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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pathways to arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents2017In: British Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0007-0998, E-ISSN 2044-8279, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 647-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Developing sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge.

    Aims

    The purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents. The pathways model states that the three pathways should provide independent support to symbolic-number skill. Each pathway's unique contribution to formal mathematics varies depending on the complexity and demand of the tasks.

    Sample

    The study used a sample of 114 adolescents (71 girls). Their mean age was 14.60 years (SD = 1.00).

    Methods

    The adolescents were assessed on tests tapping the three pathways and general cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory). A structural equation path analysis was computed.

    Results

    Symbolic-number comparison was predicted by the linguistic pathway, the quantitative pathway, and processing speed. The linguistic pathway, quantitative pathways, and symbolic-number comparison predicted arithmetic fact retrieval. The linguistic pathway, working memory, visual analogies, and symbolic-number comparison predicted percentage calculation.

    Conclusions

    There are both similarities and differences in the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents. Adolescents’ symbolic-number processing, arithmetic fact retrieval, and percentage calculation continue to rely on the linguistic pathways, whereas the reliance upon the spatial pathway has ceased. The reliance upon the quantitative pathway varies depending on the task.

  • 2.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Culture, Cognitive Systems and Extended Mind – Embedding the Extended Mind within Activity Theory2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magnitude Processing in Developmental Dyscalculia: A Heterogeneous Learning Disability with Different Cognitive Profiles2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disability that is characterized by severe difficulties with acquiring age-appropriate mathematical skills that cannot be attributed to insufficient education, language skills, or motivation. The prevalence rate is estimated at 3-6%, meaning that a substantial portion of the population struggles to learn mathematics to such a large degree that it affects overall well-being and academic prospects. However, our understanding of the etiology of DD is incomplete and there are competing hypotheses regarding the characteristics of DD and its underlying causal factors. The purpose of the current thesis is to contribute to our understanding of DD from the perspective of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. To this end, we identify children with DD to identify the cognitive determinants of DD that hamper their ability to learn basic mathematics. It is believed that human beings are endowed with an innate ability to represent numerosities, an ability phylogenetically shared with other species. We investigate whether the purported innate number system plays a role in children with DD insofar as  failures in this system may undermine the acquisition of symbolic representations of number. Although some researchers believe DD is a monolithic learning disability that is genetic and neurobiological in origin, the empirical support for various hypotheses suggests that DD may be shaped by heterogeneous characteristics and underlying causes. The present thesis, and the studies presented therein, provides support for the notion that DD is indeed heterogeneous. We identify at least two subtypes of DD that are characterized by specific deficits in number processing, and one subtype that could more aptly be labelled as a mathematical learning disability, the causal factors of which are likely limited to deficits in non-numerical abilities. In addition, we locate candidate neurocognitive correlates that may be dysfunctional in DD.

    List of papers
    1. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number
    2014 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 675Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Frontiers Research Foundation, 2014
    Keywords
    developmental dyscalculia; number processing; approximate number system; ATOM; time estimation; development
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109259 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00675 (DOI)000338727700001 ()25018746 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes With Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes With Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 0022-2194, E-ISSN 1538-4780, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 36-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with arithmetic fact dyscalculia (AFD) and a group with general dyscalculia (GD). Several different aspects of number magnitude processing were assessed in these two groups and compared with age-matched typically achieving children. The GD group displayed weaknesses with both symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing, whereas the AFD group displayed problems only with symbolic number processing. These findings provide evidence that the origins of DD in children with different profiles of mathematical problems diverge. Children with GD have impairment in the innate approximate number system, whereas children with AFD suffer from an access deficit. These findings have implications for researchers selection procedures when studying dyscalculia, and also for practitioners in the educational setting.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2016
    Keywords
    developmental dyscalculia; symbolic number processing; nonsymbolic number processing; calculation; arithmetic fact retrieval
    National Category
    Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124120 (URN)10.1177/0022219414522707 (DOI)000365760200003 ()24598147 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [421-2007-1881]

    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2018-01-10
    3. Heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia: Cases with different deficit profiles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia: Cases with different deficit profiles
    2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of  developmental dyscalculia (DD). Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) performance was contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD.

    Case report: Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account, and the general magnitude-processing deficit account. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One cases suffered from general cognitive deficits only.

    Conclusions: The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Frontiers Media, 2017
    Keywords
    Developmental dyscalculia, symbolic number processing, non-symbolic number processing, time processing, spatial processing
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124666 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02000 (DOI)000391102400001 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0238, 2010-0078]

    Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-09 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Magnitude processing in the brain: an fMRI study of time, space, and numerosity as a shared cortical system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnitude processing in the brain: an fMRI study of time, space, and numerosity as a shared cortical system
    2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, no 500Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous dimensions, such as time, space, and numerosity, have been suggested to be subserved by common neurocognitive mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies that have investigated either one or two dimensions simultaneously have consistently identified neural correlates in the parietal cortex of the brain. However, the degree of neural overlap across several dimensions has yet to be established, and it remains an open question whether a potential overlap can be conceptualized as a neurocognitive magnitude processing system. The current functional resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the potential neurocognitive overlap across three dimensions. A sample of adults (N = 24) performed three different magnitude processing tasks: a temporal discrimination task, a number discrimination task, and a line length discrimination task. A conjunction analysis revealed several overlapping neural substrates across multiple magnitude dimensions, and we argue that these cortical nodes comprise a distributed magnitude processing system. Key components of this predominantly right-lateralized system include the intraparietal sulcus, insula, premotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus and frontal eye-fields. Together with previous research highlighting IPS, our results suggest that the insula also is a core component of the magnitude processing system. We discuss the functional role of each of these components in the magnitude processing system and suggest that further research of this system may provide insight into the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders where cognitive deficits in magnitude processing are manifest.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Frontiers Media, 2016
    Keywords
    Number processing, Time processing, Spatial processing, Magnitude processing, Insula, Intraparietal sulcus (IPS)
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124667 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2016.00500 (DOI)000385888600001 ()27761110 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2010-0078]

    Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-09 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magnitude processing in the brain: an fMRI study of time, space, and numerosity as a shared cortical system2016In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, no 500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous dimensions, such as time, space, and numerosity, have been suggested to be subserved by common neurocognitive mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies that have investigated either one or two dimensions simultaneously have consistently identified neural correlates in the parietal cortex of the brain. However, the degree of neural overlap across several dimensions has yet to be established, and it remains an open question whether a potential overlap can be conceptualized as a neurocognitive magnitude processing system. The current functional resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the potential neurocognitive overlap across three dimensions. A sample of adults (N = 24) performed three different magnitude processing tasks: a temporal discrimination task, a number discrimination task, and a line length discrimination task. A conjunction analysis revealed several overlapping neural substrates across multiple magnitude dimensions, and we argue that these cortical nodes comprise a distributed magnitude processing system. Key components of this predominantly right-lateralized system include the intraparietal sulcus, insula, premotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus and frontal eye-fields. Together with previous research highlighting IPS, our results suggest that the insula also is a core component of the magnitude processing system. We discuss the functional role of each of these components in the magnitude processing system and suggest that further research of this system may provide insight into the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders where cognitive deficits in magnitude processing are manifest.

  • 5.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kirsh, David
    Cognitive Science Department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Maps in the Head and Maps in the Hand2012In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] Naomi Miyake, David Peebles, Richard P. Cooper, Cognitive Science Society 2012 , 2012, p. 2339-2344Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the perspective of situated cognition we studied how people interact with a physical map to help them navigate through an unfamiliar environment. The study used a mixture of cognitive ethnography and traditional experimental methods. We found that the difference between high and low performing navigators showed up in the speed they completed their task and also in the way they use maps. High performers plan routes using a survey method whereas low performers use a route strategy. We suggest that when people are given a task that does not match their cognitive style they try to transform the task to better suit their cognitive abilities and cognitive style.

  • 6.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

  • 7.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes With Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits2016In: Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 0022-2194, E-ISSN 1538-4780, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 36-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with arithmetic fact dyscalculia (AFD) and a group with general dyscalculia (GD). Several different aspects of number magnitude processing were assessed in these two groups and compared with age-matched typically achieving children. The GD group displayed weaknesses with both symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing, whereas the AFD group displayed problems only with symbolic number processing. These findings provide evidence that the origins of DD in children with different profiles of mathematical problems diverge. Children with GD have impairment in the innate approximate number system, whereas children with AFD suffer from an access deficit. These findings have implications for researchers selection procedures when studying dyscalculia, and also for practitioners in the educational setting.

  • 8.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Processing of space, time, and number contributes to mathematical abilities above and beyond domain-general cognitive abilities2016In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 143, p. 85-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated whether processing of number, space, and time contributes to mathematical abilities beyond previously known domain-general cognitive abilities in a sample of 8- to 10-year-old children (N = 133). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive functions and general intelligence predicted all aspects of mathematics and overall mathematical ability. Working memory capacity did not contribute significantly to our models, whereas spatial ability was a strong predictor of achievement. The study replicates earlier research showing that non-symbolic number processing seems to lose predictive power of mathematical abilities once the symbolic system is acquired. Novel findings include the fact that time discrimination ability was tied to calculation ability. Therefore, a conclusion is that magnitude processing in general contributes to mathematical achievement. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Strömbäck, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lind, Thérèse
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene Oregon, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Does self-control predict financial behavior and financial well-being?2017In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, ISSN 2214-6350, E-ISSN 2214-6369, ISSN 2214-6350, Vol. 14, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve our understanding of how people make financial decisions, it is important to investigate what psychological characteristics influence individuals’ positive financial behavior and financial well-being. In this study, we explore the effect of individual differences in self-control and other non-cognitive factors on financial behavior and financial well-being. A survey containing measures of financial behavior, subjective financial well-being, self-control, optimism, deliberative thinking and demographic variables was sent to a representative sample (n=2063)" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: normal; font-size: 14.399999618530273px; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Microsoft Sans Serif', 'Segoe UI Symbol', STIXGeneral, 'Cambria Math', 'Arial Unicode MS', sans-serif; position: relative;"> of the Swedish population. Our findings extend the application of the behavioral lifecycle hypothesis beyond savings behavior, to include general financial behavior. People with good self-control are more likely to save money from every pay-check, have better general financial behavior, feel less anxious about financial matters, and feel more secure in their current and future financial situation.

  • 10.
    Träff, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Cognitive mechanisms underlying third graders' arithmetic skills: Expanding the pathways to mathematics model.2018In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 167, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modified pathways to mathematics model was used to examine the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic skills in third graders. A total of 269 children were assessed on tasks tapping the four pathways and arithmetic skills. A path analysis showed that symbolic number processing was directly supported by the linguistic and approximate quantitative pathways. The direct contribution from the four pathways to arithmetic proficiency varied; the linguistic pathway supported single-digit arithmetic and word problem solving, whereas the approximate quantitative pathway supported only multi-digit calculation. The spatial processing and verbal working memory pathways supported only arithmetic word problem solving. The notion of hierarchical levels of arithmetic was supported by the results, and the different levels were supported by different constellations of pathways. However, the strongest support to the hierarchical levels of arithmetic were provided by the proximal arithmetic skills.

  • 11.
    Träff, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia: Cases with different deficit profiles2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of  developmental dyscalculia (DD). Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) performance was contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD.

    Case report: Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account, and the general magnitude-processing deficit account. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One cases suffered from general cognitive deficits only.

    Conclusions: The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

  • 12.
    Östergren, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive conditions of children at risk of developing mathematical learning disabilities2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various hypotheses have been advanced regarding the origin of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). The present study set out to test a number of hypotheses regarding the underlying condition for the development of MLD, namely: the domain general hypothesis, number sense deficit, numerosity coding deficit, access deficit and multiple deficits. These hypotheses were tested on a sample of eight-year-old children that was divided into three groups: MLD (N = 13), typical achievers (TA, N = 57) and high achievers (HA, N = 25) based on a longitudinal approach of stability in performance on arithmetic tests. The development of the three groups was also assessed using data from preschool to grade two. The results revealed support for the hypothesis of multiple deficits that are primarily located in intraparietal sulci (IPS) and manifest themselves as both number sense deficits and deficits in spatial processing. This type of deficit is supported by less developed general abilities in the domains of both phonological ability and nonverbal intelligence, resulting in poorer number knowledge for those children at risk of MLD. The HA group displayed a superior early number knowledge in combination with superior domain general abilities, which support the development of number knowledge.

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