However, preferences starkly diverge between respondents from different geographical regions and no clear alternative to the UNFCCC emerges. Our results highlight difficulties in coordinating global climate policy in a highly fragmented governance landscape.

  • 5.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fossil fuel emitters and climate change governance: Understanding the roles of large oil and gas companiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change governance is under increasing pressure to deliver meaningful climate action. It is now widely agreed that a low-carbon growth path requires major transformations of energy systems. This paper seeks to provide new conceptual and empirical insights into questions about different roles played by major oil and gas companies in climate change governance. Specifically, the paper examines how the ten largest oil and gas companies in the world present their rationales for addressing climate change and their activities related to climate action, including the oil and gas companies’ involvement in international climate diplomacy. The paper thereby contributes to the environmental governance literature by highlighting the North/South dimension and the state/non-state dimension of major oil and gas companies and their activities to address climate change. These issues touch upon central questions in the literature, such as the relations between state and non-state actors and our understanding of the allocation of responsibility in climate change politics. Its novel empirical findings also contribute to new insights into the climate change activities currently underway in the oil and gas sector. The paper thus has important implications both for the theory and practice of climate change governance.

  • 6.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shapers, Brokers and Doers: The Dynamic Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Climate Change Governance2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-state actors, such as international environmental organisations, business associations and indigenous peoples organisations, increasingly take on governance functions that can influence the delivery of global public goods. This thesis examines the roles of these actors in the field of global climate change governance. Specifically, the thesis examines why and how non-state actors are involved in global climate change governance, the governance activities that they may perform and are perceived to perform, and their views on climate change solutions. The thesis also discusses the implications of their roles for how authority is shared between states and non-state actors in global climate change governance. The research questions are addressed by triangulating several empirical methods. The results show that the roles of non-state actors are continuously evolving and depend on the changing nature of relations between state and non-state actors as well as efforts by non-state actors to expand their policy space by justifying and seeking recognition for their participation. Moreover, the findings point to the importance of differentiating between groups of non-state actors, as they represent diverse interests and have different comparative advantages across governance activities. Which non-state actors participate and to what extent therefore has implications for the effects of their involvement in global climate change governance. On the basis of a systematic assessment of a set of non-state actors, this thesis concludes that the key role-categories of non-state actors in global climate change governance are broadly: shapers of information and ideas, brokers of knowledge, norms and initiatives, and doers of implementing policies and influencing behaviours. Different non-state actors carry out activities within these role-categories to different extents. In addition to the empirical mapping of the roles of non-state actors in global climate change governance, this thesis contributes to two strands in the literature: one theoretical focusing on the authority and legitimacy of non-state actors in global environmental governance, and the other methodological, offering a toolbox that combines survey data with qualitative methods.

    List of papers
    1. Open or closed meetings? Explaining nonstate actor involvement in the international climate change negotiations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open or closed meetings? Explaining nonstate actor involvement in the international climate change negotiations
    2016 (English)In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 127-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When do states allow nonstate actors (NSAs) to observe negotiations at intergovernmental meetings? Previous studies have identified the need for states to close negotiations when the issues under discussion are sensitive. This paper argues that sensitivity alone cannot adequately explain the dynamic of closing down negotiations to observers. Questions that have received little attention in the literature include which issues are considered sensitive and how the decision is made to move the negotiations behind closed doors. This paper examines the practices of NSA involvement in climate diplomacy from three analytical perspectives: functional efficiency, political dynamics, and historical institutionalism. Based on interviews and UNFCCC documents, this paper suggests that to understand the issue of openness in negotiations, institutional factors and the politics of NSA involvement need to be better scrutinized. The paper shows that each perspective has particular advantages when analyzing different dimensions of the negotiations, with implications of how we understand the role of NSAs in global environmental governance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2016
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108551 (URN)10.1007/s10784-014-9237-6 (DOI)000372248800007 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

    Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Normative arguments for non-state actor participation in international policymaking processes: Functionalism, neocorporatism or democratic pluralism?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normative arguments for non-state actor participation in international policymaking processes: Functionalism, neocorporatism or democratic pluralism?
    2016 (English)In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 920-943Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The participation of non-state actors in multilateral institutions is often portrayed as one way of decreasing the perceived legitimacy deficit in global governance. The literature on non-state actors has identified several ways in which these actors can enhance the legitimacy of intergovernmental organisations and global governance arrangements. Three partially competing normative arguments, or rationales, for the inclusion of non-state actors in international policymaking ᅵ functionalism, neocorporatism and democratic pluralism ᅵ have been identified. Whereas functionalism highlights the contribution of non-state actors to output legitimacy in terms of expertise, neocorporatism emphasises the inclusion of affected interests, and democratic pluralism claims that non-state actors increase input legitimacy through procedural values. These three normative arguments thus offer different understandings of the motives for the inclusion and representation of non-state actors in international negotiations and diplomacy. Through a single case study of United Nations climate diplomacy, we analyse the extent to which the three rationales for non-state actor inclusion are found in views held by state and non-state actors participating in the annual United Nations climate change conferences. Our results show that different actor groups place varying degrees of emphasis on the different rationales for non-state actor inclusion, even though the neocorporatist rationale remains most favoured overall. We discuss the implications of our findings for the democratic legitimacy of increasing participation of non-state actors in intergovernmental affairs and recent trends in the participation of non-state actors in the international climate change policymaking process.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2016
    Keywords
    Climate change, global governance, legitimacy, non-state actors
    National Category
    Globalisation Studies Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123293 (URN)10.1177/1354066115608926 (DOI)000387234600009 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

    Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    3. The roles of non-state actors in climate change governance: understanding agency through governance profiles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The roles of non-state actors in climate change governance: understanding agency through governance profiles
    2016 (English)In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 109-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization processes have rendered non-state actors an integral part of global governance. The body of literature that has examined non-state actor involvement in global governance has focused mainly on whether and how non-state actors can influence states. Less attention has been paid to the comparative advantages of non-state actors to answer questions about agency across categories of non-state actors, and more precisely what governance activities non-state actors are perceived to fulfil. Using unique survey material from two climate change conferences, we propose that different categories of non-state actors have distinct governance profiles. We further suggest that the different governance profiles are derived from particular power sources and that agency is a function of these profiles. The study thereby contributes to a strand in the literature focusing on the authority of non-state actors in climate governance and broadens the methodological toolkit for studying the “governors” of global governance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2016
    Keywords
    Non-state actors Agency Climate change Global environmental governance Power sources
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108555 (URN)10.1007/s10784-014-9243-8 (DOI)000372248800006 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:  Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

    Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Fossil fuel emitters and climate change governance: Understanding the roles of large oil and gas companies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fossil fuel emitters and climate change governance: Understanding the roles of large oil and gas companies
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change governance is under increasing pressure to deliver meaningful climate action. It is now widely agreed that a low-carbon growth path requires major transformations of energy systems. This paper seeks to provide new conceptual and empirical insights into questions about different roles played by major oil and gas companies in climate change governance. Specifically, the paper examines how the ten largest oil and gas companies in the world present their rationales for addressing climate change and their activities related to climate action, including the oil and gas companies’ involvement in international climate diplomacy. The paper thereby contributes to the environmental governance literature by highlighting the North/South dimension and the state/non-state dimension of major oil and gas companies and their activities to address climate change. These issues touch upon central questions in the literature, such as the relations between state and non-state actors and our understanding of the allocation of responsibility in climate change politics. Its novel empirical findings also contribute to new insights into the climate change activities currently underway in the oil and gas sector. The paper thus has important implications both for the theory and practice of climate change governance.

    Keywords
    Oil and gas companies, climate change governance, private authority, non-state actors
    National Category
    Climate Research Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123294 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    5. Pluralising climate change solutions?: Views held and voiced by participants at the international climate change negotiations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pluralising climate change solutions?: Views held and voiced by participants at the international climate change negotiations
    2014 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, ISSN ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 105, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intergovernmental organisations have developed into important sites of normative contestation where increasingly non-state actors participate. A common puzzle is however whether engaged non-state actors represent already strong and established interests or if they also bring forth marginalised voices. This concern raises the pertinent question of what views non-state actors actually represent and if this adds to the perspectives voiced by state actors. This paper examines the views held and voiced by state and a range of non-state participants at the United Nation's climate change conferences. Specifically, questions on what types of climate change solutions are favoured and to what extent these solutions are discussed are addressed. Through statistical analyses of questionnaire data and a content analysis of abstracts of side-events to the conferences, we find that while non-state actors help in broadening the discursive space, some perspectives remain marginalised. We conclude that while non-state actors represent a pluralising force, greater non-state actor participation in intergovernmental organisations is on its own unlikely to lead to democratic global governance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Non-state actors; Climate change; Global Environmental Governance; Deliberative democracy
    National Category
    Political Science Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108517 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.06.002 (DOI)000342272600018 ()
    Projects
    Non-state actors in the new landscape of international climate cooperation
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research Council
    Available from: 2014-06-29 Created: 2014-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05
  • 7.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Buhr, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Pluralising climate change solutions?: Views held and voiced by participants at the international climate change negotiations2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, ISSN ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 105, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intergovernmental organisations have developed into important sites of normative contestation where increasingly non-state actors participate. A common puzzle is however whether engaged non-state actors represent already strong and established interests or if they also bring forth marginalised voices. This concern raises the pertinent question of what views non-state actors actually represent and if this adds to the perspectives voiced by state actors. This paper examines the views held and voiced by state and a range of non-state participants at the United Nation's climate change conferences. Specifically, questions on what types of climate change solutions are favoured and to what extent these solutions are discussed are addressed. Through statistical analyses of questionnaire data and a content analysis of abstracts of side-events to the conferences, we find that while non-state actors help in broadening the discursive space, some perspectives remain marginalised. We conclude that while non-state actors represent a pluralising force, greater non-state actor participation in intergovernmental organisations is on its own unlikely to lead to democratic global governance.

  • 8.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Normative arguments for non-state actor participation in international policymaking processes: Functionalism, neocorporatism or democratic pluralism?2016In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 920-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The participation of non-state actors in multilateral institutions is often portrayed as one way of decreasing the perceived legitimacy deficit in global governance. The literature on non-state actors has identified several ways in which these actors can enhance the legitimacy of intergovernmental organisations and global governance arrangements. Three partially competing normative arguments, or rationales, for the inclusion of non-state actors in international policymaking ᅵ functionalism, neocorporatism and democratic pluralism ᅵ have been identified. Whereas functionalism highlights the contribution of non-state actors to output legitimacy in terms of expertise, neocorporatism emphasises the inclusion of affected interests, and democratic pluralism claims that non-state actors increase input legitimacy through procedural values. These three normative arguments thus offer different understandings of the motives for the inclusion and representation of non-state actors in international negotiations and diplomacy. Through a single case study of United Nations climate diplomacy, we analyse the extent to which the three rationales for non-state actor inclusion are found in views held by state and non-state actors participating in the annual United Nations climate change conferences. Our results show that different actor groups place varying degrees of emphasis on the different rationales for non-state actor inclusion, even though the neocorporatist rationale remains most favoured overall. We discuss the implications of our findings for the democratic legitimacy of increasing participation of non-state actors in intergovernmental affairs and recent trends in the participation of non-state actors in the international climate change policymaking process.

  • 9.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research .
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research .
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research .
    The roles of non-state actors in climate change governance: understanding agency through governance profiles2016In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 109-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization processes have rendered non-state actors an integral part of global governance. The body of literature that has examined non-state actor involvement in global governance has focused mainly on whether and how non-state actors can influence states. Less attention has been paid to the comparative advantages of non-state actors to answer questions about agency across categories of non-state actors, and more precisely what governance activities non-state actors are perceived to fulfil. Using unique survey material from two climate change conferences, we propose that different categories of non-state actors have distinct governance profiles. We further suggest that the different governance profiles are derived from particular power sources and that agency is a function of these profiles. The study thereby contributes to a strand in the literature focusing on the authority of non-state actors in climate governance and broadens the methodological toolkit for studying the “governors” of global governance.

  • 10.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Open or closed meetings? Explaining nonstate actor involvement in the international climate change negotiations2016In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 127-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When do states allow nonstate actors (NSAs) to observe negotiations at intergovernmental meetings? Previous studies have identified the need for states to close negotiations when the issues under discussion are sensitive. This paper argues that sensitivity alone cannot adequately explain the dynamic of closing down negotiations to observers. Questions that have received little attention in the literature include which issues are considered sensitive and how the decision is made to move the negotiations behind closed doors. This paper examines the practices of NSA involvement in climate diplomacy from three analytical perspectives: functional efficiency, political dynamics, and historical institutionalism. Based on interviews and UNFCCC documents, this paper suggests that to understand the issue of openness in negotiations, institutional factors and the politics of NSA involvement need to be better scrutinized. The paper shows that each perspective has particular advantages when analyzing different dimensions of the negotiations, with implications of how we understand the role of NSAs in global environmental governance.

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