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  • 1.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Looking beyond the neighbourhood: income inequality and residential segregation in Swedish metropolitan areas, 1991–20102016In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 963-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, residential segregation has become a major issue in the Swedish policy debate. The prevailing view is that residential segregation is a crucial contributing factor to the development of income inequality, since individual income prospects are thought to be influenced by the population characteristics of their neighbourhoods. This study takes the opposite approach and analyses the extent to which, in the period 1991–2010, rising income inequality contributed to the development of residential segregation by income in Swedish metropolitan areas. The period was characterized by unprecedented growth in income inequality, which was associated with a decline in the redistributive power of the welfare state. Residential segregation by income mirrored locally the general trend in income inequality. Another factor was the change in income dispersion in neighbourhoods, relative to the metropolitan areas as a whole, which indicates a tendency towards increased population homogeneity in neighbourhoods with respect to income.

  • 2.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    New Geographically Differentiated Configurations of Social Risks: Labour Market Policy Developments in Sweden and Finland2013In: Changing Social Risks and Social Policy Responses in the Nordic Welfare States / [ed] Ivan Harsløf and Rickard Ulmestig, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 220-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparative social policy studies, Nordic welfare systems are grouped together as belonging to the same welfare model (e.g. Esping-Andersen & Korpi, 1987; Esping-Andersen, 1990; Kangas & Palme, 2005). Nordic welfare systems are known for providing allencompassing coverage of their social security systems. This coverage has traditionally included a combination of basic security and earning-related measures. In addition, the Nordic welfare systems have been characterized by the generosity of the benefits provided, by the high level of effectiveness of their income redistribution policies and by the large development of their social service infrastructures. Apart from a few exceptions (e.g. Saraceno, 2002; Lähteenmäki-Smith, 2005; Scarpa, 2009), comparative social policy studies have nevertheless also implicitly assumed that Nordic welfare systems display these ‘hallmarks’ in a geographically homogeneous manner and that, in these countries, regional variation of living conditions and also in the level of protection from social risks is minimal.

  • 3.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Social Work, Linnaeus Univeristy, Växjö.
    The Emergence of a Swedish ‘Underclass’?: Welfare State Restructuring, Income Inequality and Residential Segregation in Malmö, 1991-20082013In: Economia & Lavoro, ISSN 2088-6365, E-ISSN 1579-1475, no 2, p. 121-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent political and academic debates in Sweden have been dominated by a view of urban problems as endogenously generated by the spatial concentration of individuals with similar ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics within the same neighbourhoods. The impact of welfare state retrenchment on income inequality and residential segregation instead remained an under-investigated and somehow neglected issue in recent research. This paper aims at filling this gap by analysing income inequality dynamics in Malmö in the period 1991-2008. This city offers an interesting case of analysis, given the high rates of social problems compared to other Swedish cities. The results reveal that the increase in income inequality in Malmö has been especially due to the reduced redistributive impact of the Swedish welfare state. Furthermore, the increase in residential segregation by income can be attributed to the parallel increase in citywide income inequality rather than to an alleged increase in neighbourhood sorting.

  • 4.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linneaus University, Sweden.
    The impact of income inequality on economic residential segregation: The case of Malmo, 1991-20102015In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 906-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in other Western countries, in Sweden there is a widespread conviction that residential segregation influences the opportunities for residents social mobility and therefore is a cause of income inequality. But the opposite direction of causality, from income inequality to residential segregation, is often ignored. The paper fills this gap and analyses income inequality and economic residential segregation developments in Malmo in the years 1991-2010. During this period, changes in population composition owing to increased immigration had a negligible impact on income inequality, while the latter was primarily influenced by changes in the distribution of labour market earnings and capital incomes. At the same time, neighbourhood income inequality was predominantly driven by overall household income inequality and only to a much lower extent by the increase in residential sorting by income. Policy influencing income distribution rather than area-based strategies should thus be at the centre of current debates on residential segregation in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The local welfare system as a scale question2016In: Combating poverty in local welfare systems – active inclusion strategies in European cities / [ed] Alexandru Panican and Håkan Johansson, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 29-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Rescaling of Immigration and the Creation of “Areas of Outsiderness” in Sweden. The Case of Landskrona2015In: Sociologica, ISSN 1971-8853, Vol. 2, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, ethnic residential segregation has been a problem associated traditionally with the largest metropolitan areas of the country. In recent years, however, growing attention has been paid to the areas of immigrant concentration located outside the largest metropolitan areas. Landskrona is one of the most renowned Swedish municipalities, among those located outside the largest metropolitan areas, in which the recent growth of the immigrant population has led to high levels of ethnic residential segregation and, therefore, to the appearance of what Swedish policymakers define as “areas of outsiderness.” Whereas Swedish debates on ethnic residential segregation are dominated by attention to the social and ethnic composition of segregated neighbourhoods, this article focuses on how immigrant settlement patterns in Landskrona have been influenced primarily by immigration policy developments over time as well as by the downscaling of this city within the Swedish urban hierarchy. In recent decades, Landskrona has in fact gone from being an economically buoyant and socially balanced industrial city into a declining and polarized city which is struggling to find a new post-industrial identity. The growth of the immigrant population in Landskrona also has been encouraged by the general unravelling of the Swedish welfare state, which has been associated with an increase in regional imbalances in economic development as well as in housing availability and affordability.

  • 7.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Swedish Model during the International Financial Crisis: Institutional Resilience or Structural Change?2015In: The European Social Model Adrift. Europe, Social Cohesion and the Economic Crisis, Routledge, 2015, p. 107-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Swedish Model during the International Financial Crisis: Institutional Resilience or Structural Change?2015In: The European Social Model Adrift. : Europe, Social Cohesion and the Economic Crisis / [ed] Serena Romano, ‎Gabriella Punziano (Eds.), Routledge, 2015, p. 107-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Swedish Model during the International Financial Crisis: Institutional Resilience or Structural Change?2015In: The European Social Model Adrift: Europe, Social Cohesion and the Economic Crisis / [ed] Serena Romano and Gabriella Punziano, Routledge, 2015, p. 107-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter is structured as follows. The second section addresses the first of the two research questions and provides a brief and by no means exhaustive description of welfare state developments under the period in question. In particular, the focus is on the reforms of the Swedish income maintenance system, on both the tax and benefit sides, and on whether the implementation of these reforms produced new patterns of inequality between those who benefited and those who did not. The third section seeks to identify the rationale behind the policy-making process and to examine the motives that drove the reforms. Thereby, the attention is on the degree of consensus on the policy goals between the different political actors as well as between political and non-political actors. The fourth section illustrates the case study of Stockholm Metropolitan Area and examines the impact of welfare reforms on income differences between different groups (defined by employment status and ethnic background) and between neighbor hoods with different population composition. The fifth and last section reviews the main conclusions and attempts to answer the question that titles this chapter.

  • 10.
    Scarpa, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Harsløf, Ivan
    Nygaard Anderse, Synøve
    Changing Population Profiles and Social Risk Structures in the Nordic Countries2013In: Changing Social Risks and Social Policy Responses in the Nordic Welfare States, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 25-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Scarpa, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Who Undermines the Welfare State? Austerity-Dogmatism and the U-Turn in Swedish Asylum Policy2018In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EU, the so-called “refugee crisis” has been predominantly dealt with as an ill-timed and untenable financial burden. Since the 2007-08 financial crisis, the overarching objective of policy initiatives by EU-governments has been to keep public expenditure firmly under control. Thus, Sweden’s decision to grant permanent residence to all Syrians seeking asylum in 2013 seemed to represent a paradigmatic exception, pointing to the possibility of combining a humanitarian approach in the “long summer of migration” with generous welfare provisions. At the end of 2015, however, Sweden reversed its asylum policy, reducing its intake of refugees to the EU-mandated minimum. The main political parties embraced the mainstream view that an open-door refugee policy is not only detrimental to the welfare state, but could possibly trigger a “system breakdown”. In this article, we challenge this widely accepted narrative by arguing that the sustainability of the Swedish welfare state has not been undermined by refugee migration but rather by the Swedish government’s unbending adherence to austerity politics. Austerity politics have weakened the Swedish welfare state’s socially integrative functions and prevented the implementation of a more ambitious growth agenda, harvesting a potentially dynamic interplay of expansionary economic policies and a humanitarian asylum policy.

  • 12.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How the Swedish model was (almost) lost: migration, welfare and the politics of solidarity2017In: Reimagineering the Nation. : essays on Twenty First Century Sweden / [ed] Aleksandra Ålund, Carl-Ulrik Schierup, Anders Neergaard, Bern Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 41-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the shift from an expansive Swedish welfare state with full employment as its paramount priority to an austerity-driven neoliberal model subordinating social and employment policies to the goals of inflation control and debt reduction. The authors discuss implications of this for rising inequality and social exclusion, with a focus on the Swedish welfare state in general and immigration and integration policies in particular.

1 - 12 of 12
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