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  • 1.
    Osvaldsson Cromdal, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies.
    En professionaliserad röst för barnen?: Förändringar i en barnrättsorganisation2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta projekt undersöker vi organisatoriska förändringar som BRIS – Barnets rätt isamhället – genomfört under sin drygt 40-åriga historia. Tyngdpunkten ligger på den senaste omorganisationen, där BRIS i stället för att låta hundratals volontärer ta emot barns och ungas kontakter anställde knappt tjugo så kallade BRIS-kuratorer som idag ärde som tar emot telefonsamtal, chattar och mejl. Vi jämför denna omorganisering, med tidigare organisatoriska förändringar och med de ideologiska slitningar som BRIS genomgick precis när organisationen bildades. Resultaten visar att beslutet att ”professionalisera” kontakterna under 2010-talet genom att anställa personal föregåtts av flera tidigare diskussioner om professionaliseringsbehov. Vi kan visa att tidigare professionaliseringsdiskussioner drevs främst med argument ombehov av ökad kvalitet i kontakter med unga, men att förarbetet till den senasteprofessionaliseringen hade en ytterligare komponent: ekonomiska hänsyn. Andra resultat rör de förändringar av rollerna som förbundsordförande och senare generalsekreterare haft i organisationen, samt vilka ideologiska motsättningar som funnits i organisationens historia. Slutligen undersökte vi BRIS utåtriktade arbete, genom en analys avdebattartiklar och dagspress. Framförallt intresserade vi oss för vem eller vilka som beskrevs som problembärare och/eller ansvariga för svårigheter i barns och ungaslivsvillkor. Här finner vi en tydlig förändring. Under tidigt 1970-tal är det föräldrar och barns svaga rättsliga ställning som ses som de stora problemen. De senaste tio åren harBRIS debattinlägg handlat i mycket lite grad om detta. I stället har debatten riktat in sig på samhällets offentliga verksamheter av betydelse för barn och unga, främst skola, BUP och socialtjänst och deras problem med att fullfölja sitt uppdrag.

  • 2.
    Schiratzki, Johanna
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Redress in Context: The Swedish Redress Scheme forhistorical abuse of children incare – re-introducing inquisitorial procedure?2019In: Nordisk socialrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-6500, no 21-22, p. 97-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lag (2012:663) om ersättning på grund av övergrepp eller försummelser i samhällsvården av barn och unga i vissa fall tillkom för att ge ekonomisk ersättning till den som i samband med vården utsatts för övergrepp eller försummelser av allvarlig art när personen varit omhändertagen för samhällsvård, under tidsperioden den 1 januari 1920 till och med den 31 december 1980. En särskild nämnd, Ersättningsnämnden, inrättades för att under åren 2013–2016 pröva om en sökande var berättigad till schablonbeloppet om 250 000 kr. Den svenska processen har väckt uppmärksamhet bl.a. p.g.a. den stora andelen avslag och de komplexa kriterierna för ersättning. I artikeln presenteras resultaten från ett tvärvetenskapligt historiskt-rättsvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt: Gränserför upprättelse: välfärdsstatens historiska ansvar i upprättelseprocesser riktade till offer för vanvård i fosterhem och barnhem. I fokus är glappet mellan den politiska avsikten, att skapa ett rättssäkert system för en generös ersättning, och utfallet av den rättsliga processen, som innebar att majoriteten av de sökande nekades ersättning. Förklaringen, menar författarna, står åtminstone delvisatt finna i en sammanblandning av olika processformer och rättsprinciper. Detta kan relateras till en ojämn ansvarsfördelning mellan lagfarna ledamötermed expertis från allmän domstol respektive allmän förvaltningsdomstol.Framställningen tar avstamp i socialrättsligt reglerade förhållanden och spänner sedan över skadeståndsrätt, förvaltningsrätt, processrätt, barnrätt och mänskligarättigheter.

  • 3.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    After care – the control of and help for care leavers in a community of foster care2015In: Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, ISSN 1939-6724, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 75-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary studies of young adults leaving out-of-home care signal that many are highly vulnerable to unemployment, teenage pregnancies, suicide and poverty. In recent years, the need for broader support for care leavers has been underlined in several policy documents in Sweden and elsewhere. Yet, this is not a new phenomenon; the risk of social exclusion was also debated in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries within the context of boarding-out organizations. By introducing governmental techniques for monitoring, boarding-out organizations aimed at controlling and helping care leavers after being discharged. However, the care leavers themselves also actively used the organizations for their own purposes and needs. This article explores how a Swedish boarding-out organization – the industrial school of Prince Carl – monitored care leavers after they had been discharged from the organization from 1877 to 1902. It is argued that a stable and continuously operating institution geographically located in the same area for a long time could have been crucial for care leavers' opportunities to actively use the means of the boarding-out institution as a resource for help and support later in life.

  • 4.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Apology Politics: Transnational Features2015In: Apologies and the legacy of abuse of children in care :: International Perspectives / [ed] Johanna Sköld, Shurlee Swain, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 13-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s historical abuse of children in out-of-home care has been the focus of political attention in numerous western countries. This chapter takes on a well-needed historiographical approach outlining processes of inquiries, apologies and reparations that have emerged in Australia, Ireland, UK, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. It asks why these processes are occurring here and why now? While such processes arise in response to particular local situations, Sköld demonstrates that they are also shaped by the international context. Consequently, a transnational flow of ideas shape national inquiries, apologies and redress packages.

  • 5.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Book review Redressing Institutional Abuse of Children2015In: Dialogues on Historical Justice and MemoryArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Book review of

    Redressing Institutional Abuse of Children. By Kathleen Daly

  • 6.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fosterbarnens ö: Prins Carls uppfostringsinrättning och verksamheten på Gålö: 1830-19392012 (ed. 1. uppl.)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fosterbarnens ö skildrar historien om ett barnhem i Stockholm - Prins Carls uppfostringsinrättning – vars filantropiska ledning tog det radikala beslutet att köpa en ö i Stockholms skärgård och tvinga torparna som arrenderade jord på ön att hysa inrättningens barn. Gålö blev ett barnrikt samhälle när så många som 80 fosterbarn placerades där årligen. Under de år som systemet var i bruk (1860-1939) kom nästan 1000 Stockholmsbarn att tillbringa delar av sin uppväxt på Gålö.

    Flytten styrdes av storstadsfilantropernas föreställningar om landsbygdens framtidspotential för fattiga stadsbarn och institutionslivets fördärvliga inverkan på kommande generationer. Barnhemsbarnen blev fosterbarn. Uppfostran i staden byttes mot uppfostran på landsbygden. Men arrendatorerna på Gålö motsvarade inte alla förväntningar. Uppfostringsprojektet på Gålö kom därför lika mycket att handla om att fostra vuxna människor till goda förebilder som att fostra barnen till skötsamma vuxna.

    Boken skildrar en av samhällets eviga frågor – hur tar vi bäst hand om barn vars föräldrar saknar möjligheter att göra det själva? Vilka krav ska ställas på den som vårdar andras barn? Hur ska tillsynen organiseras? På Gålö tillämpades under 1800-talet och tidigt 1900-tal ett nästintill unikt system som kan tyckas främmande idag, samtidigt uppvisar det många likheter med dagens samhällsvård.

  • 7.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Född utanför äktenskapet2015In: Populär Historia, ISSN 1102-0822, no 11, p. 18-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 8.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Född utanför äktenskapet2017In: Släkthistoria, ISSN 2001-8495, no 7, p. 18-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Germund Larsson. Förbrytelser och förvisningar: Bestraffningssystemet i de svenska läroverken 1905-19612018In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 5, no 1Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Historical Abuse—A Contemporary Issue: Compiling Inquiries into Abuse and Neglect of Children in Out-of-Home Care Worldwide2013In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 14, p. 5-23, article id Supplement 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, abuse and neglect in institutions and in foster homes for children in out-of-home care have been reviewed by inquiries and truth commissions in several countries. State and federal or regional commissions have interviewed, set up hearings with, or collected written submissions from people who claim to have been subjected to abuse and neglect whilst in care. In many respects, truth commissions and inquiries into past abuse and neglect share features characteristic of transitional justice processes. However, said inquiries and truth commissions have only occasionally attracted attention in the broad scholarly field of transitional justice. The aim of the article is to compile inquiries into abuse and neglect in out-of-home care that have been conducted worldwide in order to frame the historical context in which these inquiries and truth commissions were set up. Furthermore, this article argues that a comparative perspective can highlight important epistemological issues, such as what knowledge is produced in the inquiry reports and how an historical understanding of past abuse and neglect of children in out-of-home care is framed. The article points out some possible areas for future research that may constitute a new interdisciplinary field within the field of transitional justice.

  • 11.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Mor är ju mor äfven om hon har förfelat sig": En änglamakerskas bekännelser2014In: Från skuggsidan: folk och förbrytelser ur Stockholms historia / [ed] Rebecka Lennartsson, Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag, 2014, 1, p. 89-95Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skammen och nöden: Kommentar till texter om utom äktenskapet födda barn och deras mödrar2015In: Sexualpolitiska nyckeltexter / [ed] Klara Arnberg, Pia Laskar, Fia Sundevall, Stockholm: Leopard förlag , 2015, p. 139-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Historiska sexualpolitiska texter från eller om Sverige, som problematiserar dagens debatter om sexualpolitik. Texterna är kommenterade av Sveriges vassaste forskare i sexualitetshistoria.Sexualpolitiska nyckeltexter innehåller historiska sexualpolitiska texter från eller om Sverige. Här återpubliceras dikter, riksdagsdebatter, teckningar, pamfletter, litterära skildringar, affischer, utredningar och en t- shirt som alla problematiserar dagens debatter om sexualpolitik och ger en fördjupad förståelse av hur sexualitet förståtts, praktiserats och politiserats.Varje nyckeltext analyseras och kommenteras av forskare som sätter in texterna i sitt historiska sammanhang. I boken återpubliceras dels texter som haft stor betydelse i sin samtid och/eller för den sexualhistoriska utvecklingen, dels texter som fungerar som nycklar i historiska debatter och förståelser av sexualitet.

  • 13.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The truth about abuse?: A comparative approach to inquiry narratives on historical institutional child abuse2016In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 492-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. The article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the objective of both recognising and redressing the victims as well as offering an account of ‘what really happened’. Comparing how inquiry commissions in Ireland, Sweden and Denmark evaluate and approach victims' oral testimonies and written records from child welfare agencies, the article explores the acts of balancing between different epistemological approaches to the concept of “truth”. The results suggest that while inquiries have to address and convince several audiences simultaneously, empiricist positivist methods of inquiry have dominated the approaches to “truth”. However, this approach has not been without ambivalence, and there are examples of constructivist approaches as well.

  • 14.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vanvård till döds: om änglamakeri vid sekelskiftet 19002013In: Usla, elända och arma: samhällets utsatta under 700 år / [ed] Sofia Holmlund & Annika Sandén, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, p. 233-253Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tattare, tiggare, vansinniga och löskefolk  utsatta människor har funnits i alla tider. Många har fötts in i fattigdom och utanförskap, andra har drabbats av olyckor under livets gång som gjort att tillvaron kantrat. En del har lyckats resa sig, andra har dukat under. Vad vet vi egentligen om utsatta människor i svensk historia? Hur såg tillvaron ut för den som var psykiskt sjuk eller funktionshindrad, och för den som inte kunde försörja sig själv? Vad hände de unga kvinnor som blev gravida utan att vara gifta? Och hur klarade sig deras barn, de som kallades oäktingar? Här varvas skildringar av enskilda livsöden med övergripande historisk analys  från medeltiden till våra dagar. I fokus står den lilla människan, hennes vardag och kampen för överlevnad och värdighet.

  • 15.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Änglamakerska: Seriemördare eller skammens profitör?2016In: Historiskan, ISSN 2002-150X, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Änglamakeri, att genom vanvård eller mord göra sig av med fosterbarn som omhändertagits mot betalning anses vara en uteslutande kvinnlig missgärning. Detta trots att det genom tiderna funnits flera exempel på manliga förövare. De så kallade änglamakerskorna har blivit sinnebilden av den hänsynslösa grymma kvinnan.

  • 16.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Foberg, Emma
    Swedish Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse and Neglect in Institutions and Foster Homes.
    Hedström, Johanna
    Swedish Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse and Neglect in Institutions and Foster Homes.
    Conflicting or complementing narratives?: Interviewees' stories compared to their documentary records in the Swedish commission to inquire into child abuse and negelct in institutions and foster homes2012In: Archives and Manuscripts, ISSN 0157-6895, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse and Neglect in Institutions and Foster Homes has interviewed 866 people who claim that they were subjected to neglect and abuse during their time in municipal or state care in Sweden. The inquiry has also examined many of the interviewees’ documentary records. This article is based on the interviews and documentary records for 140 individuals and raises questions about the possibilities of corroborating stories of abuse and neglect through documentary records. In this study we found that the interviewees and the records told similar stories about where the interviewee resided during care and the duration of placements. However, in details the sources represented different perspectives on the same individual’s history. Important aspects to take into consideration are that case files seldom reveal anything about abuse and neglect, and the tendency of authorities to make only cautious descriptions of suspected abuse. The study also highlights the differences between practices of recordkeeping which mean that some individuals can read extensive case files about themselves while other peoples’ care histories have left barely any trace in the archives. In this article, these findings are used to question expectations about the possibility of establishing one ‘truth’ of abuse in an individual case by collecting ‘evidence’ from several sources.

  • 17.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ingrid, Söderlind
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Finska barn i svenska hem: Om mobiliseringen av familjer att ta emot främmande barn under andra världskriget2016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 35-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Second World War, some 70,000 Finnish children were evacuated to Sweden. Most of the children were placed in foster care, although a large number of temporary children’s homes were also opened in response to the influx. This mass evacuation would not have been possible without the support of the Swedish public. This article highlights how families rallied to invite Finnish children into their homes, almost always without any financial reward, and considers the reasons, including altruism and a sense of duty, that prompted them to welcome foreign children.

    Drawing on archival material from the two organizations in charge of the evacuations (Centrala Finlandshjälpen during the Winter War and Hjälpkommittén för Finlands barn during the Continuation War) and from two newspapers, the study shows that existing local associations had a significant impact on the rapid recruitment of foster parents and the placement of a very large number of children. The study demonstrates that individuals could recruit large numbers of fosterers in small towns and villages, which suggests the significance of neighbours and social pressure. However, the willingness to accept Finnish children should not be understood as an expression of boundless solidarity, for where the literature on the Second World War tends to highlight Sweden’s sense of solidarity linked to notions of ethnicity, which led it to adopt relatively generous refugee policies towards its Nordic neighbours, we find that the solidarity shown Finnish children was conditional.

    Swedes’ solidarity and altruism were governed by their own needs as much as their impression of the recipients’ needs, as evidenced by applications where the children’s age and sex were mentioned. Girls were in greater demand than boys; younger children in far greater demand than adolescents. Moreover, solidarity was founded on notions of a close relationship, be it a common professional background with the children’s parents, membership of similar associations (sport clubs, for example), or a common religious background. Ultimately, solidarity and altruism were considered to be somewhat fragile—it was thought that too much control of foster homes would risk people’s willingness to help.

    All this raises the questions of the nature of volunteer work, solidarity, and altruism. How voluntary is voluntary work if it is guided by duty? Can altruists act in solidarity, and at the same time satisfy their own interests?

  • 18.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Ingrid, Söderlind
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholms universitet.
    Barn och unga - deras roll och betydelse förr och nu: Underlagsrapport till Barns och ungas hälsa, vård och omsorg 20132013Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jensen, Åsa
    Riksarkivet.
    Truth-Seeking in Oral Testimonies and Archives2015In: Apologies and the Legacy of Abuse of Children in 'Care': International Perspectives / [ed] Johanna Sköld, Shurlee Swain, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 159-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on their experiences as an inquiry commissioner and archivist of a Financial Redress Board, Sköld and Jensen set out to discuss conflicting understandings of truth and reliability that appear when care-leavers’ testimonies are tested against archival records in financial redress processes. They describe dilemmas that have put their professional as well as personal codes of ethics to the test, arguing that the judicial system of financial redress requires standards of proof that neither archival records nor oral testimonies can meet.

  • 20.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Osvaldsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Letters Intended for Someone Else: Ethical Reflections on Access to Historical Experience in Private Collections2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In her famous work Dust: Archive and the Cultural History (2001), Carolyn Steedman stated that “the Historian who goes to the Archive must always be an unintended reader, will always read that which was never intended for his or her eyes.” (Steedman 2001: 75). The fact that we are the unintended readers have ethical consequences, especially when the sources concern experiences of sensitive personal matters. In Sweden, when accumulating such sources from an archive, access will be regulated by rules enforced by law or by the archive. In order to safeguard the integrity of the historical subjects the archive might allow restricted access to sources, for example by redacting any personal information in the data made available to the researcher. However, when using private collections that are not stored in an archive, no professional gatekeeper is present to safeguard the integrity of the historical subjects. Instead we must rely on our own ethical judgements. Moreover, in several countries, ethical vetting boards now also have to approve of research projects on sensitive matters that involve individual historical – though possibly still living – actors. But what if the historian’s ethical judgement conflicts with the ethical vetting board’s? What happens to historical research if we adjust our knowledge interests towards queries and sources ethical vetting boards are likely to approve? In this blog post we discuss two cases from Sweden where the Regional Ethical Vetting Board at Linköping University has evaluated two research projects, which have dealt with letters in private collections. The respective decision processes illustrate the dilemmas and problems that the process of ethical vetting might pose to historians....

  • 21.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att delta eller att stå bredvid. Upprättelseprocesser och historikerns risker och möjligheter: [To participate or stand aside: Redress processes and historians’ risks and contributions]2016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 3, p. 383-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical knowledge is crucial for inquiries, truth commissions and redress processes that aim to offer redress to victims of historical child abuse in out-of-home care. The professional competence of historians has much to offer, but taking part in such political processes means that the historian faces certain challenges. This article explores the ethical, emotional, epistemological and methodological risks historians may encounter when involved in redress processes, but also the consequences of historians absence from such processes. The authors have contributed with their expertise at various stages of the Swedish redress process and use their own experiences as well as those of other researchers who have been involved in redress processes to discuss the issues at stake.

    Inquiries and redress processes addressing historical child abuse within out-of-home care constitute a growing field within reparative justice where historians have as yet figured only in the margins. The authors suggest that historians have an ethical and moral responsibility to contribute to this field. But such contributions mean facing ethical risks because of the blurry distinction in the legal regulations of research ethics, which fails to clearly separate research that require permission from ethical vetting boards from research by official authorities that is exempted from such requirements. In addition, the confrontation with traumatic stories of abuse represents a possible exposure to emotional risks. Historians, who are seldom professionally trained to reflect on their own or their informants emotions, need to be attentive to reactions from such exposure and to learn from other academic fields in this respect. The fact that investigators write normative reports for multiple audiences (victims, politicians, academics and the general public) with the objective of both recognizing the victims testimonies of abuse as well as offering an account of what really happened, means that the historian have to re-evaluate her/his epistemological stance and maybe also navigate between different methodological approaches such as constructivism and positivism. These challenges are accentuated when individual cases are tested to meet the legal requirements of a financial redress process. Without historical contextual expertise guiding such processes redressing the past can come to rely on anecdotal historical knowledge that distance the past from the present instead of an understanding of how past and present are intersected and how the (non-)existence of measurements to address child abuse have a legacy in our own time.

  • 22.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schiratzki, Johanna
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College.
    Historical Justice through Redress Schemes?: The practice of interpreting the law and physical child abuse in Sweden2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Redress Scheme intended for victims of historical child abuse inout-of-home care compensated only 46 % of claimants who sought economic compensation for past harms. This article explores the reasons behind this comparatively low validation rate by investigating a) how the eligibilitycriteria of the Redress Act were evaluated by the Redress Board, and b) the justifications and underlying values used when applications were rejected with reference to that the reported abuse was not deemed to be sufficiently severe according to past standards. Victim capital, which determines how vulnerable or credible a victim is perceived to be by others, as well as competence and narration are essential aspects for this type of legal proceeding. The article demonstrates that the claimants had to traverse a complicated web of criteriato be awarded compensation. The outcomes for claimants were affected by how the past was conceptualised in this legal setting, what competences the victims themselves possessed, what competence and resources the administrative system offered, and to the extent to which the decision-making process fragmented victims’ narratives.

  • 23.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swain, ShurleeSchool of Arts and Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Apologies and the legacy of abuse of children in care: international perspectives2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This collection examines the inquiries into the historical abuse of children in care which have proliferated across Western countries over the last twenty years, positioning them as a new area within the field of transitional justice. Drawing on the experience of care-leaver advocates, historians, archivists, museum professionals, social workers, lawyers and psychologists who have been involved in, or researched investigation, apology and redress processes in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland and Sweden it traces the growth of the movement and identifies differences in the ways in which it has played out in specific locations. Writing from their experiences the authors are able to identify the opportunities and challenges which face the different professional groups who have been drawn into such work

  • 24.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swain, Shurlee
    School of Arts and Sciences, Australian Catholic University.
    Introduction2015In: Apologies and the legacy of abuse of children in care :: international perspectives / [ed] Johanna Sköld & Shurlee Swain, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 1-9Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlind, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work.
    Agentic Subjects and Objects of Political Propaganda: Swedish Media Representations of Children in the Mobilization For Supporting Finland During World War II2018In: Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, ISSN 1939-6724, E-ISSN 1941-3599, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 27-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children are often portrayed as defenseless victims of war. However, during war periods, issues concerning children’s agency are also brought to the fore. Based on media materials describing one country in war (Finland) and relief efforts from aneighbor country (Sweden) this article identifies both Finnish and Swedish children as committed to Finland’s cause in different ways. Discussing the issue of authenticity when it comes to children’s commitments, the article shows that children emerge both as agentic subjects and as objects of political propaganda. It argues that children’s commitment as represented in the Swedish media could function as propaganda pressuring adults to take action.

  • 26.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlind, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fosterbarn och källorna till deras historia2016In: Släktforskarnas årsbok 2016 / [ed] Eva Johansson, Malmö: Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 11-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlind, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergman, Ann-Sofie
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Fosterbarn i tid och rum: lokal och regional variation i svensk fosterbarnsvård ca 1850-20002014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fosterhem är och har länge varit den vanligaste lösningen för barn som inte kan eller anses kunna bo hos sina biologiska föräldrar. I denna bok ges en bred översikt över drygt hundra års fosterbarnsvård i Sverige, från mitten av 1800-talet till idag. Boken beskriver hur fosterbarnsvården organiserats och hur relationen mellan nationell lagstiftning och lokal praktik sett ut. Författarna tar bland annat upp privat fosterbarnsvård, fosterbarnens geografiska spridning och hur tillsyn och kontroll fungerat. De visar på såväl kontinuitet som förändringar inom fosterbarnsvården och lyfter fram samhällsförändringar som på olika sätt påverkat fosterbarnsvården.

  • 28.
    Sköld, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vehkalahti, Kaisa
    Finnish Youth Reserach Society, Finland.
    Marginalized children: methodological and ethical issues in the history of education and childhood2016In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 403-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue sets out to explore how marginalized children, as subjects within the field of history of education and childhood, challenge methodological and ethical considerations within historical research. In the articles of this special issue, we seek to find different methodological tools for studying these children and the different institutional practices that have marginalized them. The editorial begins with a brief overview of how history of childhood and history of education in particular, have treated children as subjects for research. Next, the editorial seeks to identify methodological and ethical dilemmas that need to be taken into account when studying histories of children who have been living in the margins of past societies, or those who have left only fragmentary traces in the existing historical records and archives. This leads to epistemological issues concerning children’s voice and agency, as well as the question of truth in the history of education.

  • 29.
    Swain, Shurlee
    et al.
    Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Katie, Wright
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Conceptualising and categorising child abuse inquiries: From damage control to foregrounding survivor testimony2018In: Journal of Historical Sociology, ISSN 0952-1909, E-ISSN 1467-6443, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 282-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testimony before inquiries into out-of-home carethat have taken place in many countries over the last twenty years has severelydisrupted received ideas about the quality of care given to children in thepast. Evidence of the widespread abuse of children presented before recentinquiries internationally gives rise to the question: why didn’t we know? Partof the answer lies in the changing forms and functions of inquiries, whoseinterests they serve, how they are organised and how they gather evidence. Usingas a case study, a survey of historical abuse inquiries in Australia, this articleexplores the shift to victim and survivor testimony and in so doing offers anew way of conceptualising and categorising historical child abuse inquiries.It focuses less on how inquiries are constituted or governed, and insteadadvances an historically contextualised approach that foregrounds the issue of who speaks and who is heard.

  • 30.
    Söderlind, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Alle wollen finnisiche Kinder"2018In: Kindheiten im Zweiten Weltkrieg / [ed] Francesca Weil, André Postert, Alfons Kenkmann, Halle: Mitteldeutscher Verlag , 2018, p. 449-465Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Söderlind, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Privata utförare av social barnavård: en affär under flera sekel2018In: Socialtjänstmarknaden: om marknadsorientering och konkurrensutsättning av indivd- och familjeomsorgen / [ed] Marie Sallnäs & Stefan Wiklund, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 1, p. 30-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Privata utförare och vinstintressen inom den sociala barnavården kännetecknar vår tids välfärdssamhälle men dessa fenomen var utmärkande även för äldre tiders barnavård. Under 1800-tal och tidigt 1900-tal var marknaden och filantropin centrala arenor för produktion av olika välfärdstjänster. Vissa grupper av barn kunde omhändertas av filantropiska organisationer men för grupper som inte omfattades av filantropernas välvilja eller fattigvårdens snäva ramar återstod marknadens lösningar. I det här kapitlet tecknas den komplexa relationen mellan kommun, filantropi och marknad före och under välfärdsstatens formering av den sociala barnavården.

  • 32. Wright, Katie
    et al.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies.
    Swain, Shurlee
    Examining Abusive Pasts: Reassessing Institutional Violence and Care through Commissions of Inquiry2018In: traverse. Zeitchrift für Geschichte, ISSN 1420-4355, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 162-178Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 32 of 32
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