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  • 1.
    Fahleson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development and characterization of damped cubic response functions with application to two-photon absorption2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular response to electromagnetic fields - static or optical - within a framework of perturbation theory diverges close to resonance with molecular transitionen energies, and need work-around solutions for real-valued response functions. This licentiate thesis deals with nonlinear response, with focus being on cubic polarizaibilities, and outlines the underlying mathematics for exact-state and approximatestate, complex-valued response functions applicable to quantum chemical computation. Such a complex-valued response theory is commonly known as dampedresponse theory, for which the response functions consists of a real and an imaginary component, each of them representing various spectroscopies in nature. In addition to the mathematics, the formulas have been implemented in the quantum chemical package DALTON, and several tests determining the integrity of the implementation has been conducted.

    The fourth and final major part of the thesis is concerned with applied nonlinear response theory, including not only cubic response functions, but also quadratic and linear response functions, some of which are of the more exotic character. Three spectroscopies have been investigated for small and medium-sized organic molecules and the neon atom: two-photon absorption (TPA), Jones birefringence (JB), and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD).

    The TPA part is a simple demonstration of capability of the damped cubic response code, for which neon is the example system. Perfect agreement is shown for the Ehrenfest approach and an independent implementation based on the quasienergy formalism.

    JB is an optical eect in which induced refractive anisotropy, by means of external electric and magnetic static elds, results in ellipticity of linearly polarized light beams. This part mainly discuss implications from a paper which the current author took part in. The paper ultimately attempts to indentify the general observable strength of the effect, and coincidentaly pin-point some particular system suitable for experiments. Among other finds, JB is found to be correlated to the electric dipole moment, and for monosubstituted benzenes, the para-Hammett constant.

    Finally, MCD is discussed based on three papers in which the present author is included. The elegant MCD solution to broad absorption peaks, for which it is desired to distinguish individual states, is demonstrated on adenine and three additional purine derivatives. A drawn out debate regarding relative stability of certain low-lying states could be settled by this method. Furthermore, appropriate description of solvation environment in conjunction with the exchange-correlation functionals B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP is investigated on purine and pyrimidine derivatives. CAM-B3LYP is found to be superior in terms of general prole shapes, while results regarding solvation model are rather inconclusive, although the results suggests some level of solvation model is appropriate, such as a polarizable continuum model or explicit solvation molecules.

    List of papers
    1. The magnetic circular dichroism spectrum of the C-60 fullerene
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The magnetic circular dichroism spectrum of the C-60 fullerene
    2013 (English)In: Molecular Physics, ISSN 0026-8976, E-ISSN 1362-3028, Vol. 111, no 9-11, p. 1401-1404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The magnetic circular dichroism spectrum of the C-60 fullerene has been determined with the use of Kohn-Sham density functional theory in conjunction with the CAM-B3LYP exchange-correlation functional. The experimental spectrum of Gasyna etal. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 283 (1991)] covering the wavelength region above 200 nm is explained by the signal responses from the three lowest singlet states of T-1u symmetry.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor and Francis: STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles, 2013
    Keywords
    magnetic circular dichroism, MCD, C60, fullerene, density functional theory, DFT, response theory
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97674 (URN)10.1080/00268976.2013.779394 (DOI)000323409600035 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|621-2010-5014|Italian PRIN funding scheme (project: Theoretical and Computational Simulations of Quantum Molecular Processes)||

    Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 139, no 19, p. 194311-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the Jones birefringence of noble gases, of furan homologues, and of monosubstituted benzenes, in the gas phase, with the aim of analyzing the behavior and the trends within a list of systems of varying size and complexity, and of identifying candidates for a combined experimental/theoretical study of the effect. We resort here to analytic linear and nonlinear response functions in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. A correlation is made between the observable (the Jones constant) and the atomic radius for noble gases, or the permanent electric dipole and a structure/chemical reactivity descriptor as the para Hammett constant for substituted benzenes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102851 (URN)10.1063/1.4830412 (DOI)000327714900024 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|EuroMagNET II, under EU|228043|Swedish Research Council|621-2010-5014|Italian Ministero dellIstruzione, Universita e Ricerca|2009C28YBF_001|National Supercomputer Centre (NSC), Sweden||Italian CINECA||

    Available from: 2014-01-07 Created: 2014-01-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    3. Relative Stability of the L-a and L-b Excited States in Adenine and Guanine: Direct Evidence from TD-DFT Calculations of MCD Spectra
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relative Stability of the L-a and L-b Excited States in Adenine and Guanine: Direct Evidence from TD-DFT Calculations of MCD Spectra
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 1806-1811Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The relative position of L-a and L-b pi pi* electronic states in purine nucleobases is a much debated topic, since it can strongly affect our understanding of their photoexcited dynamics. To assess this point, we calculated the absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of adenine, guanine, and their nucleosides in gas-phase and aqueous solution,. exploiting recent developments in MCD computational technology within time-dependent density functional theory. MCD spectroscopy allows us to resolve the intense S-0 -greater than L-a transition from the weak S-0 -greater than L-b transition. The spectra obtained in water solution, by using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals and describing solvent effect by cluster models and by the polarizable continuum model (PCM), are in very good agreement with the experimental counterparts, thus providing direct and unambiguous evidence that the energy ordering predicted by TD-DFT, L-a less than L-b, is the correct one.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2014
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108796 (URN)10.1021/jz500633t (DOI)000337012500005 ()
    Available from: 2014-07-07 Created: 2014-07-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    4. TD-DFT Investigation of the Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectra of Some Purine and Pyrimidine Bases of Nucleic Acids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>TD-DFT Investigation of the Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectra of Some Purine and Pyrimidine Bases of Nucleic Acids
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 119, no 21, p. 5476-5489Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present a computational study of the Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the 200-300 nm wavelength region of purine and its derivative hypoxanthine, as well as of the pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids uracil,thymine, and cytosine, Using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. Solvent effects, are investigated within the polarizable continuum model and by inclusion of explicit water molecules. In, general; the computed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones, aprt from some overall blue shifts. Both the pseudo-A term shape of the MCD spectra of the purines and the B term shape of the spectra of pyrimidine base are reproduced. Our calculations also correctly reproduce the reversed phase of the MCD bands in purine compared to,that of its derivatives present in nucleic acids. Solvent effects are sizable and system specific,but they do not in general alter the qualitative shape of the spectra. The bands are dominated the-bright pi -greater than pi* transitions; and our calculations in solution nicely reproduce theft energy differences, improving the estimates obtained in the gas phase. Shoulders are predicted for purine and uracil due to n -greater than pi* excitations, but they are too weak to be observed in the. experiment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2015
    National Category
    Theoretical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119800 (URN)10.1021/jp512468k (DOI)000355495100043 ()25648759 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|PRIN [2010ERFKXL_008]; University of Trieste [CHIM02-Ricerca]

    Available from: 2015-06-26 Created: 2015-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    5. Resonant-convergent cubic response function in the random-phase approximation with application to two-photon absorption on neon in the ultraviolet-visible region
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resonant-convergent cubic response function in the random-phase approximation with application to two-photon absorption on neon in the ultraviolet-visible region
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Damped cubic response functions are presented for exact-state and approximate-state methods eligible for quantum chemical computational applications. Proof of proper implementation is given, accompanied by a two-photon absorption example on neon in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. The method accurately distinguish one- and two-photon resonances and exhibits spot-on agreement with other approaches.

    Keywords
    Hyperpolarizability, damped response, cubic response
    National Category
    Theoretical Chemistry Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123971 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-01-15 Created: 2016-01-15 Last updated: 2016-01-15Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Fahleson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kauczor, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Santoro, Fabrizio
    CNR, Italy.
    Improta, Roberto
    CNR, Italy.
    Coriani, Sonia
    University of Trieste, Italy; Aarhus University, Denmark.
    TD-DFT Investigation of the Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectra of Some Purine and Pyrimidine Bases of Nucleic Acids2015In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 119, no 21, p. 5476-5489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a computational study of the Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the 200-300 nm wavelength region of purine and its derivative hypoxanthine, as well as of the pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids uracil,thymine, and cytosine, Using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. Solvent effects, are investigated within the polarizable continuum model and by inclusion of explicit water molecules. In, general; the computed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones, aprt from some overall blue shifts. Both the pseudo-A term shape of the MCD spectra of the purines and the B term shape of the spectra of pyrimidine base are reproduced. Our calculations also correctly reproduce the reversed phase of the MCD bands in purine compared to,that of its derivatives present in nucleic acids. Solvent effects are sizable and system specific,but they do not in general alter the qualitative shape of the spectra. The bands are dominated the-bright pi -greater than pi* transitions; and our calculations in solution nicely reproduce theft energy differences, improving the estimates obtained in the gas phase. Shoulders are predicted for purine and uracil due to n -greater than pi* excitations, but they are too weak to be observed in the. experiment.

  • 3.
    Fahleson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resonant-convergent cubic response function in the random-phase approximation with application to two-photon absorption on neon in the ultraviolet-visible regionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Damped cubic response functions are presented for exact-state and approximate-state methods eligible for quantum chemical computational applications. Proof of proper implementation is given, accompanied by a two-photon absorption example on neon in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. The method accurately distinguish one- and two-photon resonances and exhibits spot-on agreement with other approaches.

  • 4.
    Fahleson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coriani, Sonia
    University of Trieste, Italy .
    Rizzo, Antonio
    UOS Pisa, Italy .
    Rikken, Geert L J A
    CNRS INSA UJF UPS, France .
    A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes2013In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 139, no 19, p. 194311-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the Jones birefringence of noble gases, of furan homologues, and of monosubstituted benzenes, in the gas phase, with the aim of analyzing the behavior and the trends within a list of systems of varying size and complexity, and of identifying candidates for a combined experimental/theoretical study of the effect. We resort here to analytic linear and nonlinear response functions in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. A correlation is made between the observable (the Jones constant) and the atomic radius for noble gases, or the permanent electric dipole and a structure/chemical reactivity descriptor as the para Hammett constant for substituted benzenes.

  • 5.
    Fahleson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    A Polarization Propagator for Nonlinear X-ray Spectroscopies2016In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 1991-1995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A complex polarization propagator approach has been developed to third order and implemented in density functional theory (DFT), allowing for the direct calculation of nonlinear molecular properties in the X-ray wavelength regime without explicitly addressing the excited-state manifold. We demonstrate the utility of this propagator method for the modeling of coherent near-edge X-ray two-photon absorption using, as an example, DFT as the underlying electronic structure model. Results are compared with the corresponding near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra, illuminating the differences in the role of symmetry, localization, and correlation between the two spectroscopies. The ramifications of this new technique for nonlinear X-ray research are briefly discussed.

  • 6.
    Santoro, Fabrizio
    et al.
    Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici (ICCOM-CNR), Italy .
    Improta, Roberto
    Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici (ICCOM-CNR).
    Fahleson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kauczor, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coriani, Sonia
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Italy .
    Relative Stability of the L-a and L-b Excited States in Adenine and Guanine: Direct Evidence from TD-DFT Calculations of MCD Spectra2014In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 1806-1811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative position of L-a and L-b pi pi* electronic states in purine nucleobases is a much debated topic, since it can strongly affect our understanding of their photoexcited dynamics. To assess this point, we calculated the absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of adenine, guanine, and their nucleosides in gas-phase and aqueous solution,. exploiting recent developments in MCD computational technology within time-dependent density functional theory. MCD spectroscopy allows us to resolve the intense S-0 -greater than L-a transition from the weak S-0 -greater than L-b transition. The spectra obtained in water solution, by using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals and describing solvent effect by cluster models and by the polarizable continuum model (PCM), are in very good agreement with the experimental counterparts, thus providing direct and unambiguous evidence that the energy ordering predicted by TD-DFT, L-a less than L-b, is the correct one.

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