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  • 1.
    Kapidzic, Zlatan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Static and Fatigue Failure of Bolted Joints in Hybrid Composite-Aluminium Aircraft Structures2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of fibre composites in the design of load carrying aircraft structures has been increasing over the last few decades. At the same time, aluminium alloys are still present in many structural parts, which has led to an increase of the number of hybrid composite-aluminium structures. Often, these materials are joined at their interface by bolted connections. Due to their different response to thermal, mechanical and environmental impact, the composite and the aluminium alloy parts are subject to different design and certification practices and are therefore considered separately.The current methodologies used in the aircraft industry lack well-developed methods to account for the effects of the mismatch of material properties at the interface.One such effect is the thermally induced load which arises at elevated temperature due to the different thermal expansion properties of the constituent materials. With a growing number of hybrid structures, these matters need to be addressed. 

    The rapid growth of computational power and development of simulation tools in recent years have made it possible to evaluate the material and structural response of hybrid structures without having to entirely rely on complex and expensive testing procedures.However, as the failure process of composite materials is not entirely understood, further research efforts are needed in order to develop reliable material models for the existing simulation tools.

    The work presented in this dissertation involves modelling and testing of bolted joints in hybrid composite-aluminium structures.The main focus is directed towards understanding the failure behaviour of the composite material under static and fatigue loading, and how to include this behaviour in large scale models of a typical bolted airframe structure in an efficient way. In addition to that, the influence of thermally induced loads on the strength and fatigue life is evaluated in order to establish a design strategy that can be used in the industrial context.

    The dissertation is divided into two parts. In the first one, the background and the theory are presented while the second one consists of five scientific papers.

    List of papers
    1. Conceptual studies of a composite-aluminum hybrid wing box demonstrator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual studies of a composite-aluminum hybrid wing box demonstrator
    2014 (English)In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of two different hybrid composite-aluminum concepts applied to a winglike structure which is exposed to mechanical  and thermal load. The aim of the study is to determine the most suitable  hybrid concept to later on be used in structural fatigue and static testing. In both concepts, the mass is optimized with respect to two different sets of requirements, one of which is currently in use in the fighter aircraft industry and one which is a modified version of the current requirement set. The issues considered in the study are mass, thermal behavior, buckling, bolted joints, failure criteria and fatigue damage, and they are examined in the frame of both requirement sets. The results clearly indicate the order of criticality between the different criteria in the different parts of each concept. Also, the comparison of two requirement sets gives an idea of the degree of influence of the modified criteria on the hybrid concepts and their mass. Based on the mass and the structural behavior in a thermal-mechanical loading one of the hybrid concepts is chosen for further studies and testing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Hybrid structure, Wing structure, Composite-aluminum, Thermal load, Conceptual study
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91892 (URN)10.1016/j.ast.2013.11.002 (DOI)000331921900006 ()
    Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Finite element modeling of mechanically fastened composite-aluminum joints in aircraft structures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite element modeling of mechanically fastened composite-aluminum joints in aircraft structures
    2014 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 109, p. 198-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional, solid finite element model of a composite-aluminum single-lap bolted joint with a countersunk titanium fastener is developed. The model includes progressive damage behavior of the composite and a plasticity model for the metals. The response to static loading is compared to experimental results from the literature. It is shown that the model predicts the initiation and the development of the damage well, up to failure load. The model is used to evaluate the local force-displacement responses of a number of single-lap joints installed in a hybrid composite-aluminum wing-like structure. A structural model is made where the fasteners are represented by two-node connector elements which are assigned the force-displacement characteristics determined by local models. The behavior of the wing box is simulated for bending and twisting loads applied together with an increased temperature and the distribution of fastener forces and the progressive fastener failure is studied. It is shown that the fastener forces caused by the temperature difference are of significant magnitude and should be taken into account in the design of hybrid aircraft structures. It is concluded that, the account of the non-linear response of the joints results in a less conservative load distribution at ultimate failure load.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Bolted joints, Composite-aluminum, Finite element modeling, Hybrid wing structures
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91893 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2013.10.056 (DOI)000331671700020 ()
    Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Quasi-static bearing failure of CFRP composite in biaxially loaded bolted joints
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quasi-static bearing failure of CFRP composite in biaxially loaded bolted joints
    2015 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 125, p. 60-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid composite-aluminium bolted joints develop internal loads at elevated temperatures, due to the difference in thermal expansion properties of their constituent materials. In aircraft joints, the thermally induced bolt loads are commonly directed perpendicular to the mechanical loads, inducing a biaxial bearing load state. In this work, carbon-epoxy laminate specimens were tested in uniaxial and biaxial quasi-static bearing failure experiments in a specially designed test rig, at elevated temperature. A microscopy study of a failed specimen revealed that the failure process was mainly driven by fibre kinking, although extensive matrix cracking and delaminations were also found. The experiments were simulated by three-dimensional, explicit, finite element analyses, which included intralaminar damage and delamination. The experimental and simulated bearing failure loads differed by 1.7% in the uniaxial case and 2.1% in the biaxial case. It was suggested that the load-displacement response is influenced by the interaction of all damage mechanisms. Delamination modelling was, however, not essential for the prediction of the maximal bearing strength. The same effective bearing strengths were obtained for the biaxially loaded specimens as for the uniaxially loaded ones, but the damage accumulation process and the resulting damage distributions were different. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Hybrid joint; Carbon-epoxy; Thermally induced load; Bearing failure; Finite element analysis
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118234 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.01.038 (DOI)000353177600008 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Armed Forces; Swedish Defence Materiel Administration; Swedish Governmental Agency

    Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    4. Fatigue bearing failure of CFRP composite in biaxially loaded bolted joints at elevated temperature
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue bearing failure of CFRP composite in biaxially loaded bolted joints at elevated temperature
    2015 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 127, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid composite-aluminium structures develop internal loads when exposed to elevated temperatures, due to the different thermal expansion properties of the constituent materials. In aircraft structures with long rows of bolted joints, the mechanical and the thermally induced bolt loads are oriented in different directions, creating a biaxial bearing load state. In this study, the bearing fatigue failure process and the influence of the biaxial load state on the failure are investigated. An experimental set-up was designed, where both the mechanical and the thermally induced bolt loads were applied by means of mechanical load actuators. Two-bolt, double-lap joints with quasi-isotropic carbon-epoxy composite specimens were subjected to uniaxial and biaxial cyclic loading at 90 degrees C. A microscopy study of the bearing plane revealed that the main fatigue driving mechanisms were matrix cracking and fibre-matrix debonding. Motivated by these findings, a fatigue prediction model based on the kinetic theory of fracture for polymer matrices was run in a finite element code and the results showed a satisfactory correlation to the experimental results. The biaxial loading resulted in a longer fatigue life than the uniaxial loading, for the same peak resultant force, which was explained by the smaller effective stress range in the biaxial case.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Hybrid bolted joint; Carbon-epoxy; Thermally induced load; Fatigue bearing failure
    National Category
    Composite Science and Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118835 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.03.031 (DOI)000354139800028 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Armed Forces, Swedish Defence Materiel Administration; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems

    Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    5. Fatigue bearing failure of CFRP composite in bolted joints exposed to biaxial variable amplitude loading at elevated temperature
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue bearing failure of CFRP composite in bolted joints exposed to biaxial variable amplitude loading at elevated temperature
    2016 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 142, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid structures than contain composite-aluminium interfaces tend to develop internal loads at elevated temperatures. In long bolted joints, the thermally induced bolt loads are superimposed onto the mechanically applied load and can induce a biaxial bearing load state. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the bearing fatigue failure of carbon-epoxy laminate specimens, exposed to uniaxial and biaxial variable amplitude loading at 90C. A specifically designed experimental rig was used, where both the mechanical and the thermally induced bolt loads were applied by means of mechanical load actuators. A fatigue model based on the kinetic theory of fracture for polymers, which was previously implemented for constant amplitude loading, is expanded to account for the variable amplitude load history. The results suggest that the biaxial loading gives a longer fatigue life than the uniaxial loading for the same maximum peak resultant force. This result can be utilized as a conservative dimensioning strategy by designing biaxially loaded joints in terms of maximum peak resultant bearing load using uniaxial fatigue data.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Carbon-epoxy, Thermally induced load, Fatigue bearing failure, Variable amplitude loading
    National Category
    Composite Science and Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122420 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.01.064 (DOI)000372691300008 ()
    Note

    Vid tiden för disputation förelåg publikationen som manuskript

    Funding agencies:  Swedish Armed Forces; Swedish Defence Materiel Administration; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems

    Available from: 2015-11-02 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Kapidzic, Zlatan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strength analysis and modeling of hybrid composite-aluminum aircraft structures2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in aircraft design is to increase the proportion of fiber composites in the structures. Since many primary parts also are constructed using metals, the number of hybrid metal-composite structures is increasing. Such structures have traditionally often been avoided as an option because of the lack of methodology to handle the mismatch between the material properties. Composite and metal properties differ with respect to: thermal expansion, failure mechanisms, plasticity, sensitivity to load type, fatigue accumulation and scatter, impact resistance and residual strength, anisotropy, environmental sensitivity, density etc. Based on these differences, the materials are subject to different design and certification requirements. The issues that arise in certification of hybrid structures are: thermally induced loads, multiplicity of failure modes, damage tolerance, buckling and permanent deformations, material property scatter, significant load states etc. From the design point of view, it is a challenge to construct a weight optimal hybrid structure with the right material in the right place. With a growing number of hybrid structures, these problems need to be addressed. The purpose of the current research is to assess the strength, durability and thermo-mechanical behavior of a hybrid composite-aluminum wing structure by testing and analysis. The work performed in this thesis focuses on the analysis part of the research and is divided into two parts. In the first part, the theoretical framework and the background are outlined.Significant material properties, aircraft certification aspects and the modeling framework are discussed.In the second part, two papers are appended. In the first paper, the interaction of composite and aluminum, and their requirements profiles,is examined in conceptual studies of the wing structure. The influence of the hybrid structure constitution and requirement profiles on the mass, strength, fatigue durability, stability and thermo-mechanical behavior is considered. Based on the conceptual studies, a hybrid concept to be used in the subsequent structural testing is chosen. The second paper focuses on the virtual testing of the wing structure. In particular, the local behavior of hybrid fastener joints is modeled in detail usingthe finite element method, and the result is then incorporated into a global model using line elements. Damage accumulation and failure behavior of the composite material are given special attention. Computations of progressive fastener failure in the experimental setup are performed. The analysis results indicate the critical features of the hybrid wing structure from static, fatigue, damage tolerance and thermo-mechanical points of view.

    List of papers
    1. Conceptual studies of a composite-aluminum hybrid wing box demonstrator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual studies of a composite-aluminum hybrid wing box demonstrator
    2014 (English)In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of two different hybrid composite-aluminum concepts applied to a winglike structure which is exposed to mechanical  and thermal load. The aim of the study is to determine the most suitable  hybrid concept to later on be used in structural fatigue and static testing. In both concepts, the mass is optimized with respect to two different sets of requirements, one of which is currently in use in the fighter aircraft industry and one which is a modified version of the current requirement set. The issues considered in the study are mass, thermal behavior, buckling, bolted joints, failure criteria and fatigue damage, and they are examined in the frame of both requirement sets. The results clearly indicate the order of criticality between the different criteria in the different parts of each concept. Also, the comparison of two requirement sets gives an idea of the degree of influence of the modified criteria on the hybrid concepts and their mass. Based on the mass and the structural behavior in a thermal-mechanical loading one of the hybrid concepts is chosen for further studies and testing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Hybrid structure, Wing structure, Composite-aluminum, Thermal load, Conceptual study
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91892 (URN)10.1016/j.ast.2013.11.002 (DOI)000331921900006 ()
    Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Finite element modeling of mechanically fastened composite-aluminum joints in aircraft structures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite element modeling of mechanically fastened composite-aluminum joints in aircraft structures
    2014 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 109, p. 198-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional, solid finite element model of a composite-aluminum single-lap bolted joint with a countersunk titanium fastener is developed. The model includes progressive damage behavior of the composite and a plasticity model for the metals. The response to static loading is compared to experimental results from the literature. It is shown that the model predicts the initiation and the development of the damage well, up to failure load. The model is used to evaluate the local force-displacement responses of a number of single-lap joints installed in a hybrid composite-aluminum wing-like structure. A structural model is made where the fasteners are represented by two-node connector elements which are assigned the force-displacement characteristics determined by local models. The behavior of the wing box is simulated for bending and twisting loads applied together with an increased temperature and the distribution of fastener forces and the progressive fastener failure is studied. It is shown that the fastener forces caused by the temperature difference are of significant magnitude and should be taken into account in the design of hybrid aircraft structures. It is concluded that, the account of the non-linear response of the joints results in a less conservative load distribution at ultimate failure load.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Bolted joints, Composite-aluminum, Finite element modeling, Hybrid wing structures
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91893 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2013.10.056 (DOI)000331671700020 ()
    Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Kapidzic, Zlatan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab AB, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Hans
    Saab AB, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Schon, Joakim
    Swedish Def Research Agency, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fatigue bearing failure of CFRP composite in biaxially loaded bolted joints at elevated temperature2015In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 127, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid composite-aluminium structures develop internal loads when exposed to elevated temperatures, due to the different thermal expansion properties of the constituent materials. In aircraft structures with long rows of bolted joints, the mechanical and the thermally induced bolt loads are oriented in different directions, creating a biaxial bearing load state. In this study, the bearing fatigue failure process and the influence of the biaxial load state on the failure are investigated. An experimental set-up was designed, where both the mechanical and the thermally induced bolt loads were applied by means of mechanical load actuators. Two-bolt, double-lap joints with quasi-isotropic carbon-epoxy composite specimens were subjected to uniaxial and biaxial cyclic loading at 90 degrees C. A microscopy study of the bearing plane revealed that the main fatigue driving mechanisms were matrix cracking and fibre-matrix debonding. Motivated by these findings, a fatigue prediction model based on the kinetic theory of fracture for polymer matrices was run in a finite element code and the results showed a satisfactory correlation to the experimental results. The biaxial loading resulted in a longer fatigue life than the uniaxial loading, for the same peak resultant force, which was explained by the smaller effective stress range in the biaxial case.

  • 4.
    Kapidzic, Zlatan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab AB, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Hans
    Saab AB, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Schon, Joakim
    Swedish Def Research Agency, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quasi-static bearing failure of CFRP composite in biaxially loaded bolted joints2015In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 125, p. 60-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid composite-aluminium bolted joints develop internal loads at elevated temperatures, due to the difference in thermal expansion properties of their constituent materials. In aircraft joints, the thermally induced bolt loads are commonly directed perpendicular to the mechanical loads, inducing a biaxial bearing load state. In this work, carbon-epoxy laminate specimens were tested in uniaxial and biaxial quasi-static bearing failure experiments in a specially designed test rig, at elevated temperature. A microscopy study of a failed specimen revealed that the failure process was mainly driven by fibre kinking, although extensive matrix cracking and delaminations were also found. The experiments were simulated by three-dimensional, explicit, finite element analyses, which included intralaminar damage and delamination. The experimental and simulated bearing failure loads differed by 1.7% in the uniaxial case and 2.1% in the biaxial case. It was suggested that the load-displacement response is influenced by the interaction of all damage mechanisms. Delamination modelling was, however, not essential for the prediction of the maximal bearing strength. The same effective bearing strengths were obtained for the biaxially loaded specimens as for the uniaxially loaded ones, but the damage accumulation process and the resulting damage distributions were different. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Kapidzic, Zlatan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab AB, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Hans
    Saab AB, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Schön, Joakim
    Swedish Def Research Agency, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fatigue bearing failure of CFRP composite in bolted joints exposed to biaxial variable amplitude loading at elevated temperature2016In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 142, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid structures than contain composite-aluminium interfaces tend to develop internal loads at elevated temperatures. In long bolted joints, the thermally induced bolt loads are superimposed onto the mechanically applied load and can induce a biaxial bearing load state. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the bearing fatigue failure of carbon-epoxy laminate specimens, exposed to uniaxial and biaxial variable amplitude loading at 90C. A specifically designed experimental rig was used, where both the mechanical and the thermally induced bolt loads were applied by means of mechanical load actuators. A fatigue model based on the kinetic theory of fracture for polymers, which was previously implemented for constant amplitude loading, is expanded to account for the variable amplitude load history. The results suggest that the biaxial loading gives a longer fatigue life than the uniaxial loading for the same maximum peak resultant force. This result can be utilized as a conservative dimensioning strategy by designing biaxially loaded joints in terms of maximum peak resultant bearing load using uniaxial fatigue data.

  • 6.
    Kapidzic, Zlatan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Larsgunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ansell, Hans
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Conceptual studies of a composite-aluminum hybrid wing box demonstrator2014In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of two different hybrid composite-aluminum concepts applied to a winglike structure which is exposed to mechanical  and thermal load. The aim of the study is to determine the most suitable  hybrid concept to later on be used in structural fatigue and static testing. In both concepts, the mass is optimized with respect to two different sets of requirements, one of which is currently in use in the fighter aircraft industry and one which is a modified version of the current requirement set. The issues considered in the study are mass, thermal behavior, buckling, bolted joints, failure criteria and fatigue damage, and they are examined in the frame of both requirement sets. The results clearly indicate the order of criticality between the different criteria in the different parts of each concept. Also, the comparison of two requirement sets gives an idea of the degree of influence of the modified criteria on the hybrid concepts and their mass. Based on the mass and the structural behavior in a thermal-mechanical loading one of the hybrid concepts is chosen for further studies and testing.

  • 7.
    Kapidzic, Zlatan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Larsgunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ansell, Hans
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Finite element modeling of mechanically fastened composite-aluminum joints in aircraft structures2014In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 109, p. 198-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional, solid finite element model of a composite-aluminum single-lap bolted joint with a countersunk titanium fastener is developed. The model includes progressive damage behavior of the composite and a plasticity model for the metals. The response to static loading is compared to experimental results from the literature. It is shown that the model predicts the initiation and the development of the damage well, up to failure load. The model is used to evaluate the local force-displacement responses of a number of single-lap joints installed in a hybrid composite-aluminum wing-like structure. A structural model is made where the fasteners are represented by two-node connector elements which are assigned the force-displacement characteristics determined by local models. The behavior of the wing box is simulated for bending and twisting loads applied together with an increased temperature and the distribution of fastener forces and the progressive fastener failure is studied. It is shown that the fastener forces caused by the temperature difference are of significant magnitude and should be taken into account in the design of hybrid aircraft structures. It is concluded that, the account of the non-linear response of the joints results in a less conservative load distribution at ultimate failure load.

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