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  • 1.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. PROmoting FITness and Health Phys Actv Research Grp PROFIT, Spain.
    Alexandrou, Christina
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model2016Ingår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 371-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% +/- 3.9%, 4.1 +/- 1.9 kg, and 16.4 +/- 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p amp;lt; 0.001) from corresponding values for the 3C model (25.1% +/- 5.5%, 5.3 +/- 2.5 kg, and 15.2 +/- 2.0 kg). Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p amp;lt; 0.001) were found for BF%, FM, and FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children.

  • 2.
    Delisle Nyström, Christine
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Eastern Ontario Res Inst, Canada.
    Soderstrom, Emmie
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. PROFITH, Univ Granada, Spain.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    The paediatric option for BodPod to assess body composition in preschool children: what fat-free mass density values should be used?2018Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 120, nr 7, s. 797-802Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Air displacement plethysmography utilises a two-component model to assess body composition, which relies on assumptions regarding the density of fat-free mass (FFM). To date, there is no evidence as to whether Lohmans or Wells et al.s FFM density values are more accurate in young children. Therefore, the aims of this study were to compare total body fat percentage (TBF%) assessed using the BodPod with both Lohmans and Wells et al.s FFM density values with TBF% from the three-component (3C) model in forty healthy Swedish children aged 5.5 years. Average TBF% calculated using Lohmans FFM density values underestimated TBF% in comparison with the corresponding value assessed using the 3C model (22.2 (SD 5.7) and 25.1 (SD 5.5)%, respectively; P amp;lt;0.001). No statistically significant difference was observed between TBF% assessed using Wells et al.s FFM density values and the 3C model (24.9 (so 5.5) and 251 (so 5.5)%, respectively; P= 0.614). The Bland and Altman plots for TBF% using both Lohmans and Wells et al.s FFM density values did not show any bias across the range of body fatness (Lohman: r0.056, P= 0.733 and Wells el al.: r-0.006, P= 0.970). These results indicate that Wells Cl al.s FFM density values should be used when assessing body composition with the paediatric option for BodPod in 5-year-old children. However, future studies are needed to confirm these results in other populations, including a wider age range of children.

  • 3.
    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene
    et al.
    Northeastern Univ, MA 02115 USA; Univ Granada, Spain.
    Mora-Gonzalez, Jose
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Contreras-Rodriguez, Oren
    Bellvitge Biomed Res Inst IDIBELL, Spain; Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain.
    Verdejo-Roman, Juan
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Granada, Spain; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Migueles, Jairo H.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Ayllon, Maria
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Molina-Garcia, Pablo
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Suo, Chao
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Hillman, Charles H.
    Northeastern Univ, MA 02115 USA.
    Kramer, Arthur F.
    Northeastern Univ, MA 02115 USA; Univ Illinois, IL USA.
    Erickson, Kirk I
    Univ Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Catena, Andres
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Univ Granada, Spain; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Fitness, cortical thickness and surface area in overweight/obese children: The mediating role of body composition and relationship with intelligence2019Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 186, s. 771-781Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cortical thickness and surface area are thought to be genetically unrelated and shaped by independent neurobiological events suggesting that they should be considered separately in morphometric analyses. Although the developmental trajectories of cortical thickness and surface area may differ across brain regions and ages, there is no consensus regarding the relationships of physical fitness with cortical thickness and surface area as well as for its subsequent influence on intelligence. Thus, this study examines: (i) the associations of physical fitness components (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, speed-agility and muscular fitness) with overall and regional cortical thickness and surface area; (ii) whether body composition indicators (i.e., body mass index, fat-free mass index and fat mass index) mediate these associations; and (iii) the association of physical fitness and cortical thickness with intelligence in overweight/obese children. A total of 101 overweight/obese children aged 8-11 years were recruited in Granada, Spain. The physical fitness components were assessed following the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery. T1-weighted images were acquired with a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Tim Trio system. We used FreeSurfer software version 5.3.0 to assess cortical thickness (mm) and surface area (mm(2)). The main results showed that cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility were related to overall cortical thickness (beta = 0.321 and beta = 0.302, respectively; both P amp;lt; 0.05), and in turn, cortical thickness was associated with higher intelligence (beta = 0.198, P amp;lt; 0.05). Muscular fitness was not related to overall cortical thickness. None of the three physical fitness components were related to surface area (p amp;gt; 0.05). The associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility with overall cortical thickness were mediated by fat mass index (56.86% amp; 62.28%, respectively). In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility, but not muscular fitness, are associated with overall cortical thickness, and in turn, thicker brain cortex is associated with higher intelligence in overweight/obese children. Yet, none of the three physical fitness components were related to surface area. Importantly, adiposity may hinder the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility on cortical thickness. Understanding individual differences in brain morphology may have important implications for educators and policy makers who aim to determine policies and interventions to maximize academic learning and occupational success later in life.

  • 4.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Flinke Carlsson, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Fat and fat-free mass of healthy Swedish children show tracking during early life, but there are differences2019Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, nr 9, s. 1704-1708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Obesity may start early in life. We investigated relationships between size and body composition variables in infancy and at 4 years of age using valid estimates of body composition. The results were compared to those obtained when body mass index (BMI) was used to estimate body fatness at 4 years. Methods Using air displacement plethysmography, size, fat mass and fat-free mass were studied, between 2007 and 2015, in 253 full-term healthy Swedish children at 1 week, 12 weeks and 4 years of age. Results Positive associations between variables in infancy and at 4 years were found at 1 and 12 weeks for weight, height, BMI, fat-free mass and fat-free mass index (p amp;lt;= 0.002) and for fat mass, per cent body fat and fat mass index (p amp;lt;= 0.04) at 12 weeks. Fat mass gained during infancy correlated positively (p amp;lt;= 0.031) with per cent fat mass, fat mass index and BMI, all at 4 years. In girls, gains in fat-free mass during infancy correlated with BMI (p = 0.0005) at 4 years. Conclusion The results provide information regarding body composition trajectories during early life and demonstrate limitations of BMI as a proxy for body fatness when relating early weight gain to variables, relevant for later obesity risk.

  • 5.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Flinke Carlsson, Eva
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Löf, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    BMI kan inte säkert identifiera 4-åringar med hög kroppsfetthalt2013Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, nr 36Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Flinke Carlsson, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.2013Ingår i: Journal of Obesity, ISSN 2090-0708, E-ISSN 2090-0716, Vol. 2013, artikel-id 206715Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  • 7.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Karolinska Institute, Novum, Sweden.
    The Two-Component Model for Calculating Total Body Fat from Body Density: An Evaluation in Healthy Women before, during and after Pregnancy2014Ingår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. 5888-5899Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A possibility to assess body composition during pregnancy is often important. Estimating body density (D-B) and use the two-component model (2CM) to calculate total body fat (TBF) represents an option. However, this approach has been insufficiently evaluated during pregnancy. We evaluated the 2CM, and estimated fat-free mass (FFM) density and variability in 17 healthy women before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32, and 2 weeks postpartum based on D-B (underwater weighing), total body water (deuterium dilution) and body weight, assessed on these four occasions. TBF, calculated using the 2CM and published FFM density (TBF2CM), was compared to reference estimates obtained using the three-component model (TBF3CM). TBF2CM minus TBF3CM (mean +/- 2SD) was -1.63 +/- 5.67 (p = 0.031), -1.39 +/- 7.75 (p = 0.16), -0.38 +/- 4.44 (p = 0.49) and -1.39 +/- 5.22 (p = 0.043) % before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum, respectively. The effect of pregnancy on the variability of FFM density was larger in gestational week 14 than in gestational week 32. The 2CM, based on D-B and published FFM density, assessed body composition as accurately in gestational week 32 as in non-pregnant adults. Corresponding values in gestational week 14 were slightly less accurate than those obtained before pregnancy.

  • 8.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; University of Granada, Spain.
    Eriksson, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Flinke Carlsson, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Granada, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Longitudinal assessment of body composition in healthy Swedish children from 1 week until 4 years of age2017Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 71, nr 11, s. 1345-1352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of longitudinal body composition development is required to identify the mechanisms behind childhood overweight and obesity and to prevent these conditions. However, accurate data on this development in early childhood are lacking. Our aim was to describe the longitudinal body composition development in healthy young Swedish children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Body size and composition were assessed in 26 children using air-displacement plethysmography (1 and 12 weeks and 4.4 years of age) and isotope dilution (1.5 and 3 years of age) and compared with available reference data. RESULTS: Body fat (%) for boys (n = 16) was 12.8 +/- 3.9 (1 week), 25.6 +/- 4.8 (12 weeks), 28.2 +/- 3.8 (1.5 years), 27.3 +/- 5.1 (3 years) and 26.1 +/- 3.5 (4.4 years). For girls (n = 10) these values were 15.3 +/- 2.9, 25.7 +/- 3.9, 27.9 +/- 3.3, 26.3 +/- 7.2 and 26.0 +/- 5.3, respectively. These values were above the Fomon reference values at 1.5 years of age and later and higher than the Butte reference (Po0.05) for boys at 1.5 years of age. At all ages the coefficients of variation were higher for body fat (%) (12-30%) than for BMI (4-11%). CONCLUSIONS: At 4 years of age our children had more body fat than indicated by reference data. This high level may have already been established at 1.5 years of age but our small sample and the lack of appropriate reference data limit the possibility of drawing firm conclusions. Our results demonstrate the limitations of BMI when investigating overweight and obesity in early life and highlight the need for appropriate reference body composition data in infants and young children.

  • 9.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. PROmoting FITness and Health through physical activity research group (PROFITH), Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NOVUM, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Tynelius, Per
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ortega, Francisco B
    PROmoting FITness and Health through physical activity research group (PROFITH), Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NOVUM, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Muscular weakness in adolescence is associated with disability 30 years later: a population-based cohort study of 1.2 million men2019Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 53, nr 19, s. 1221-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of muscular strength in adolescence with later disability pension (DP), across different body mass index (BMI) categories and in combination with aerobic fitness.

    METHOD: This prospective cohort study consisted of males aged 16-19 years, recruited from the Swedish military conscription register between 1969 and 1994. A total of 1 212 503 adolescents met all the inclusion criteria and were therefore included in the analyses. Knee extension, handgrip and elbow flexion strength and aerobic fitness (bicycle ergometer test) were measured during conscription. Causes of DP were retrieved from the Social Insurance Office between years 1971 and 2012 (average follow-up time: 29.6 years).

    RESULTS: Knee extension strength in adolescence was inversely associated with men's risk of obtaining DP due to all causes (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.44 for lowest vs highest strength quintile). Thus, muscular weakness was associated with DP. The risk associated with low muscular strength differed between specific causes of DP and the strongest associations were found for psychiatric, nervous system and other causes (HRs between 1.47 and 1.90 for lowest vs highest quintile). Being strong was associated with lower DP risk across BMI categories and being unfit, weak and obese was associated with the highest DP risk (HR 3.70, 95% CI 2.99 to 4.58).

    CONCLUSION: There was a strong association between muscular weakness and disability. A combination of muscular weakness and low aerobic fitness was an especially important risk factor for disability. This adds weight to call for muscular strength and fitness enhancing exercise for adolescents in all BMI categories.

  • 10.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Body composition of parents and their infants: methodological, anthropometric, metabolic and genetic studies2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Body composition in infancy may be of importance for later health. In particular, infant body composition may be relevant regarding obesity risk in childhood. Recent advances in body composition methodology using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) have provided possibilities to accurately measure body composition of infants in a quick and non-invasive manner. The aims of this thesis were to study associations of parental body composition using ADP, glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and infant genetics with infant body composition also using ADP. When using ADP in adults, a correction for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) is needed and TGV can be predicted using equations developed in nonpregnant adults. Thus another aim was to study the validity of using such equations during pregnancy.

    Parent couples were invited to this study at a routine visit to a maternity clinic in Linköping between September 2008 and October 2010. When the mother was in gestational week 32, parental body composition using ADP and maternal glucose homeostasis variables were assessed. Size and body composition of healthy, singleton and full term (≥ 37 gestational weeks) infants were measured at 1 and 12 weeks of age and a total of 211 infants  were included in the studies. Weight and length at 1 year of age were reported by parents. Saliva samples were collected from the infants to obtain DNA for genotyping of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene.

    Body composition results calculated using measured and predicted TGV were compared in 27 women. Results showed that predicted TGV yields a very marginal overestimation (0.5 %) of fat mass (FM). Further, each kg increase in maternal and paternal fat-free mass (FFM) was associated with 15.6 g (P=0.001) and 9.1 g (P=0.007), respectively, more FFM in their 1-week old infants. FM of fathers was not related to infant FM. However, maternal FM was positively associated with FM of daughters (5.8 g/kg, P=0.007), but not of sons (P=0.79) at 1 week of age. Similarly, each standard deviation increase in maternal HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance) was related to 52.7 more g of FM (P<0.001) in 1-weekold daughters, but no such relationship was found for sons (P=0.79). The number of risk alleles at the FTO locus rs9939609 was not associated with infant body mass index (BMI) or infant FM at 1 or 12 weeks of age. However, the number of risk alleles was positively associated (P≤0.033) with infant length at 1 and 12 weeks of age, and the results suggested that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

    The results presented in this thesis show that: i) The use of predicted TGV when applying ADP in gestational week 32 overestimated % FM only slightly. ii) Associations between parental and infant body composition are present early in life. Thus, parental FFM was positively related to FFM in 1-week-old infants. Furthermore, maternal FM and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were positively related to FM of 1-week-old daughters, but no such relationships were observed for sons. iii) The FTO genotype is not associated with infant body fatness at 1 or 12 weeks of age. However, the results suggested that the number of FTO risk alleles is positively associated with infant length, especially in boys.

    In conclusion, parental and genetic factors were associated with infant size and body composition and these relationships may be of importance for future body composition and health.

    Delarbeten
    1. Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0.033) higher than measured TGV by 6% on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0.043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0.5% BF, on average. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from -1.9 to 2.9% BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2013
    Nyckelord
    Air displacement plethysmography, Body composition, Pregnancy, Thoracic gas volume
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87956 (URN)10.1017/S0007114512000906 (DOI)000312998200014 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|15402|FORMAS||Magnus Bergvall Foundation||Thuring Foundation||Swedish Society of Medicine||Medical Faculty, Linkoping University||County Council of Ostergotland||

    Tillgänglig från: 2013-01-28 Skapad: 2013-01-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28
    2. Parental fat-free mass is related to the fat-free mass of infants and maternal fat mass is related to the fat mass of infant girls
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Parental fat-free mass is related to the fat-free mass of infants and maternal fat mass is related to the fat mass of infant girls
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, nr 5, s. 491-497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Existing studies suggest that weight and body composition of parents influence the size and body composition of their offspring, but are often inconclusive and conducted by means of inappropriate body composition methodology. Our aim was to study infant size and body composition variables in relation to body composition variables of their mothers and fathers in a well-nourished population using an accurate methodology.

    Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, we used air displacement plethysmography to measure the body composition of 209 parent–infant units. Parents were measured when women were in gestational week 32. Their healthy, singleton, full-term infants were measured at 1 week.

    Results: Infant fat-free mass in grams was positively related (p ≤ 0.007) to the fat-free mass in kilograms of the mothers (15.6 g/kg) and the fathers (9.1 g/kg). Furthermore, the fat mass of the daughters, but not of the sons, was positively related to the fat mass of the mothers (5.8 g/kg, p = 0.007).

    Conclusion: This study found associations between the fat-free mass of parents and infants and an association between the fat mass of mothers and their infant girls. These findings may help to understand early life factors behind overweight and obesity.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    John Wiley & Sons, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Body composition, Father, Infant, Mother, Sex difference
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi Klinisk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117430 (URN)10.1111/apa.12939 (DOI)000353643400023 ()25645821 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-04-27 Skapad: 2015-04-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Glucose, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 in the circulation of pregnant women in relation to their own body composition and to that of their infants
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Glucose, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 in the circulation of pregnant women in relation to their own body composition and to that of their infants
    2015 (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are incompletely known. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e. glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), haemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1), in their circulation and related these variables to the body composition of their infants.

    Methods: Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32.

    Results: Insulin/HOMA-IR were positively related to body mass index, fat mass index and fat mass (r2=0.32-0.36, P<0.001) of the women. Their glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR values were positively (P≤0.009) associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (P=0.001) associated, with infant fat mass. Insulin and HOMA-IR were positively associated with fat mass of daughters (P<0.001), but not of sons (P≥0.65) (Sex-interaction: P≤ 0.042).

    Conclusion: Glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggested that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by insulin resistance.

    Nyckelord
    Body composition, infant, insulin resistance, mother, sex difference
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi Klinisk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117431 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-04-27 Skapad: 2015-04-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Variation in the fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) genotype is not associated with body fatness in infants, but possibly with their length
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Variation in the fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) genotype is not associated with body fatness in infants, but possibly with their length
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. E112-E115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundData relating variation at the fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) locus (rs9939609) to fat mass in infancy are inconclusive. ObjectiveTo study relationships between FTO genotype and infant size (at 1 and 12 weeks and at 1 year of age) and body composition (at 1 and 12 weeks). MethodsBody composition was assessed using air displacement plethysmography in 207 infants. FTO was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. ResultsThe number of risk alleles was related to length at 1 and 12 weeks (P=0.007-0.033) but not to fat mass. The relationship to length was stronger in boys than in girls. ConclusionsOur results suggest that the FTO genotype is not related during infancy to fat mass but is related to length in boys but not in girls.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley, 2014
    Nyckelord
    Body composition; fat mass; FTO; infant
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Klinisk medicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112052 (URN)10.1111/ijpo.231 (DOI)000342991900009 ()24846219 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [15402]; County Council of Ostergotland

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-17 Skapad: 2014-11-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28
  • 11.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Leppanen, Marja H.
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Pomeroy, Jeremy
    Marshfield Clin Research Fdn, WI 54449 USA.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial2016Ingår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. 473-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height(2) (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height(2) (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 +/- 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized beta = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (beta = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (beta = -0.21, p amp;lt; 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (beta = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (beta = 0.39, p amp;lt; 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (beta = 0.22, p amp;lt; 0.001) and motor fitness (beta = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health.

  • 12.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eriksson, B
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gestational weight gain according to Institute of Medicine recommendations in relation to infant size and body composition.2015Ingår i: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 388-394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Intrauterine life may be a critical period for programming childhood obesity; however, there is insufficient knowledge concerning how gestational weight gain (GWG) affects infant fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM).

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between GWG according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations and infant size, FM and FFM. We also investigated if the associations were different for normal-weight and overweight/obese women.

    METHODS: This study included 312 healthy Swedish mother-infant pairs. Infant body composition at 1 week of age was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Maternal GWG was defined as below, within or above the 2009 IOM recommendations. Multiple regression analyses were used.

    RESULTS: Compared with women whose weight gain was within IOM recommendations, women with weight gain below the recommendations had infants that were shorter (-0.7 cm, P = 0.008) when adjusting for confounders. Normal-weight women exceeding IOM recommendations had infants with higher FM (+58 g, P = 0.008) compared with normal-weight women who gained within the recommendations. No corresponding association was observed for overweight/obese women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate GWG was associated with shorter infants, while excessive GWG was associated with greater infant FM for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy.

  • 13.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Granada, Spain.
    Leppanen, Marja H.
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Granada, Spain.
    Nystrom, Christine Delisle
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Childrens Hosp Eastern Ontario, Canada.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Ek, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Granada, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Physical fitness in relation to later body composition in pre-school children2019Ingår i: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 574-579Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Although physical fitness is considered a marker of health in youth, little is known whether physical fitness in pre-school age is related to later body composition. Thus, this study investigated (i) associations of physical fitness at 4.5 years of age with body composition 12 months later and (ii) whether improvements in physical fitness during the 12-month follow-up were associated with changes in body composition.

    Design

    This study included 142 children, measured at 4.5 and 5.5 years, from the control group of the MINISTOP trial.

    Methods

    Physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower- and upper-body muscular strength and motor fitness) was measured using the PREFIT test battery. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography.

    Results

    In adjusted regression analyses, greater cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-body muscular strength and motor fitness at 4.5 years were associated with a lower fat mass index at 5.5 years (standardized β= −0.182 to −0.229, p ≤ 0.028). Conversely, greater cardiorespiratory fitness, lower- and upper-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness at 4.5 years of age were associated with a higher fat-free mass index (standardized β = 0.255–0.447, p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-body muscular strength and motor fitness during the 12-month follow-up period were associated with decreases in fat mass index and/or % fat mass.

    Conclusions

    In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence of the importance of physical fitness early in life. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in order to clarify the influence of physical fitness in the pre-school age with later health outcomes.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-12-07 10:37
  • 14.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lof, M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Variation in the fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) genotype is not associated with body fatness in infants, but possibly with their length2014Ingår i: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. E112-E115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundData relating variation at the fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) locus (rs9939609) to fat mass in infancy are inconclusive. ObjectiveTo study relationships between FTO genotype and infant size (at 1 and 12 weeks and at 1 year of age) and body composition (at 1 and 12 weeks). MethodsBody composition was assessed using air displacement plethysmography in 207 infants. FTO was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. ResultsThe number of risk alleles was related to length at 1 and 12 weeks (P=0.007-0.033) but not to fat mass. The relationship to length was stronger in boys than in girls. ConclusionsOur results suggest that the FTO genotype is not related during infancy to fat mass but is related to length in boys but not in girls.

  • 15.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lof, Marie
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition2015Ingår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 5615-5627Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), hemoglobin A(1c) and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r(2) = 0.32, p less than 0.001) of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p 0.006) associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001) associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p less than 0.001), but not of sons (p = 0.65) (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042). In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.

  • 16.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Näringslära. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Näringslära. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography2013Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0.033) higher than measured TGV by 6% on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0.043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0.5% BF, on average. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from -1.9 to 2.9% BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations.

  • 17.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, NOVUM, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Glucose, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 in the circulation of pregnant women in relation to their own body composition and to that of their infants2015Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are incompletely known. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e. glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), haemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1), in their circulation and related these variables to the body composition of their infants.

    Methods: Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32.

    Results: Insulin/HOMA-IR were positively related to body mass index, fat mass index and fat mass (r2=0.32-0.36, P<0.001) of the women. Their glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR values were positively (P≤0.009) associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (P=0.001) associated, with infant fat mass. Insulin and HOMA-IR were positively associated with fat mass of daughters (P<0.001), but not of sons (P≥0.65) (Sex-interaction: P≤ 0.042).

    Conclusion: Glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggested that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by insulin resistance.

  • 18.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, NOVUM, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Parental fat-free mass is related to the fat-free mass of infants and maternal fat mass is related to the fat mass of infant girls2015Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, nr 5, s. 491-497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Existing studies suggest that weight and body composition of parents influence the size and body composition of their offspring, but are often inconclusive and conducted by means of inappropriate body composition methodology. Our aim was to study infant size and body composition variables in relation to body composition variables of their mothers and fathers in a well-nourished population using an accurate methodology.

    Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, we used air displacement plethysmography to measure the body composition of 209 parent–infant units. Parents were measured when women were in gestational week 32. Their healthy, singleton, full-term infants were measured at 1 week.

    Results: Infant fat-free mass in grams was positively related (p ≤ 0.007) to the fat-free mass in kilograms of the mothers (15.6 g/kg) and the fathers (9.1 g/kg). Furthermore, the fat mass of the daughters, but not of the sons, was positively related to the fat mass of the mothers (5.8 g/kg, p = 0.007).

    Conclusion: This study found associations between the fat-free mass of parents and infants and an association between the fat mass of mothers and their infant girls. These findings may help to understand early life factors behind overweight and obesity.

  • 19.
    Leppanen, Marja H.
    et al.
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Finland; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Nystrom, Christine Delisle
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Eastern Ontario Res Inst, Canada.
    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus
    Univ Seville, Spain; Univ Cordoba, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Physical Activity Level Using Doubly-Labeled Water in Relation to Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers2019Ingår i: Medicina (Kaunas), ISSN 1010-660X, E-ISSN 1648-9144, Vol. 55, nr 1, artikel-id UNSP 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: There is a lack of studies investigating associations of physical activity level (PAL) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) using the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method with body composition and physical fitness in young children. Thus, we aimed to examine cross-sectional associations of PAL and AEE with body composition indices and physical fitness components in Swedish preschool children. Materials and methods: PAL was calculated as total energy expenditure measured using DLW divided by the predicted basal metabolic rate in 40 children aged 5.5 (standard deviation 0.2) years. AEE was calculated as total energy expenditure minus basal metabolic rate and the thermic effect of food, and divided by fat-free mass. Body composition was assessed using the 3-component model by combining measurements based on isotope dilution and air-displacement plethysmography. Physical fitness (muscular strength, motor fitness, and cardiorespiratory fitness) was evaluated using the PREFIT test battery. Multiple linear regression models were conducted. Results: PAL and AEE were negatively associated with body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass index (PAL: standardized beta -0.35, -0.41, and -0.45, all p amp;lt; 0.036; AEE: standardized beta -0.44, -0.44, and -0.47, all p amp;lt; 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, PAL and AEE were positively associated with the standing long jump test (PAL: standardized beta 0.37, p = 0.017; AEE: standardized beta 0.38, p = 0.014). There were no statistically significant associations found regarding PAL or AEE with fat-free mass index or any other physical fitness test. Conclusions: Greater PAL and AEE at the age 5.5 were significantly associated with body fatness and improved lower-body muscular strength. Therefore, increasing physical activity, and thus energy expenditure, at young ages may be beneficial for preventing overweight/obesity. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the results.

  • 20.
    Leppanen, Marja H.
    et al.
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Finland; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Migueles, Jairo H.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Mora-Gonzalez, Jose
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Labayen, Idoia
    Univ Publ Navarra, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene
    Univ Granada, Spain; Northeastern Univ, MA 02115 USA.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Hip and wrist accelerometers showed consistent associations with fitness and fatness in children aged 8-12 years2019Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Physical activity (PA) has traditionally been measured wearing accelerometers on the hip, but they are increasingly being worn on the wrist. We compared hip and wrist accelerometers with regard to their acceptability and any associations between PA and fatness and fitness. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 103 children aged 8-12 years (62% boys) who participated in the ActiveBrains trial by the University of Granada, Spain, in 2014-2016. The children wore both ActiGraph GT3X+ hip and wrist accelerometers round the clock for 7 days. The acceptability of both placements was evaluated by a questionnaire, while the childrens fat mass index, waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed. Results Wearing wrist accelerometers caused less disturbance, mainly because hip accelerometers caused more issues during the night. The measurements from both placements showed that lower PA levels were associated with fatness and that higher PA levels were associated with better CRF. Conclusion Both placements showed consistent results with regard to measuring associations between PA levels and fatness and fitness. However, wearing them on the wrist caused less discomfort at night. Future studies are needed to confirm the best placement for accelerometers during PA studies.

  • 21.
    Leppänen, M. H.
    et al.
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Delisle Nyström, C.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Granada, Spain.
    Pomeroy, J.
    Marshfield Clin Research Fdn, WI USA.
    Ruiz, J. R.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, F. B.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, C.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Physical activity intensity, sedentary behavior, body composition and physical fitness in 4-year-old children: results from the ministop trial2016Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 40, nr 7, s. 1126-1133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Existing knowledge on associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness in preschoolers is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of PA and SB with body composition and physical fitness in healthy Swedish 4-year-old children. METHODS: We utilized baseline data collected in 2014 for the population-based MINISTOP trial (n = 307). Light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-intensity PA (MPA), vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SB were measured using accelerometry (ActiGraph-wGT3x-BT). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography, and physical fitness (that is, cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper body muscular strength and motor fitness) was measured using the PREFIT fitness test battery. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders, and in addition, isotemporal substitution models were applied. RESULTS: Greater MVPA was associated with lower fat mass percent (%FM, P = 0.015), and greater VPA and MVPA were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI, P = 0.002 and P = 0.011). In addition, greater VPA and MVPA were associated with higher scores for all physical fitness tests (P = 0.042 to Pamp;lt;0.001). The results for MVPA were primarily due to VPA. SB was associated with weaker handgrip strength (P = 0.031) when PA was not adjusted, but after adjusting also for VPA, the significant association disappeared (P = 0.25). Substituting 5 min per day of SB, LPA or MPA with 5 min per day of VPA was associated with higher FFMI and better scores for cardiorespiratory fitness and motor fitness. Correspondingly, substituting 5 min per day of VPA with SB or LPA was associated with weaker performance for lower muscular strength. CONCLUSIONS: Time spent on VPA was associated with higher FFMI and better physical fitness. The results suggest that promoting VPA may be important to improve childhood body composition and physical fitness already at an early age.

  • 22.
    Leppänen, Marja H.
    et al.
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Delisle Nyström, Christine
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Pomeroy, Jeremy
    Marshfield Clin Research Fdn, WI USA.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers2017Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, nr 10, s. 2078-2085Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. Methods: The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Results: Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P amp;lt; 0.001 and P = 0.044, respectively). Furthermore, greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher scores for cardiorespiratory fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min.d(-1) of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P amp;lt; 0.001 to P = 0.046). Conclusion: Higher VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were significantly associated with higher FFMI and better physical fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  • 23.
    Mora-Gonzalez, Jose
    et al.
    Univ Granada, Spain; Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene
    Univ Granada, Spain; Northeastern Univ, MA 02115 USA.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Migueles, Jairo H.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Molina-Garcia, Pablo
    Univ Granada, Spain; KU Leuven Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Rodriguez-Ayllon, Maria
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Granada, Spain; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Pontifex, Matthew B.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Catena, Andres
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, and the Executive Function in Children with Overweight and Obesity2019Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 2213-5766, Vol. 208, s. 50-+Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine the associations of physical fitness and physical activity with executive function in children with overweight and obesity. Study design A cross-sectional study involving 100 children with overweight and obesity (10.1 +/- 1.1 years old; 58.0% boys). We assessed physical fitness components (ie, muscular strength, speed-agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness) using the ALPHA battery, and physical activity and sedentary time by accelerometry. Cognitive flexibility was measured by the Design Fluency Test and Trail Making Test, inhibition by the Stroop test, and planning ability by the Zoo Map Test. Results Handgrip strength was positively associated with planning ability (P = .025). Speed-agility was positively related to cognitive flexibility and inhibition (P amp;lt; .05). Cardiorespiratory fitness and an overall fitness Z-score were positively associated with indicators of cognitive flexibility (P amp;lt; .05). No associations were found for physical activity and sedentary time with executive function (P amp;gt;= .05). Conclusions Muscular strength, speed agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with executive function in children with overweight and obesity. Cognitive flexibility seems to be more robustly associated with all fitness components, whereas planning ability and inhibition might depend on the component analyzed. The positive associations found in the present study in children with overweight and obesity call for more exercise-based randomized controlled trials in this population.

  • 24.
    Parekh, Niyati
    et al.
    NYU, NY USA.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Granada, Spain.
    Nyström, Christine Delisle
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Silfvernagel, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Pomeroy, Jeremy
    Marshfield Clin Hlth Syst, WI USA.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Associations of Parental Self-Efficacy With Diet, Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Swedish Preschoolers: Results From the MINISTOP Trial2018Ingår i: Health Education & Behavior, ISSN 1090-1981, E-ISSN 1552-6127, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 238-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. High parental self-efficacy (PSE) has been associated with healthy diets and higher levels of physical activity (PA) in children; however, data on PSE in relation to body weight and body composition are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of PSE with measures of diet, PA, body composition, and physical fitness in early childhood. Method. We used baseline data from the MINISTOP trial in healthy Swedish children (n = 301; 4.5 +/- 0.15 years). PSE was assessed using a questionnaire, dietary data were collected using a mobile technology-assisted methodology, and PA was obtained (sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous) by accelerometry. Body composition was measured using the pediatric option for BodPod and cardiorespiratory fitness by the 20 m shuttle run. Linear regression was conducted to evaluate cross-sectional associations of the outcomes in relation to total PSE and scores computed for the individual PSE factors: (1) diet, (2) limit setting of unhealthful behaviors, and (3) PA. Results. Higher scores of total PSE and the diet factor were associated with higher fruit intake ( = 0.82 g/point and 1.99 g/point; p = .014 and .009, respectively) and lower consumption of unhealthy snacks ( = -0.42 g/point and -0.89 g/point; p = .012 and .020, respectively) after adjustment for parental body mass index and education, respondent, and childs sex and age. No associations were observed between PSE and PA, body composition, or cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions. Our study noted that PSE should be considered in conjunction with other strategies for a sustainable impact on childhood obesity.

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