liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 6 of 6
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abdalla, Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Charge and Energy Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement of the performance of organic disordered semiconductors (OSC) is driven by the understanding   of the underlying charge transport mechanisms and systematic exploitation thereof. There exists a multitude of materials and material systems based on polymers and small molecules with promising performance for use in organic light emitting diodes, photovoltaics, organic field-effect transistors and thermoelectrics. However, universal understanding of many classes of these materials has eluded researchers, due to their broad   spectrum of morphologies, molecular structures and electrical properties. Building on the large body of existing models, this thesis deals with charge transport phenomena from the perspective of transport energetics, by studying the interplay between a few but important concepts commonly accepted to play a crucial role in all  OSC materials; energetic disorder, charge carrier hopping and Coulomb interactions. The influence of these concepts on the energetic landscape through which charge carriers move and how this translates to experimentally observed transport phenomena are studied by a combination of experimental work, kinetic Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and empirical and analytical models.

    The universal scaling and collapse of the temperature and electric field dependence of the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS to a single curve is shown to be functionally equivalent to the scaling of the effective temperature, which describes the effect of field heating as a broadening of the charge carrier distribution. From numerical investigation of the energy relaxation, an empirical model is developed that relates the physical meaning   behind both concepts to the heat balance between Joule heating of the carrier distribution via the effective temperature and energy loss to the lattice. For this universal description to be applicable a strongly energy- dependent density of states (DOS) as well as Coulomb interactions and large carrier concentrations are needed.

    Chemical doping is a common way of improving charge transport in OSC and is also beneficial for energy transport, which combined leads to an increased thermoelectric power factor. The ensuing thermoelectric investigations not only showed the potential of these materials for use in thermoelectric generators, but are  also helpful in unraveling charge transport mechanism as they give direct insight into the energetics of a material. Interestingly, doped OSC exhibit the same universal power-law relationship between thermopower and conductivity, independent of material system or doping method, pointing towards a common energy and charge transport mechanism. In this thesis an analytical model is presented, which reproduces said universal power-law behavior and is able to attribute it to Variable Range Hopping (VRH) or a transition between Nearest Neighbour Hopping (NNH) and VRH at higher concentrations. This model builds on an existing three- dimensional hopping formalism that includes the effect of the attractive Coulomb potential of ionized dopants that leads to a broadening of the DOS. Here, this model is extended by including the energy offset between   host and dopant material and is positively tested against MC simulations and a set of thermoelectric measurements covering different material groups and doping mechanisms.

    Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) have become increasingly comparable in electrical mobility to their inorganic (silicon) counterparts. The spatial extent of charge transport in OFETs has been subject to debate since their inception with many experimental, numerical and analytical studies having been undertaken. Here it is shown that the common way of analyzing the dimensionality of charge transport in OFETs may be prone to misinterpretations. Instead, the results in this thesis suggest that charge transport in OFETs is, in fact, quasi- two-dimensional (2D) due to the confinement of the gate field in addition to a morphology-induced preferred in-plane direction of the transport. The inherently large charge carrier concentrations in OFETs in addition to   the quasi-2D confinement leads to increased Coulomb interaction between charge carriers as compared to bulk material, leading to a thermoelectric behavior that deviates from doped organic systems. At very large concentrations interesting charge transport phenomena are observed, including an unexpected simultaneous increase of the concentration dependence and the magnitude of the mobility, the appearance of a negative transconductance, indicating a transition to an insulating Mott-Hubbard phase. The experimental and   numerical results in this thesis relate these phenomena the intricacies of the interplay between Coulomb interactions, energetic disorder and charge carrier hopping.

    List of papers
    1. Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors
    2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 16870Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the scalability of the temperature-and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to universal curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT: PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2015
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123329 (URN)10.1038/srep16870 (DOI)000364933800002 ()26581975 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-11 Last updated: 2019-09-26
    2. Impact of doping on the density of states and the mobility in organic semiconductors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of doping on the density of states and the mobility in organic semiconductors
    2016 (English)In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 2469-9950, Vol. 93, no 23, p. 235203-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally investigated conductivity and mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) doped with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F(4)TCNQ) for various relative doping concentrations ranging from ultralow (10(-5)) to high (10(-1)) and various active layer thicknesses. Although the measured conductivity monotonously increases with increasing doping concentration, the mobilities decrease, in agreement with previously published work. Additionally, we developed a simple yet quantitative model to rationalize the results on basis of a modification of the density of states (DOS) by the Coulomb potentials of ionized dopants. The DOS was integrated in a three-dimensional (3D) hopping formalism in which parameters such as energetic disorder, intersite distance, energy level difference, and temperature were varied. We compared predictions of our model as well as those of a previously developed model to kinetic Monte Carlo (MC) modeling and found that only the former model accurately reproduces the mobility of MC modeling in a large part of the parameter space. Importantly, both our model and MC simulations are in good agreement with experiments; the crucial ingredient to both is the formation of a deep trap tail in the Gaussian DOS with increasing doping concentration.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2016
    National Category
    Other Physics Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130276 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.93.235203 (DOI)000378813800009 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC)

    Available from: 2016-08-01 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2018-08-29
    3. Range and energetics of charge hopping in organic semiconductors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Range and energetics of charge hopping in organic semiconductors
    2017 (English)In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 24, article id 241202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The recent upswing in attention for the thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors (OSCs) adds urgency to the need for a quantitative description of the range and energetics of hopping transport in organic semiconductors under relevant circumstances, i.e., around room temperature (RT). In particular, the degree to which hops beyond the nearest neighbor must be accounted for at RT is still largely unknown. Here, measurements of charge and energy transport in doped OSCs are combined with analytical modeling to reach the univocal conclusion that variable-range hopping is the proper description in a large class of disordered OSC at RT. To obtain quantitative agreement with experiment, one needs to account for the modification of the density of states by ionized dopants. These Coulomb interactions give rise to a deep tail of trap states that is independent of the materials initial energetic disorder. Insertion of this effect into a classical Mott-type variable-range hopping model allows one to give a quantitative description of temperature-dependent conductivity and thermopower measurements on a wide range of disordered OSCs. In particular, the model explains the commonly observed quasiuniversal power-law relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the conductivity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2017
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144143 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.96.241202 (DOI)000418616700001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC); Knut och Alice Wallenberg stiftelse

    Available from: 2018-01-10 Created: 2018-01-10 Last updated: 2018-08-29
    4. Investigation of the dimensionality of charge transport in organic field effect transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of the dimensionality of charge transport in organic field effect transistors
    2017 (English)In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 95, no 8, article id 85301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the first experimental investigations of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) the dimensionality of charge transport has alternately been described as two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D). More recently, researchers have turned to an analytical analysis of the temperature-dependent transfer characteristics to classify the dimensionality as either 2D or 3D as well as to determine the disorder of the system, thereby greatly simplifying dimensionality investigations. We applied said analytical analysis to the experimental results of our OFETs comprising molecularly well-defined polymeric layers as the active material as well as to results obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and found that it was not able to correctly distinguish between 2D and 3D transports or give meaningful values for the disorder and should only be used for quasiquantitative and comparative analysis. We conclude to show that the dimensionality of charge transport in OFETs is a function of the interplay between transistor physics and morphology of the organic material.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2017
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138929 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.95.085301 (DOI)000402194500006 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut och Alice Wallenbergs stiftelse; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; VINNOVA [2015-04859]

    Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2018-03-14
  • 2.
    Abdalla, Hassan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    van de Ruit, Kevin
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 16870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the scalability of the temperature-and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to universal curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT: PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice.

  • 3.
    Booker, Ian Don
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abdalla, Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karhu, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lilja, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Oxidation-induced deep levels in n- and p-type 4H- and 6H-SiC and their influence on carrier lifetime2016In: Physical Review Applied, ISSN 2331-7019, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-15, article id 014010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a complete analysis of the electron- and hole-capture and -emission processes of the deep levels ON1, ON2a, and ON2b in 4H-SiC and their 6H-SiC counterparts OS1a and OS1b through OS3a and OS3b, which are produced by lifetime enhancement oxidation or implantation and annealing techniques. The modeling is based on a simultaneous numerical fitting of multiple high-resolution capacitance deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra measured with different filling-pulse lengths in n- and p-type material. All defects are found to be double-donor-type positive-U two-level defects with very small hole-capture cross sections, making them recombination centers of low efficiency, in accordance with minority-carrier-lifetime measurements. Their behavior as trapping and weak recombination centers, their large concentrations resulting from the lifetime enhancement oxidations, and their high thermal stability, however, make it advisable to minimize their presence in active regions of devices, for example, the base layer of bipolar junction transistors.

  • 4.
    Booker, Ian Don
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abdalla, Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lilja, L.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oxidation induced ON1, ON2a/b defects in 4H-SiC characterized by DLTS2014In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2013, PTS 1 AND 2, Trans Tech Publications , 2014, Vol. 778-780, p. 281-284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep levels ON1 and ON2a/b introduced by oxidation into 4H-SiC are characterized via standard DLTS and via filling pulse dependent DLTS measurements. Separation of the closely spaced ON2a/b defect is achieved by using a higher resolution correlation function (Gaver-Stehfest 4) and apparent energy level, apparent electron capture cross section and filling pulse measurement derived capture cross sections are given.

  • 5.
    Zuo, Guangzheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abdalla, Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Impact of doping on the density of states and the mobility in organic semiconductors2016In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 2469-9950, Vol. 93, no 23, p. 235203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally investigated conductivity and mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) doped with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F(4)TCNQ) for various relative doping concentrations ranging from ultralow (10(-5)) to high (10(-1)) and various active layer thicknesses. Although the measured conductivity monotonously increases with increasing doping concentration, the mobilities decrease, in agreement with previously published work. Additionally, we developed a simple yet quantitative model to rationalize the results on basis of a modification of the density of states (DOS) by the Coulomb potentials of ionized dopants. The DOS was integrated in a three-dimensional (3D) hopping formalism in which parameters such as energetic disorder, intersite distance, energy level difference, and temperature were varied. We compared predictions of our model as well as those of a previously developed model to kinetic Monte Carlo (MC) modeling and found that only the former model accurately reproduces the mobility of MC modeling in a large part of the parameter space. Importantly, both our model and MC simulations are in good agreement with experiments; the crucial ingredient to both is the formation of a deep trap tail in the Gaussian DOS with increasing doping concentration.

  • 6.
    Zuo, Guangzheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abdalla, Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High thermoelectric power factor from multilayer solution-processed organic films2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, no 8, article id 083303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the suitability of the "sequential doping" method of organic semiconductors for thermoelectric applications. The method consists of depositing a dopant (F4TCNQ) containing solution on a previously cast semiconductor (P3HT) thin film to achieve high conductivity, while preserving the morphology. For very thin films (similar to 25 nm), we achieve a high power factor around 8 mu W/mK(-2) with a conductivity over 500 S/m. For the increasing film thickness, conductivity and power factor show a decreasing trend, which we attribute to the inability to dope the deeper parts of the film. Since thick films are required to extract significant power from thermoelectric generators, we developed a simple additive technique that allows the deposition of an arbitrary number of layers without significant loss in conductivity or power factor that, for 5 subsequent layers, remain at similar to 300 S/m and similar to 5 mu W/mK(-2), respectively, whereas the power output increases almost one order of magnitude as compared to a single layer. The efficient doping in multilayers is further confirmed by an increased intensity of (bi)polaronic features in the UV-Vis spectra. Published by AIP Publishing.

1 - 6 of 6
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf