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  • 1.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 165-177Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

  • 2.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems2014In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily from the use of fossil fuels, is demanding actions from all sectors of society. The industry sector is one of the world’s largest energy using sectors and GHG emitters. Improved energy efficiency in industry is one of the foremost means of improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Research shows that despite large untapped potentials for improved energy efficiency in industry, cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency, e.g. information imperfections and asymmetries. Moreover, research shows that a major energy efficiency potential lies in the energy system and the way it is governed. For regional governments, the industrial energy use is difficult to affect as they only have indirect power to influence the decisions in those organizations. This underlies the importance of developing methods on how a region can support and effectively contribute to energy efficiency improvements in the local industry. So far, methods are limited related to regional governance of industrial energy systems. The aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology for improved regional resource efficiency in the local industry from a regional perspective, inspired by the Triple Helix Model. Results display the county administrative board of administration’s current method how to target industry, and ends with a proposal for how the methods could be improved.

  • 3.
    Carlén, Albin
    et al.
    Energimyndigheten.
    Rosenqvist, Marie
    Energimyndigheten.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Municion, Susana
    CIT Industriell Energi AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy effiency networks for small and medium sized enterprises: bosting the energy efficiency potential by joining forces2016In: ECEEE Industry Summer Study 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small –and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) remain a cornerstone in individual economies. In terms of improved energy efficiency potentials, the relative potential for SMEs is larger than for energy-intensive companies. However, the level of deployment, due to various barriers such as lack of information and high transaction costs in general remains low among industrial SMEs. The most common policy activity towards industrial SMEs are energy audit policy programs. Deployment levels from the Swedish energy audit program is roughly 50 percent of the detected cost-effective energy efficiency measures, which goes in line with results from the world’s largest program, the American IAC (Industrial Assessment Center). In order to enhance deployment levels, the Swedish Energy Agency has recently started up a national energy efficiency network program for SMEs, funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The aim of this paper is to present an ex-ante evaluation of the Swedish energy efficiency networks (EENet). The paper adds value to the growing scientific literature on energy efficiency network policy evaluation in order to further enhance scientific knowledge on energy efficiency network operationalization and evaluation. Including costs for the program administration, the subsidy effectiveness varied between 1.75 and 2.03 kWh/SEK for the different analyzed scenarios. The outcome of the paper results was that the Swedish Energy Agency reduced threshold for participation in the EENet from 2 GWh/year to 1 GWh/year in annual energy use.

  • 4.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Anders
    Tuenter, Gerard
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Björkman, Thomas
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Moberg, Johanna
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Swedish energy manager networks for energy-intensive industry as a driver for improved energy efficiency2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the potential for improved energy efficiency in industryis large, deployment of measures is often inhibited by a numberof barriers. In order to overcome these barriers, a number ofenergy end-use policies is functioning in Sweden, the two largestbeing a Voluntary Agreements (VA) for energy-intensiveindustry, an energy audit program, and in addition, various energymanager networks for improved energy efficiency. Whilethe two former have been evaluated and are well-known, theSwedish energy efficiency networks have so far neither beenpresented nor evaluated previously. The aim of this paper is topresent the current Swedish energy efficient network, and theirrole in the energy policy mix from a theoretical viewpoint. TheSwedish energy network, Energiintensiven consisting of about100 companies from the major electricity-intensive sectors isadministrated by the Swedish Energy Agency. Participatingcompanies are all part of the Swedish VA, the PFE. In additionthe aluminum companies have an energy network (GeniAl),one network is functioning among Swedish saw mills (EESI), aswell as there is a network in the iron- and steel industry ENETSteel.Results of the paper show that despite the low emphasison networks as a part of the policy mix, the networks havean important role in overcoming barriers to energy efficiencyamong the participating companies.

  • 5.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swedish energy networks among industrial SMEs2014In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 619-628Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and policy instruments for improved energy efficiency in industry have historically focused on large and energy-intensive companies, perhaps because a large part of the energy use is concentrated therein. However, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for 30 % of Swedish industrial energy use. Research shows that both the relative energy efficiency potential and the cost-effectiveness for implementing energy efficiency improvement measures in industrial SMEs is higher, compared with large and energyintensive companies. A significant difference between large companies and SMEs is their management capability, i.e. the difference between how energy is governed in-house companies. One way to approach SMEs is through energy efficiency networks, where 10–15 companies work together to improve energy efficiency. The networks are driven in turn by an external actor. The model has been successfully used in 70 networks in Switzerland and more than 50 in Germany, and is now emerging as a means to improve energy efficiency in Swedish industrial SMEs as well. While energy audit programs, nationally and internationally, is a thoroughly researched subject with developed methods, etc., this is not the case with networks, and in particular the Swedish networks. The aim of this paper is to study the current Swedish energy network activity in industrial SMEs. Results show that a large potential for improvement still exists in these networks, i.e. methods and tools used are still to be developed, as well as a more structured methodology on how the network are to be managed. Including experience from other country’s networks could contribute further to more effective Swedish industrial SME energy networks.

  • 6.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service2014In: Outsourcing: strategies, challenges and effects on organizations / [ed] Andre Deering, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, p. 71-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is of the outmost importance for both individual industrial companies, and governments. Improved IEE leads to reduced energy costs for companies, and improved sustainability through reduced CO2 emissions. Despite a large untapped potential for improved IEE, many energy efficiency measures (EEM) remain unexploited due to the existence of various barriers to IEE. One of the reasons for the large untapped IEE potential is the apparent low level of energy management practices in industry. A promising approach to stress improved IEE, and improved energy management practices, are industrial energy efficiency networks (IEEN), which in essence is a type of energy service where energy management is partly outsourced to a third party. There is a need to study how IEENs could and should be structured. Successful networks have been under operation in many different areas and disciplines. A large part of the organizational issues of previous research on networks, could thus be transformed to IEENs, e.g. in terms of transition theory, transformation etc. The aim of this book chapter is to present a general model for the management of IEEN.

  • 7.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 472-483Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

  • 8.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Classification of Industrial Energy Management Practices: A case study of a Swedish foundry2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2581-2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, stricter legislation and inflated energy costs together yield improved energy efficiency as an important pillar in every industrial sector. Mindful of this challenge, energy management and its related practices are deemed to be one of the major instruments to improve energy efficiency within manufacturing companies. Despite the importance of this issue, there is no precise and unanimous definition for energy management practices. Moreover, very few papers investigate energy efficiency opportunities and/or energy management practices in foundry industry. This paper aims to identify, classify and characterize energy management practices through their definition, with respect to energy efficiency, that could take place in a foundry industry.

  • 9.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambuschini 4, Milano, Italy.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambuschini 4, Milano, Italy.
    Classification of Industrial Energy Management Practices: A case study of a Swedish foundry2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2581-2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, stricter legislation and inflated energy costs together yield improved energyefficiency as an important pillar in every industrial sector. Mindful of this challenge, energy management and itsrelated practices are deemed to be one of the major instruments to improve energy efficiency within manufacturingcompanies. Despite the importance of this issue, there is no precise and unanimous definition for energy managementpractices. Moreover, very few papers investigate energy efficiency opportunities and/or energy management practicesin foundry industry. This paper aims to identify, classify and characterize energy management practices through theirdefinition, with respect to energy efficiency, that could take place in a foundry industry.

  • 10.
    Svetlana, Paramonova
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patrik, Thollander
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency potentials for different motor system levels – an empirical study of PFE implemented energy efficiency measures2014In: Motor Summit 2014: 5th International Motor Summit for Energy Efficiency powered by S.A.F.E. / [ed] Rita Werle, 2014, p. 16-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is a cornerstone in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of Energy-Efficiency Measures (EEMs) is the primary means of improving IEE. However, EEMs are not always stand-alone measures. Rather, they are intertwined in the production and other sub-systems calling for a systems approach to be applied. In industry, nearly 70 percent of the power use emanates from motor systems. Electric motor systems can be categorized into three system levels: motor, core motor system, and total motor system, where the large energy-efficiency potential is to be found in the upper system levels. However, previous research has been scarce in showing on which system levels the highest potential for improved IEE is found. Based on a dataset of electric motor system measures from the Swedish energy policy program for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive companies (PFE) consisting of about 1250 EEMs saving 900 GWh/year, the aim of this study is to analyze, using an extended version of the system level categorization, on which system levels the implemented measures are to be found.

  • 11.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cornelis, Erwin
    VITO NV, Belgium.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Morales, Ines
    IAT, Spain.
    Pablo Jimenez Navarro, Juan
    IAT, Spain.
    International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 282-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector is important to study in terms of improved energy efficiency, being one of the major energy-using sectors and responsible for a major share of CO2 emissions. The energy end-use (EEU) in the industrial sector is complex in general as processes are intertwined and interrelated. Moreover, bottom-up data of EEU on an aggregated level is scarce. Data for total energy supply like electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas exists but bottom-up data of what processes these energy carriers are used in, and moreover, where the major potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) exists, is less prevalent. This holds in particular for industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This makes policy formulation and design for industry a great challenge. Knowledge on where and how energy is used, as well as where opportunities for improvement exist, may provide good support for developing the most effective policies. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to present and compare available bottom-up energy data for industrial SMEs in four countries, namely Belgium, Italy, Japan and Sweden. Results show that the existence and quality of bottom-up EEU data differs largely between the countries and the development of a general taxonomy of structuring EEU data as well as EEMs is needed. Without the development of such a general taxonomy, the deployment level of EEMs and carbon dioxide emission reductions is unlikely to ever reach its full potential as knowledge is missing on how large the potential is, in which processes the major potential is found, how far industry has reached in terms of deployment levels, and in which areas future energy policies are needed. In conclusion, this paper of EEU and EEM in industrial SMEs addresses the high importance of future research in creating a harmonized data categorization, as this will greatly support the transition towards sustainable industrial energy systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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