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  • 1.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Speech-in-noise recognition with informational maskers: How effortful is it?2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Speech masking speech in everyday communication: The role of inhibitory control and working memory capacity2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Age affects hearing and cognitive abilities. Older people, with and without hearing impairment (HI), exhibit difficulties in hearing speech in noise. Elderly individuals show greater difficulty in segregating target speech from distracting background noise, especially if the noise is competing speech with meaningful contents, so called informational maskers. Working memory capacity (WMC) has proven to be a crucial factor in comprehending speech in noise, especially for people with hearing loss. In auditory scenes where speech is disrupted by competing speech, high WMC has proven to facilitate the ability to segregate target speech and inhibit responses to irrelevant information. People with low WMC are more prone to be disrupted by competing speech and exhibit more difficulties in hearing target speech in complex listening environments. Furthermore, elderly individuals with a HI experience more difficulties in switching attention between wanted and irrelevant stimuli, and they employ more resources and time to attend to the stimuli than do normally - hearing (NH) younger adults.

    This thesis investigated the importance of inhibitory control and WMC for speech recognition in noise, and perceived listening effort. Four studies were conducted. In the first study, the aim was to develop a test of inhibitory control for verbal content, and to investigate the relation between inhibitory control and WMC, and how these two abilities related to speech recognition in noise, in young normally – hearing (YNH) individuals.

    In the second study we aimed to investigate the same relationship as in the first study to further strengthen the validity of the inhibitory test developed, as well as the importance of lexical access. It was also an aim to investigate the influence of age and hearing status on lexical access and WMC, and their respective roles for speech recognition in noise in both YNH and elderly HI (EHI) individuals.

    Study one and two showed that, for YNH, inhibitory control was related to speech recognition in noise, indicating that inhibitory control can help to predict speech recognition in noise performance. The relationship between WMC and speech recognition in noise in YNH shifted in the studies, suggesting that this relationship is multifaceted and varying. Lexical access was of little importance for YNH, although for EHI individuals, both WMC and lexical access was of importance for speech recognition in noise, suggesting that different cognitive abilities were of importance for the YNH and EHI individuals Study three investigated the relationship between inhibitory control, WMC, speech recognition in noise, and perceived listening effort, in YNH and elderly, for their age, NH, individuals (ENH). In study four the same relationships as in study three were investigated, albeit in EHI individuals. Two speech materials with different characteristics, masked with four background noises were used. The results in study three showed that less favourable SNRs were needed for informational maskers than for maskers without semantic content. ENH individuals were more susceptible to informational maskers than YNH individuals. In contrast, in study four, more favourable SNRs were needed for informational maskers. In both studies, results showed that speech recognition in noise performance differed depending on the characteristics of the speech material.

    The studies showed that high WMC, compared to low WMC, was beneficial for speech recognition in noise, especially for informational maskers, and resulted in lower ratings of perceived effort. Varying results were found in study three and four regarding perceived effort and inhibitory control. In study three good inhibitory control was associated with lower effort rating, while in study four, individuals with a HI and good inhibitory control rated effort as higher.

    The results suggest that hearing status, age, and cognitive abilities, contribute to the differences in performance between YNH, ENH, and EHI individuals in speech – recognition – in – noise - and cognitive tasks.

    This thesis has, for the first time, demonstrated that a measure of inhibitory control of verbal content, is related to speech recognition in noise performance in YNH, ENH and EHI individuals. Results presented in this thesis also show that both WMC and inhibitory control are related to an individuals’ perception of how effortful a listening task is. It also adds to the literature that WMC is related to speech recognition in noise performance for ENH and EHI individuals, but that this relationship is not as robust in YNH individuals.

    List of papers
    1. The Swedish Hayling task, and its relation to working memory, verbal ability, and speech-recognition-in-noise
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish Hayling task, and its relation to working memory, verbal ability, and speech-recognition-in-noise
    2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 264-272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive functions and speech-recognition-in-noise were evaluated with a cognitive test battery, assessing response inhibition using the Hayling task, working memory capacity (WMC) and verbal information processing, and an auditory test of speech recognition. The cognitive tests were performed in silence whereas the speech recognition task was presented in noise. Thirty young normally-hearing individuals participated in the study. The aim of the study was to investigate one executive function, response inhibition, and whether it is related to individual working memory capacity (WMC), and how speech-recognition-in-noise relates to WMC and inhibitory control. The results showed a significant difference between initiation and response inhibition, suggesting that the Hayling task taps cognitive activity responsible for executive control. Our findings also suggest that high verbal ability was associated with better performance in the Hayling task. We also present findings suggesting that individuals who perform well on tasks involving response inhibition, and WMC, also perform well on a speech-in-noise task. Our findings indicate that capacity to resist semantic interference can be used to predict performance on speech-in-noise tasks.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2015
    Keywords
    executive functions, inhibition, cognitive control, working memory capacity, speech recognition in noise, hearing
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117054 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12206 (DOI)000354185700003 ()25819210 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    Tal som störning vid språklig kommunikation
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 421-2009-1753
    Available from: 2015-04-14 Created: 2015-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Executive functions and working memory capacity in speech communication under adverse conditions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Executive functions and working memory capacity in speech communication under adverse conditions
    2016 (English)In: Speech, Language and Hearing, ISSN 2050-571X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 218-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Working memory is assumed to play a major part in hearing and communication in everyday listening situations. Our working memory stores information, but in suboptimal listening conditions, interfering stimuli can lead to information only being partially stored, or even missed. Research suggests that a high working memory capacity (WMC) might not just be a result of a large store, but in addition good inhibitory control can facilitate working memory, and therefore aid in situations where focus on a target stimulus while ignoring distractors is needed.

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate how individual WMC, cognitive inhibition, and lexical decision relate to listening to speech under adverse conditions in two separate groups: 46 young normally hearing (NH) and 40 elderly hearing-impaired (HI) individuals.

    Results: It showed that lexical access was of little importance for young NH individuals in a speech-in-noise test, but that high lexical decision-making was associated with lower signal-to-noise ratios for the elderly HI individuals. The results also showed that WMC was of importance for word recognition in a speech-in-noise test for elderly participants, when the 80% word recognition criterion was targeted, but not for the young NH individuals. Finally, results suggest that cognitive inhibition, as measured with the Hayling task, was important for young NH individuals when listening conditions are suboptimal.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, hearing loss is a strong contributing factor to declines in the ability to recognize speech in noise, and in order to assess speech-recognition-in-noise performance, individual differences in WMC and cognitive inhibition should be taken into consideration. Future research should include various age groups, with and without hearing loss, as well as measures of WMC, cognitive inhibition, and lexical access when assessing the ability to listen to speech under adverse conditions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2016
    National Category
    Neurosciences Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Otorhinolaryngology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133193 (URN)10.1080/2050571X.2016.1196034 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Executive functions and working memory capacity in speech communication under adverse conditions2016In: Speech, Language and Hearing, ISSN 2050-571X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 218-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Working memory is assumed to play a major part in hearing and communication in everyday listening situations. Our working memory stores information, but in suboptimal listening conditions, interfering stimuli can lead to information only being partially stored, or even missed. Research suggests that a high working memory capacity (WMC) might not just be a result of a large store, but in addition good inhibitory control can facilitate working memory, and therefore aid in situations where focus on a target stimulus while ignoring distractors is needed.

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate how individual WMC, cognitive inhibition, and lexical decision relate to listening to speech under adverse conditions in two separate groups: 46 young normally hearing (NH) and 40 elderly hearing-impaired (HI) individuals.

    Results: It showed that lexical access was of little importance for young NH individuals in a speech-in-noise test, but that high lexical decision-making was associated with lower signal-to-noise ratios for the elderly HI individuals. The results also showed that WMC was of importance for word recognition in a speech-in-noise test for elderly participants, when the 80% word recognition criterion was targeted, but not for the young NH individuals. Finally, results suggest that cognitive inhibition, as measured with the Hayling task, was important for young NH individuals when listening conditions are suboptimal.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, hearing loss is a strong contributing factor to declines in the ability to recognize speech in noise, and in order to assess speech-recognition-in-noise performance, individual differences in WMC and cognitive inhibition should be taken into consideration. Future research should include various age groups, with and without hearing loss, as well as measures of WMC, cognitive inhibition, and lexical access when assessing the ability to listen to speech under adverse conditions.

  • 4.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cognitive inhibition, WMC, and speech-recognition-in-noise2015In: 3rd International conference in Cognitive Hearing Science and Communication, Linköping 14-17 June, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive abilities are important for a number of human attributes, such as making sense of communication, holding information active in memory, and making decisions. When it is the goal to focus on a single target voice, and resist intrusions from irrelevant information, cognitive inhibition can aid us in our endeavour. Cognitive inhibition is thought to support and co-operate with working memory. Abilities such as cognitive inhibition and working memory are also important for speech processing, even more so when listening to speech under adverse conditions. In order to assess different difficulties that can arise in every day listening situations, it´s of importance to have solid methods for measuring cognitive abilities. In the present study we present a task assessing cognitive inhibition, and how it relates to individual working memory capacity (WMC), and speech-recognition-in-noise. Forty-six young normally-hearing individuals were presented with a cognitive test battery, as well as a speech-in-noise test. Our results suggest that individuals with high WMC, also exhibit good cognitive inhibition. The results also indicate that those who perform well in the cognitive inhibition task need less favourable signal-to-noise-ratios in the speech-recognition task. Our findings indicate that capacity to resist semantic interference can be used to predict performance in speech-recognition tasks when listening under adverse conditions. 

  • 5.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Executive function and speech- in- noise perception: the role of inhibition2013In: Aging and Speech Communication, 2013 / [ed] Larry E Humes, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Little is known about the relation between the ability to inhibit irrelevant information and perceiving speech-in-noise and the effects of hearing loss and ageing on this relationship. In settings where a listening task is difficult, individuals use both their hearing and cognitive abilities to process the auditory information. To perceive speech in noise, one must focus on the relevant information and at the same time inhibit the processing of irrelevant information. Results from recent studies indicate that older adults have difficulties singling out speech in noise, and selectively attend to target speech while inhibiting irrelevant information.

     

    The purpose of the project is to increase theoretical knowledge concerning the relation between age, perceiving speech-in-noise and inhibition. The pilot study involved the administration of a test battery consisting of audiological, cognitive and speech perception tests. The results of a series of ANOVAs and correlational analyses will be presented to show differences in performance and the relation between performance on the cognitive, audiological and speech-perception tasks. Upon completion, the results of this study will be used to compare younger individuals´ performance with older adults with and without hearing loss to determine the effect of age and hearing ability on the relation between capacity to inhibit irrelevant information and speech-in-noise recognition.

  • 6.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Informational masking in spoken communication - Developing the Swedish "Hayling" sentences2013In: 11th EFAS Congress.  Föredrags Abstract. Otorhinolaryngologia Hungarica, 59:2, 101, 2013, p. 101-101Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The role of cognitive abilities in younger and older normally hearing adults when listening to speech under adverse conditions2015In: 6th Aging and Speech Communication Research Conference 2015 (“ASC15”) Bloomington, Indiana, USA October 11-14, 2015 / [ed] Larry E Humes, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive abilities, such as working memory capacity (WMC), lexical decision making, and cognitive inhibition, can help predict performance on speech-recognition-in-noise tasks. Working memory is assumed to play a major part in every day listening situations, storing and actively working with relevant information, while inhibitory control helps to suppress and separate irrelevant information from interfering with the information processing. With increasing age, comes decreasing cognitive abilities, such as declines in WMC, speed of information processing, and inhibitory control, leading to problems when selectively attending to speech while inhibiting interfering distractors. The aim of the present study was to examine age-related declines in WMC, inhibitory control, and lexical decision making, and their respective roles when listening to speech under adverse listening conditions. Twenty-four young normally-hearing (NH), and 24 elderly ( for their age) NH individuals participated in the study. They completing a cognitive test battery assessing WMC, cognitive inhibition, and lexical decision making, as well as a closed-set (Hagerman sentences) and an open-set (HINT) speech-recognition-in-noise task masked with different maskers. We will present results comparing cognitive abilities in younger normally-hearing individuals with elderly normally-hearing individuals, and how age and cognitive abilities relates to performance on speech-recognition-in-noise tasks.

  • 8.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    the Speech recognition under adverse listening conditions in young normally-hearing listeners2015In: Third International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, Linköping, 14-17 June, 2015. Sweden., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we aimed to investigate individual differences in cognitive inhibition, WMC, and how they relate to performance on a speech-recognition-in-noise task. Sixteen young normally-hearing individuals were presented with a cognitive test battery, as well as a sentence corpus masked by 5 different maskers, targeting 80% speech-recognition. One masker was a slightly modulated (10%) speech-shaped noise (SSN), 2 maskers were constructed by modulating the SSN with the envelopes from a single female talker, and the international speech test signal (ISTS). We also masked the target sentences with the ISTS, and a single female talker reading a passage in a Swedish newspaper. Our results showed that cognitive inhibition is significantly related to performance when maskers with meaningful, semantic information is used. The results further indicate that young normally-hearing individuals can take advantage of temporal and spectral dips to fill in missing information. Our findings suggest that choice of speech material is of importance for the outcome in speech-recognition-in-noise tasks. We further propose that tasks of cognitive inhibition can be used to predict performance in a speech-recognition task.

  • 9.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Swedish Hayling task, and its relation to working memory, verbal ability, and speech-recognition-in-noise2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 264-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive functions and speech-recognition-in-noise were evaluated with a cognitive test battery, assessing response inhibition using the Hayling task, working memory capacity (WMC) and verbal information processing, and an auditory test of speech recognition. The cognitive tests were performed in silence whereas the speech recognition task was presented in noise. Thirty young normally-hearing individuals participated in the study. The aim of the study was to investigate one executive function, response inhibition, and whether it is related to individual working memory capacity (WMC), and how speech-recognition-in-noise relates to WMC and inhibitory control. The results showed a significant difference between initiation and response inhibition, suggesting that the Hayling task taps cognitive activity responsible for executive control. Our findings also suggest that high verbal ability was associated with better performance in the Hayling task. We also present findings suggesting that individuals who perform well on tasks involving response inhibition, and WMC, also perform well on a speech-in-noise task. Our findings indicate that capacity to resist semantic interference can be used to predict performance on speech-in-noise tasks.

  • 10.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Informational masking in spoken communication – developing the Swedish "Hayling"-sentences2013In: Abstract book: 2nd International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 2013, p. 164-164Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Informational masking inspoken communication- Developing the Swedish "Hayling" sentences2013In: Second International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for communication. 16-19 June 2013, Linköping, Sweden, Abstract, p164, 2013, p. 164-164Conference paper (Other academic)
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