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  • 1.
    Hatamie, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. NED University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zargar, Behrooz
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Bano, Sumaira
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zinc Oxide Nanostructure-Modified Textile and Its Application to Biosensing, Photocatalysis, and as Antibacterial Material2015In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 31, no 39, p. 10913-10921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photo catalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photo catalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles.

  • 2.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Hatamie, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zargar, Behrooz
    Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Kazeminezhad, Iraj
    Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Colorimetric Disposable Paper Coated with ZnO@ZnS Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Detection of Copper Ions in Aqueous Solutions2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 20, p. 17694-17701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have proposed a new nanoparticle-containing test paper sensor that could be used as an inexpensive, easy-to-use, portable, and highly selective sensor to detect Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. This disposable paper sensor is based on ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles. The core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical method and then they were used for coating the paper. The synthesis of the ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles was performed at a temperature as low as 60 degrees C, and so far this is the lowest temperature for the synthesis of such core-shell nanoparticles. The sensitivity of the paper sensor was investigated for different Cu2+ ion concentrations in aqueous solutions and the results show a direct linear relation between the Cu2+ ions concentration and the color intensity of the paper sensor with a visual detection limit as low as 15 mu M (similar to 0.96 ppm). Testing the present paper sensor on real river turbulent water shows a maximum 5% relative error for determining the Cu2+ ions concentration, which confirms that the presented paper sensor can successfully be used efficiently for detection in complex solutions with high selectivity. Photographs of the paper sensor taken using a regular digital camera were transferred to a computer and analyzed by ImageJ Photoshop software. This finding demonstrates the potential of the present disposable paper sensor for the development of a portable, accurate, and selective heavy metal detection technology.

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  • 3.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Kazeminezhad, Iraj
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cation exchange assisted low temperature chemical synthesis of ZnO@Ag2S core-shell nanoparticles and their photo-catalytic properties2015In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 163, p. 485-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study ZnO@Ag2S core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) were synthesized by a chemical approach at a relatively low temperature of around 60 degrees C. The shell material was obtained by transferring a ZnS shell synthesized at around bare a ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to Ag2S. This transfer was achieved at temperature of around 60 degrees C owing to the relatively low value of the solubility product constant of Ag2S compared to that of ZnS. The as-grown ZnO@Ag2S core shell NPs were used as a photocatalyst to degrade Eriochrome black-T dye. Since dye pollutants can be found in mediums with different pH, the degradation experiments were performed at basic and acidic pH values. Photo-decolonization experiments of Eriochrome black-T dye indicated that the ZnO@Ag2S CSNPs act more efficiently as a photcatalyst for both acidic and basic pH values compared to bare ZnO NPs. Then the reusability of the nano-catalyst was tested to confirm that it can be applied as an effective and recyclable photocatalyst. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kazeminezhad, Iraj
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Martin O.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A detailed optical investigation of ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity at different pH values2015In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 7174-7184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a co-precipitation method and were covered by zinc sulfate using a chemical approach at a temperature of 60 degrees C forming ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs). In order to investigate the effect of the shell thickness on the optical and photocatalytic properties, many samples were grown with different concentration of the sulfur source. The results show that, covering ZnO with ZnS leads to form a type II band alignment system. In addition, the band gap of the ZnO@ZnS CSNPs was found less than both of the core and the shell materials. Also the emission peak intensity of the ZnO NPs changes as a result of manipulating oxygen vacancies via covering. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO@ZnS CSNPs was invpstigated for degradation of the Congo red dye. As dye pollutants can be found in mediums with different pH, the experiments were performed at three pH values to determine the best photocatalyst for each pH. Congo red dye degradation experiments indicate that the ZnO@ZnS CSNPs act more efficiently as a photcatalyst at pH values of 4 and 7 compare to the pure ZnO NPs.

  • 5.
    Sadollahkhani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Photocatalytic properties of different morphologies of CuO for the degradation of Congo red organic dye2014In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 11311-11317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Congo red organic dye was degraded by different morphologies of CuO and it was found that CuO nanorods are more favorable for the degradation of Congo red due to their more specific surface area and sensitive surface for the Congo red. All the CuO nanostructures were prepared by low temperature aqueous growth method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. The relative degradation of Congo red for nanorods, nanoleaves and nanosheets was in order 67%, 48% and 12% respectively.

  • 6.
    Sadollahkhani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Kazeminezhad, Iraj
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis, structural characterization and photocatalytic application of ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles2014In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 70, p. 36940-36950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation with no capping agent followed by covering with ZnS using a solution-based chemical method at low temperature. By variation of the solution concentrations it was found that the fully-covering ZnS shell forms by a reaction of Na2S with ZnO NPs followed by the formation of ZnS nano-crystals by the reaction of Na2S with ZnCl2. The mechanism that led to full coverage of the ZnO core is proposed to be the addition of ZnCl2 at a later stage of the growth which guarantees a continuous supply of Zn ions to the core surface. Moreover, the ZnS nanocrystals that uniformly cover the ZnO NPs show no epitaxial relationship between the ZnO core and ZnS shell. The slow atomic mobility at the low reaction temperature is attributed to the non-epitaxial uniform ZnS shell growth. The rough surface of the ZnO grains provides initial nucleation positions for the growth of the ZnS shell nano-crystals. The low growth temperature also inhibits the abnormal growth of ZnS grains and results in the homogeneous coverage of ZnS nano-crystals on the ZnO core surface. The as-synthesized ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles were used as a photocatalyst to decompose Rose Bengal dye at three different pH values. ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles perform as a more active photocatalyst at a pH of 4, while pure ZnO nanoparticles are more efficient at a pH of 7.

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  • 7.
    Willander, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Echresh, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metal oxide nanostructures synthesized on flexible and solid substrates and used for catalysts, UV detectors and chemical sensors2015In: OXIDE-BASED MATERIALS AND DEVICES VI, Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) , 2015, Vol. 9364, no 936414, p. 936414-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we demonstrate the visibility of the low temperature chemical synthesis for developing device quality material grown on flexible and solid substrates. Both colorimetric sensors and UV photodetectors will be presented. The colorimetric sensors developed on paper were demonstrated for heavy metal detection, in particular for detecting copper ions in aqueous solutions. The demonstrated colorimetric copper ion sensors developed here are based on ZnO@ ZnS core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs). These sensors demonstrated an excellent low detection limit of less than 1 ppm of copper ions. Further the colorimetric sensors operate efficiently in a wide pH range between 4 and 11, and even in turbulent water. The CSNPs were additionally used as efficient photocatalytic degradation element and were found to be more efficient than pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Also p-NiO/n-ZnO thin film/nanorods pn junctions were synthesized by a two-step synthesis process and were found to act as efficient UV photodetectors. Additionally we show the effect of the morphology of different CuO nanostructures on the efficiency of photo catalytic degradation of Congo red organic dye.

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