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  • 1.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Niklas
    Geotelix AB.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordström, Johan
    Räddningstjänsten Östra Götaland.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tjernström, Richard
    Norrköping Municipality.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using Semi-professionals in Emergency Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore and João Porto de Albuquerque, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term semi-professional can be used to denote occupational groups that do not have emergency response as their primary profession but who get additional responsibilities within rescue and response, e.g. by performing a first response or assisting the professional emergency services. In this study, four different groups of possible semi-professional resources are analyzed and compared. Similarities and differences between the four groups are discussed. Factors, important for the successful implementation of a cross-sector collaboration of this kind, are highlighted. The preliminary results show that all four groups have the potential to act as semi-professional resources within emergency response. Interestingly, the basic requirements are the same for all groups, despite different prerequisites.

  • 2.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effektivt sambruk av kommunala resurser för ökad säkerhet och trygghet2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av så kallade semiprofessionella resurser i räddningsinsatser har blivit allt vanligare i Sverige. En semiprofessionell är en person som fått utökade arbetsuppgifter inom respons och räddning inom ramen för sitt ordinarie yrke. Det kanske mest kända exemplet är väktare som responderar på den kommunala räddningstjänstens ärenden.

    I det projekt som avrapporteras här, är syftet att undersöka vilka yrkesgrupper som skulle passa bra som semiprofessionella, och vad som krävs för att de effektivt ska kunna utföra de nya arbetsuppgifterna, bland annat i form av utbildning och utrustning. Vidare syftar projektet till att utvärdera vilken samhällsnytta semiprofessionella kan bidra med. Som studieobjekt används Norrköpings kommun, och via en aktionsforskningsinspirerad metodansats är målet att projektresultaten ska kunna bidra till en ökad säkerhet och trygghet i kommunen.

    En kombination av kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder används för att uppnå syftet. Genom workshops identifieras först fyra potentiella yrkesgrupper (räddningstjänstens dagtidspersonal, hemtjänstpersonal, förvaltningsentreprenörer och väktare), för vilka detaljerad data erhålls via fokusgruppsintervjuer. En grupp (räddningstjänstens dagtidspersonal) väljs ut för vidare analys, och ytterligare en workshop genomförs, plus ett experiment i form av en simulerad olycka där semiprofessionella får göra en första insats. En prototyp av ett utlarmningssystem tas fram, inklusive en smartphoneapplikation som de semiprofessionella kan använda för att ta emot och hantera larm. Med hjälp av applikationen utförs ett experiment där historiska larm skickas till potentiella semiprofessionella under två månaders tid, och de får svara på om de kan åka eller inte, samtidigt som deras position noteras. Genom att jämföra deltagarnas uppskattade insatstider med räddningstjänstens historiska, kan möjliga insatstidsförkortningar beräknas. Detta kompletteras med en bedömning av vad de kan bidra med i respektive händelse.

    Bedömningen görs enligt en strukturerad metod av professionell personal från två olika räddningstjänstorganisationer. De beräknade insatstiderna och den skattade förmågan vägs samman till en monetär nytta av den semiprofessionella insatsen.

    Resultatet visar att det finns ett stort antal yrkesgrupper som skulle kunna vara lämpliga att nyttja som semiprofessionella. I rapporten redovisas en lista med 23 grupper som anses ha potential och möjlighet att utföra räddningsinsatser som en del av sitt yrke. Vidare redovisas ett antal utmaningar och möjligheter, baserat på analysen av de fyra utvalda grupperna. En konkret sammanställning har gjorts i form av listor på utbildning och utrustning som krävs för att de effektivt kunna utföra sitt nya uppdrag. Dessa krav är förhållandevis enkla att uppfylla, och handlar om grundläggande utbildning i riskbedömning, brandsläckning och livräddande åtgärder, samt utrustning som tex handbrandsläckare och förbandslåda. Mer utmanande är de organisatoriska förändringar som är nödvändiga för att de semiprofessionella akut ska kunna lämna sina pågående arbetsuppgifter, samt hur utlarmningen ska kunna integreras i de tekniska system som används för professionella räddningsresurser. Vidare visar resultaten att semiprofessionella kan larmas, och förväntas göra nytta på en stor mängd olika typer av händelser, dock främst vid händelser med personskador eller akuta sjukdomsförlopp. Den monetära nyttan av att införa ett fåtal (i snitt 3,4 st) semiprofessionella i Norrköping och Linköpings kommuner beräknades till mellan 600 000 och 2 400 000 kr per år, beroende på hur lång tid det tar för de semiprofessionella ifrån att de får larm tills de påbörjar färden mot händelseplatsen.

    En slutsats från projektet är att semiprofessionella skulle bidra till en ökad säkerhet och trygghet i Norrköping kommun, om de används som förstainsatsresurser, som ett komplement till befintlig professionell räddningspersonal.

  • 3.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enabling organizational learning from rescue operations2014In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the re-development process of the Swedish Rescue Services Incident Reporting System from an organizational learning perspective with the purpose to suggest what is needed to enable long-term learning from rescue operations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is carried out as a case study relying on interviews, participant observation and workshop methods. The study case is the Swedish Incident Reporting System.

    Findings – The objectives expressed by the central agency leading the studied process aimed at implementing double-loop learning objectives by revising the incident reports and to improve future operations accordingly. In practice this objective was lost along the way, with the agency focussing on cosmetic changes to the report such as terminology, attributes and labels. Meanwhile the local rescue services expressed different and concrete needs, requiring new system functionality, case/experience based learning, process improvements and organizational development. A number of suggestions of such measures are provided by the study, to be used by rescue services and other response organizations.

    Originality/value – The case stands out because the re-development process is driven by one stakeholder, with the ambition to include multiple stakeholders’ needs. The study should be of specific interest to fire rescue services world-wide. However, considering that many tasks, learning and evaluation aspects of rescue operations are similar regardless of type of first responder involved (e.g. in firefighting, traffic accidents, and cardiac arrests), the results are also of interest to emergency management in general.

  • 4.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, Sweden.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Migration of Legacy Systems– the Swedish Rescue Services Incident Reporting System2013In: Proceedings of the  24th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Rescue Services are migrating from an incident report system to a fully-fledged incident learning system. The migration process has been studied under the lenses of organizational learning theories, to identify challenges that can offer advice for future system migration projects. The objectives expressed by the central agency leading the studied migration process aimed at implementing organizational double-loop learning by using the incident reports as enablers to learn from the rescue operation and improve future operations accordingly. In practice this objective has been lost along the way, with the agency focusing more on cosmetic changes, such as terminology, attributes and labels. Meanwhile end-users expressed different and concrete needs, requiring new functionality, process improvements and organizational development. The study highlights the importance of early, active user involvement in the migration process for dual use legacy systems, to avoid losing explicitly articulated high-level objectives, such as improved performance and dual use of the system.

  • 5.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samverkansformer för räddning och respons: Exempel och förslag2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samverkan är central för att skapa tillfredställande säkerhet, trygghet och räddning framöver och den praktiknära kunskapen om möjliga och önskvärda samverkansformer för effektiv räddning behöver fördjupas. Syftet med studien var därmed att beskriva praktiska exempel på olika former av räddningstjänstsamverkan och visa på likheter och skillnader i förutsättningar, fördelar och nackdelar utifrån olika samverkansdimensioner, att utifrån dessa diskutera och föreslå olika samverkansprofiler för olika ändamål inom räddning och respons samt att föreslå informationstekniskt stöd till de föreslagna samverkansprofilerna.

    Studien är genomförd med multipla kvalitativa fallstudier av samverkan som har kontrasterats och jämförts utifrån organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv och variabler. Fallstudierna har gällt:

    • Samverkan mellan polisen, räddningstjänsten och kommunen för att motverka social oro i Södertälje
    • Samverkan mellan statlig sjöräddning och Sjöräddningssällskapet
    • Myndighetssamordning inom Trygghetens hus i Jämtland
    • Samverkan mellan räddningstjänst och privatpersoner i projektet ”Förstärkt medmänniska” i Medelpad.

    Var och en av fallstudierna har först beskrivits och därefter analyserats var för sig och har därefter jämförts med varandra. Därmed kunde tre sinsemellan mycket olika samverkansformer identifieras som dessutom hade olika förutsättningar att passa samman med olika typer av organisering. Samverkansformerna var myndighetssamordning på regional/nationell nivå, lokal integrativ samverkan och ad hoc-samverkan.

    Samverkansformerna presenteras och läggs till grund för tre förslag till samverkan för olika ändamål och diskuteras utifrån vad de lämpar sig för, hur man kan lägga upp samverkan, viktiga genomförandefaktorer, framgångsfaktorer, risker och utvecklingsmöjligheter samt förslag till informationstekniskt stöd.

    Regional/nationell myndighetssamordning Regional/nationell myndighetssamordning passar för ledningssamordning och koordinering på administrativ och policy-nivå mellan företrädare för offentliga myndigheter och organisationer för översiktlig samverkan om samhällsfrågor som exempelvis äldres trygghet, trafiksäkerhet, brottsförebyggande eller krisberedskap. Resultaten av samverkan ska kunna formaliseras och standardiseras till en struktur för gemensamma insatser eller att användas för ungefär samma ändamål och på ungefär samma sätt i hela regionen eller hela landet. Samverkan här bygger på att varje myndighet gör det som myndigheten är till för och har i uppdrag och att endast de myndigheter som berörs i varje process medverkar i den processen. Den här samverkansformen förmår därmed tillvarata det bästa av myndigheters kapacitet och resurser samt är betydelsefull som bakgrund och förankring till mer lokala satsningar.

    Potentiella informationstekniska stöd omfattar här t ex gemensamma IT-plattformar för delning av information och dokument samt databaser för digital lagring av information av olika slag. Stöd kan också inkludera beslutsstöd t ex i form av geografiska informationssystem, kartsystem och positioneringssystem, gemensamma lägesbilder och digitala ledningsbord. Dynamiska utalarmeringssystem är ett annat exempel. Flera av dessa system kan och bör finnas både i fast och mobil version.

    Lokal integrativ samverkan är urtypen för varaktig lokal utveckling av trygghet och säkerhet via dialog och förebyggande verksamhet som integreras i övrigt samhällsbyggande. Det underliggande motivet för denna samverkan är att den billigaste olyckan är den som inte händer. I denna samverkan adderas en säkerhets/trygghetsdimension till alla verksamheter kommunerna ansvarar för i stället för att lägga säkerhet/trygghet som en egen verksamhet. Därmed finns utsedda kommunansvariga med i många olika typer av diskussioner och planering inom kommunerna och lär känna dem väl. Lokal varaktig samverkan passar för samverkan mellan lokalt representerade välutvecklade verksamheter med möjlighet att delegera uppgifter och för både mycket enkla och mycket komplicerade verksamheter. Målet är att lösa lokala problem, uppfylla lokala behov av verksamhet/information eller att skapa lokal, operativ, varaktig verksamhet som exempelvis förebyggande verksamhet.

    Potentiella informationstekniska stöd omfattar här t ex gemensamma IT-plattformar för delning av information och dokument, databaser för digital lagring av aktörer, roller, uppgifter, kompetens, utbildning, ansvar, kontaktinformation, inte minst när det gäller frivilliga aktörer, samt sociala medier för dialog med och inhämtande av information från allmänheten.

    Gränsöverskridande Ad hoc-samverkan passar för multidisciplinära insatsverksamheter under en begränsad tid och kan förväntas vara ett koncept som utvecklas framöver för användning när räddningsresurser är svåra att komma åt, kräver speciella kunskaper, lokala förutsättningar eller helt enkelt är glesa. En utgångspunkt med denna samverkansform är att snabbt kunna mobilisera lokala resurser över olika samhällssektorer och att kunna leda och koordinera aktörer från olika sektorer i en gemensam insats. Därmed är det en samverkansform som passar för sammansatta insatser för trygghet, säkerhet, räddning och respons tillsammans med nya professionella eller friviliga aktörer.

    Informationstekniskt stöd för adhoc-samverkan omfattar både stöd för att leda och samordna adhoc-samverkan samt att samverka lokalt. Därmed omfattar det båda de ovanstående förslagen som exempelvis beslutsstödsystem, geografiska informationssystem, kartsystem och positioneringssystem, gemensamma lägesbilder och digitala ledningsbord samt gemensamma IT-plattformar för delning av information och dokument samt databaser för lagring, men också mobila applikationer i form av t ex sms utalarmering och help appar som stöd för agerande på skadeplats. Även de dynamiska utalarmeringssystem är tänkta att på sikt även omfatta frivilliga aktörer och lokala resurser.

    Alla tre samverkansformerna kan ses som framgångsrika eller med potential för att vara det. Den regionala myndighetssamordningen kommer med hög sannolikhet att öka eftersom den bygger på stordrift. Den integrativa samverkan är främst inriktad mot utvecklingen av förebyggande verksamhet tillsammans med andra samhällsverksamheter. Där kan trygghets- och säkerhetsskapande aktiviteter bidra också till andra samhällsviktiga processer utöver trygghet och säkerhet. Erfarenheter och kunskaper för mobilisering och ledning av gränsöverskridande ad hoc-samverkan inom räddning kan troligen utvecklas för att fungera framgångsrikt också på helt nya fält för trygghet och säkerhet samt för samverkan med nya aktörer i olika sammanhang där snabb respons är viktig. Sådan kan gälla glesbygdsräddning, äldres trygghet, kvinnofrid, rasism, skolmobbing, ensamarbete i skogen eller i jordbruket, friluftsliv och trygghet på skolgården eller bevakning av naturskydd. Avgörande är dels larmförutsättningarna, dels förutsättningarna för ledning av insatser. Här kan också sjö- och flygräddningsledarens roll i räddningsinsats till sjöss med fördel användas som utgångspunkt för en omdefinition av larmhantering i exempelvis glesbygd.

    Därmed är de sammanfattade slutsatserna av studien att samverkan ska uppfattas som ett selektivt organisationsverktyg där det gäller att anpassa och välja rätt verktyg med rätt strategi för rätt ändamål, och baserad på logiker som inte kolliderar för att samverkan ska bli effektiv och nå sina mål. Förslag till vidare forskning gäller bl.a. hur ledning av ad hoc-samverkan går till och kan utvecklas, olika organisatoriska tröskel- eller översättningsfenomen samt hur vidare utveckling av informationsteknik kan drivas och bör beforskas och projektanpassat och med förankring i respektive samverkansprofils behov.

  • 6.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Cross-sector Collaborations: The Case of Swedish Emergency Response2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems (IS) seem prevalent in modern societies and have resulted in the rapid digitalisation of different societal sectors. One application domain of IS is emergency response, which is responsible for delivering essential services to save lives and minimise environmental damage in both small , frequent and large-scale emergencies. Specific IS applications are in turn used in emergency response to support such aspects as decision-making, communication, information sharing and the dispatching of resources. Public-sector cut-backs and a lack of professional resources have affected emergency response at the same time as natural disasters (e.g. forest fires, tsunamis, storms, terror attacks, and wars in the Middle East leading to mass migration) have intensified in recent decades. At the same time, frequent, small-scale accidents continue to occur on a regular basis, both in urban and sparsely populated areas. As a result, emergency response actors, first responders, are often placed under severe pressure. An emerging trend in response to these challenges, both in Sweden and internationally, is to create cross-sector forms of collaboration, by combining alternative resources from various sectors. Such collaborations are relatively new and involve heterogeneous stakeholders.

    Therefore, the thesis objective is to explore IS-related opportunities, challenges and needs aimed at supporting heterogeneous actors in emerging cross-sector collaborations in emergency response in order to enable and facilitate future related IS development. To achieve this, a user-centred approach was applied. A baseline study was performed followed by three case studies on ‘co-location of actors’, ‘co-operative use of resources’ and ‘semi-professionals as first responders’ by performing interviews, focus groups, participant observation, Future Workshops, an exercise and an after-action review. The thesis is based on case study research and qualitative research methods. Sociotechnical systems theory, the sociotechnical ensemble view, and network governance were used as the analytical framework. As part of achieving the thesis objectives, experiences from applying user participation in the context of cross-sector collaboration are also presented as part of the results. A context-specific framework developed to systematise and explore various important aspects of cross-sector collaboration in emergency response is also described.

    The results of this thesis indicate that the needs for IS in cross-sector collaborations vary from simple smartphone applications to manage alarms, positioning and the dispatching of new resources, to more sophisticated tools for sharing and viewing incident data. The results also indicate that these collaborations have the potential (e.g. resource redundancy, pooled competencies to increase total capacity) to improve Swedish emergency response if supported by adequate IS/IT support. The major challenges are organisational, economic and juridical and the most prominent are ambiguities in actors’ tasks and responsibilities, and how to prioritise between ordinary work and ‘new’ first-response tasks. They must be addressed to enable certain IS-functions, e.g. information sharing and positioning of resources The results also highlight several institutional factors (e.g. mutual interest between members, collective problem-solving, secrecy aspects) which are believed to play a key role in the success or failure of the collaborations and which must be adressed in the development of IS-support. The actors also have substantial basic needs for training (e.g. fire extinguishing, first aid) and emergency supplies (e.g. fire extinguishers, healthcare kits).

    Applying user participation also faced challenges, the major one being the development of a future cross-sector collaboration in a context that does not yet exist, and involving stakeholders from resource-strained organisations in doing so. The stakeholders, and sometimes also the primary end-users, are partly unknown and tasks are undefined. As a response to these challenges, a combination of activities based on multiple design groups, scenario-based Future Workshops, focus groups, the context-specific framework, a practical exercise and an after-action-review was provided. The framework, which was used to support data collection and user participation, includes 15 dimensions each intended to represent important aspects of cross-sector collaboration.

    The thesis major contributions are the identified opportunities, challenges and need as a ’sociotechnical ensemble’ and generated and from several studies, thus being comparable. The thesis more theoretical contributions is the combined application of the sociotechnical ensemble view and network governance where the studied collaboration forms are characterised as a hybrid form of networks and more traditional government mechanisms and where it is pointed out that network governance lacks explicit IS/IT aspects. In a wider perspective, the research fields of IS and political science may cross-fertilise each other when studying emerging cross-sector collaboration in the public sector. Identified user participation challenges relevant to the cross-sector collaboration context, suggestions on how they can be handled and the context-specific framework are contributions that can be used in practical user-centred IS development in similar contexts. 

    List of papers
    1. A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
    2013 (English)In: ISCRAM2013. Conference Proceedings, Book of Papers, 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich , S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller, 2013, p. 741-746Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using actors from different societal sectors can improve the response operation quality in emergency management. The different roles, tasks and responsibilities these actors have in response operations and the legal frameworks they work within influence their needs for proper information system support. There is thus a substantial need to study and systemize the concept of “new actors” before providing them with technical solutions. In this study, a framework is constructed showing 14 dimensions of new actors that need to be considered when new actors are studied in more detail.

    Keywords
    Emergency response system, new actor, framework, first responder.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95995 (URN)9783923704804 (ISBN)
    Conference
    10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2013), 12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany
    Available from: 2013-08-12 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
    2014 (English)In: ISCRAM2014 Academic Papers 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management , 2014, p. 546-555Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-location as a form of network governance is a way of organizing response teams when responding to an emergency situation. At the ‘Safety house’ in the province of Jämtland in Sweden main emergency response actors and supporting actors work together in a shared physical place in order to facilitate the process of cooperation and joint decision making. In order to identify the strengths, weaknesses, obstacles, needs and information system role, we explored this case by looking at how the involved actors experience this new working context. We applied an analytical framework developed specifically for new forms of emergency response. It was found that co-location of actors increases the efficiency in using professional response resources and shortens the emergency response time. Information systems can have a significant role in improving the collaboration between actors at the ‘Safety house’. However secrecy issues, the problem of control and politics and the evaluation of the performance of actors are major challenges which face further development of the co-location concept.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 2014
    Keywords
    Emergency, Crisis Management, Network governance
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109496 (URN)9780692211946 (ISBN)
    Conference
    11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2014), University Park, Pennsylvania, USA, 18 May 2014
    Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Actor-centred emergency response systems: a framework for needs analysis and information systems development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Actor-centred emergency response systems: a framework for needs analysis and information systems development
    2016 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 403-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

     A new trend in emergency response systems (ERS) is to create new forms of collaboration, for example, by involving new resources in response operations, in order to compensate for the limited number of professional resources. However, the fact that the new resources may come from different organisational contexts and social sectors creates new challenges which directly affect information systems development for these resources. This study presents a framework including 15 dimensions to analyse the new forms of collaboration. Socio-technical system theory and participatory design approaches are applied to make the framework applicable in the information systems field. The framework might also address general problems such as the lack of formalisation and difficulties in identifying relevant stakeholders in participatory design. A comparison with international research showed a potential to adapt the framework to ERSs in other countries or even to other parts of the public sector that are undergoing similar changes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2016
    Keywords
    ERSs; emergency response systems; new actors; new collaborations; cross-sector collaboration; information systems; socio-technical systems; STS; participatory design; needs analysis; emergency management
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132400 (URN)10.1504/IJEM.2016.10000709 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2018-09-28
    4. User Participation in Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Initiatives
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Participation in Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Initiatives
    2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a-posteriori analysis of information systems (IS) development in a cross-sector collaboration case to identify and address user participation challenges in emerging public sector initiatives. The major challenges in the studied case was to develop IS for future cross-sector collaboration in a setting that does not yet exist, i.e. where the tasks, stakeholders and end-users are undefined. To address identified challenges, we suggest a combination of activities based on multiple design groups, scenario-based Future Workshops, focus groups, context-specific frameworks, and practical exercises with after-action-review. We argue that while similar challenges have been discussed in relation to large-scale projects and, sometimes, cross-sector collaboration, IS development for emerging public sector initiatives pose specific issues that need to be addressed.

    Keywords
    User participation, future service design, cross-sector collaboration
    National Category
    Public Administration Studies Communication Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150956 (URN)
    Conference
    27th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2018), August 22-24, Lund, Sweden
    Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    5. Semi-professionals: emergency response as an additional task in current occupations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semi-professionals: emergency response as an additional task in current occupations
    2019 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 86-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify occupational groups who can act as semi-professional first responders, in order to shorten the response times to frequent emergencies, and second, to identify related opportunities, challenges and needs of training, emergency supplies and information technology (IT) support. Design/methodology/approach A case study approach was taken, combining future workshops, focus groups and an exercise. Network governance was used as an analytical lens. Findings The identified potential groups are security guards, home care personnel, fire services day personnel and facility service personnel. The results show that semi-professionals have a large potential to complement professional resources by carrying out first response or supportive actions vital to the emergency, partly by using already existing cars and equipment. The identified needs include additional basic equipment such as fire extinguishers and first-aid kits, training in basic firefighting, first aid and risk assessment, as well as mobile phone application-based IT support to manage alarms. The major challenges are organisational, economic and juridical, including ambiguities in responsibilities and related insurances. The analysis recognises the new collaboration as a hybrid form of hierarchical government and network governance. Social implications The study suggests that using semi-professional resources can be one of many innovative solutions to recent public sector challenges that have put a huge strain on professional emergency response organisations. Originality/value The study provides a novel view of using semi-professional resources in emergency response, based on the joint perspectives of various occupational groups, and the fire services.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
    Keywords
    Network governance, Cross-sector collaboration with fire services, Semi-professionals
    National Category
    Communication Studies Public Administration Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150834 (URN)10.1108/IJES-11-2017-0059 (DOI)000476677000001 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Norrkoping municipality; Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, through the research centre CARER (Center for Advanced Research in Emergency Response)

    Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    New Forms of Collaboration in Emergency Response Systems: A framework for participatory design of information systems2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An emergency response systems (ERS) is usually responsible for delivering essential services to save lives and minimise environmental damage in case of small, frequent or large-scale emergencies. The ongoing global financial crisis, lack of professional resources, public sector cuts and rising public expectations are some of the challenges ERSs currently are facing. At the same time, societal trends in form of large-scale disasters such as tsunamis, storms, forest fires, terror attacks, and wars in the Middle East leading to mass migration have intensified recently and globally, increasing demand for these services in the public sector. As a result, emergency response actors are often under extreme pressure, and may need to seek assistance from and cooperate with other resources in society in order to become more effective. An emerging trend in ERSs in response to the challenges, in Sweden and internationally, is to create new forms of collaboration in emergency management (e.g., cross-sector collaboration, involving citizens in e-government, and involving volunteers). While research and practice have started to show the benefits of organising ERSs in new ways, the increasingly broad set of heterogeneous stakeholders involved in the collaborations introduce various challenges. Legal issues, unclear responsibilities of actors, difficulty in the categorisation of tasks, job insurance problems, diversity in education and background of actors, and difficulty determining actors’ specific needs for IS support are some examples. Analysis of collaborations thus becomes increasingly complex, and must incorporate many aspects. Rudimentary analyses may result in failure of related projects and IS development, and ultimately in less effective collaborations. New forms of collaboration must therefore be analysed and understood rigorously, generally and in each specific context in order to develop them for ERSs and the public sector and to support actors with effective IS tools.

    This thesis develops and presents a framework for analysing new forms of collaboration in ERSs. It also provides an initial suggestion on how to apply the framework with a specific focus on IS development. The study was carried out as a qualitative case study based on three kinds of collaboration in the Swedish ERS: co-operative, cross-sector use of resources, involving civil volunteers in response operations and co-location of actors. The framework has fifteen dimensions. They are: Type/Role, Attitude, Training, Background, Task and Responsibility, Availability/Accessibility, Incident Type, Communication Methods, Information Technology, Emergency Supplies, Organisational Structure, Leadership, Costs/Benefits, Environment, and Regulations and Legal Issues. Sociotechnical systems theory and participatory design principles were applied to make the framework usable in the IS field. The framework can be used generally to analyse new forms of collaboration in ERSs in order to understand its different aspects and emergent challenges, such as actors’ tasks, relevant laws, leadership and organisational factors, which may otherwise be overlooked, into the analysis process. As to IS development, the framework can contribute to organisational analysis and needs analysis in the participatory design of IS for ERSs, e.g. by helping to identify key stakeholders and involve them in the development process.

    The framework was initially tested at the co-location case and showed several promising benefits in terms of identifying and involving stakeholders in the development process. It was deemed helpful in determining and formulating interviews, observations, and future workshops in order to explore and study all relevant dimensions of the collaboration in the early phases of participatory design. It was also felt that the framework saved time and resources. It is argued that it may offer similar benefits in similar cases, although this will require further testing with more case studies. A standardised and developed version of the framework may also be adapted to be applicable to other public sector contexts such as e-government in which new forms of collaboration and governance are in focus. Such a framework may also help to address general challenges often associated with participatory design, add formalisation to it, and contribute to shift it from an academic to a practical approach in order to derive its benefits in complex environments. The next step will be to use the framework as a departure point for analysing the potential co-operative use of resources and cross-sector collaboration in the project ‘Efficient Communal Use of Municipal Resources for Increased Safety and Security’ (ESKORT) in the municipality of Norrköping.

    List of papers
    1. A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
    2013 (English)In: ISCRAM2013. Conference Proceedings, Book of Papers, 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich , S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller, 2013, p. 741-746Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using actors from different societal sectors can improve the response operation quality in emergency management. The different roles, tasks and responsibilities these actors have in response operations and the legal frameworks they work within influence their needs for proper information system support. There is thus a substantial need to study and systemize the concept of “new actors” before providing them with technical solutions. In this study, a framework is constructed showing 14 dimensions of new actors that need to be considered when new actors are studied in more detail.

    Keywords
    Emergency response system, new actor, framework, first responder.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95995 (URN)9783923704804 (ISBN)
    Conference
    10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2013), 12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany
    Available from: 2013-08-12 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
    2014 (English)In: ISCRAM2014 Academic Papers 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management , 2014, p. 546-555Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-location as a form of network governance is a way of organizing response teams when responding to an emergency situation. At the ‘Safety house’ in the province of Jämtland in Sweden main emergency response actors and supporting actors work together in a shared physical place in order to facilitate the process of cooperation and joint decision making. In order to identify the strengths, weaknesses, obstacles, needs and information system role, we explored this case by looking at how the involved actors experience this new working context. We applied an analytical framework developed specifically for new forms of emergency response. It was found that co-location of actors increases the efficiency in using professional response resources and shortens the emergency response time. Information systems can have a significant role in improving the collaboration between actors at the ‘Safety house’. However secrecy issues, the problem of control and politics and the evaluation of the performance of actors are major challenges which face further development of the co-location concept.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 2014
    Keywords
    Emergency, Crisis Management, Network governance
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109496 (URN)9780692211946 (ISBN)
    Conference
    11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2014), University Park, Pennsylvania, USA, 18 May 2014
    Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems2013In: ISCRAM2013. Conference Proceedings, Book of Papers, 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich , S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller, 2013, p. 741-746Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using actors from different societal sectors can improve the response operation quality in emergency management. The different roles, tasks and responsibilities these actors have in response operations and the legal frameworks they work within influence their needs for proper information system support. There is thus a substantial need to study and systemize the concept of “new actors” before providing them with technical solutions. In this study, a framework is constructed showing 14 dimensions of new actors that need to be considered when new actors are studied in more detail.

  • 9.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden2014In: ISCRAM2014 Academic Papers 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management , 2014, p. 546-555Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-location as a form of network governance is a way of organizing response teams when responding to an emergency situation. At the ‘Safety house’ in the province of Jämtland in Sweden main emergency response actors and supporting actors work together in a shared physical place in order to facilitate the process of cooperation and joint decision making. In order to identify the strengths, weaknesses, obstacles, needs and information system role, we explored this case by looking at how the involved actors experience this new working context. We applied an analytical framework developed specifically for new forms of emergency response. It was found that co-location of actors increases the efficiency in using professional response resources and shortens the emergency response time. Information systems can have a significant role in improving the collaboration between actors at the ‘Safety house’. However secrecy issues, the problem of control and politics and the evaluation of the performance of actors are major challenges which face further development of the co-location concept.

  • 10.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sambruk: En studie om samverkan och sambruk i Nyköpings kommun.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av att känna sig trygg och kunna få hjälp snabbt, när olyckan är framme, är en pågående samhällsfråga som berör de medborgare som behöver hjälp, och de organisationer som ger det(responssystem). En utmaning i dagens samhälle är att fortsätta förbättra responssystemet genom att minska responsinsatstiden och öka responsinsatskvalitet med knappa resurser och stigande offentliga förväntningar. ). Samtidigt är resurserna i responssystemet begränsade och lokaliserade till några få platser i samhället. Långa avstånd (som till exempel på landsbygden och i glesbygdområden) i kombination med nedskärningar (som t.ex. begränsade resurser) har tvingat vårt samhälle att utveckla nya sätt att organisera responssystemet för att behålla effektiviteten. Man tror att genom att engagera kompletterande resurser i samhället för att skapa nya samverkansformer, kan snabbare och mer effektiv larmrespons ske och därmed kan fler liv räddas och skadorna på miljön minskas.

    Att dela utrustning, larmcenter och brandstation har testats nyligen i syfte att skapa ett robust samarbete och kortare utryckningstider. I Nyköpings kommun i Sverige arbetar räddningstjänsten, divisionen för social omsorg och den tekniska divisionen med denna nya struktur. Vid Sambruk delar olika organisationer utrustning och larmcentral samt nyttjar varandras resurser i vissa situationer för att kunna svara på larm och larma ut resurser snabbare.

    Det verkar som om Sambruk i Nyköping i viss mån har lyckats förbättra responssystemet genom att förkorta responstider och även använda resurserna på ett effektivare sätt. Detta enligt uppgifter från intervju och ‘Future workshop’ med aktörer i Nyköping. Man tror dock att det fortfarande är möjligt att använda existerande resurser än effektivare genom bättre larmkategorisering och även tilldela uppgifter till exempelvis deltidsbrandmän.

    Att dela utrustning, bilar och larmcentral har visat på vissa fördelar för alla involverade aktörer. Att dela bilar eller byggnader har inte orsakat något problem, utan har istället upplevts ge ökad effektivitet i respons på larm eftersom aktörer har nära kommunikation och tillgång till varandra.

    Det största problemet som nästan alla intervjurespondenterna nämnde och som diskuterades i workshopen rörde otydlighet i uppgifter och arbetsprocesser. Det verkar som om det ännu inte är klart för samtliga involverade aktörer vad målen för Sambruk är och hur deras arbete kan förändras och varför. Det verkar också som om det saknas utbildning eller specifika metoder för att stödja sådan kunskapsutveckling. Lagmässiga problem såsom sekretess har orsakat en del problem i att dela information. Att fokusera på huvuduppgift samtidigt som man åläggs andra resurser är ett annat problem, eftersom aktörerna kan vara ifrågasättande till att avvika alltför mycket från sitt ordinarie arbete.

  • 11.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Semi-professionals: emergency response as an additional task in current occupations2019In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 86-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify occupational groups who can act as semi-professional first responders, in order to shorten the response times to frequent emergencies, and second, to identify related opportunities, challenges and needs of training, emergency supplies and information technology (IT) support. Design/methodology/approach A case study approach was taken, combining future workshops, focus groups and an exercise. Network governance was used as an analytical lens. Findings The identified potential groups are security guards, home care personnel, fire services day personnel and facility service personnel. The results show that semi-professionals have a large potential to complement professional resources by carrying out first response or supportive actions vital to the emergency, partly by using already existing cars and equipment. The identified needs include additional basic equipment such as fire extinguishers and first-aid kits, training in basic firefighting, first aid and risk assessment, as well as mobile phone application-based IT support to manage alarms. The major challenges are organisational, economic and juridical, including ambiguities in responsibilities and related insurances. The analysis recognises the new collaboration as a hybrid form of hierarchical government and network governance. Social implications The study suggests that using semi-professional resources can be one of many innovative solutions to recent public sector challenges that have put a huge strain on professional emergency response organisations. Originality/value The study provides a novel view of using semi-professional resources in emergency response, based on the joint perspectives of various occupational groups, and the fire services.

  • 12.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    User Participation in Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Initiatives2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a-posteriori analysis of information systems (IS) development in a cross-sector collaboration case to identify and address user participation challenges in emerging public sector initiatives. The major challenges in the studied case was to develop IS for future cross-sector collaboration in a setting that does not yet exist, i.e. where the tasks, stakeholders and end-users are undefined. To address identified challenges, we suggest a combination of activities based on multiple design groups, scenario-based Future Workshops, focus groups, context-specific frameworks, and practical exercises with after-action-review. We argue that while similar challenges have been discussed in relation to large-scale projects and, sometimes, cross-sector collaboration, IS development for emerging public sector initiatives pose specific issues that need to be addressed.

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