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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Malardalen University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Procedural priming of a numerical cognitive illusion2016Inngår i: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 205-212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy activated in one task may be transferred to subsequent tasks and prevent activation of other strategies that would otherwise come to mind, a mechanism referred to as procedural priming. In a novel application of procedural priming we show that it can make or break cognitive illusions. Our test case is the 1/k illusion, which is based on the same unwarranted mathematical shortcut as the MPG illusion and the time-saving bias. The task is to estimate distances between values of fractions on the form 1/k. Most people given this task intuitively base their estimates on the distances between the denominators (i.e., the reciprocals of the fractions), which may yield very poor estimations of the true distances between the fractions. As expected, the tendency to fall for this illusion is related to cognitive style (Study 1). In order to apply procedural priming we constructed versions of the task in which the illusion is weak, in the sense that most people do not fall for it anymore. We then gave participants both "strong illusion" and "weak illusion" versions of the task (Studies 2 and 3). Participants who first did the task in the weak illusion version would often persist with the correct strategy even in the strong illusion version, thus breaking the otherwise strong illusion in the latter task. Conversely, participants who took the strong illusion version first would then often fall for the illusion even in the weak illusion version, thus strengthening the otherwise weak illusion in the latter task.

  • 2.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm University, Sweden; Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Using register data to deduce patterns of social exchange2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, s. 56-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method for deducting propensities for social exchange between individuals based on the choices they make, and based on factors such as country of origin, sex, school grades and socioeconomic background. The objective here is to disentangle the effect of social ties from the other factors, in order to find patterns of social exchange. This is done through a control-treatment design on analysing available data, where the treatment is similarity of choices between socially connected individuals, and the control is similarity of choices between non-connected individuals. Structural dependencies are controlled for and effects from different classes are pooled through a mix of methods from network and meta-analysis. The method is demonstrated and tested on Swedish register data on students at upper secondary school. The results show that having similar grades is a predictor of social exchange. Also, previous results from Norwegian data are replicated, showing that students cluster based on country of origin.

  • 3.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning, Stockholms universitet; Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University.
    What Games Support the Evolution of an Ingroup Bias?2015Inngår i: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 373, s. 100-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing wealth of models trying to explain the evolution of group discrimination and an ingroup bias. This paper sets out to systematically investigate the most fundamental assumption in these models: in what kind of situations do the interactions take place? What strategic structures – games – support the evolution of an ingroup bias? More specifically, the aim here is to find the prerequisites for when a bias also with respect to minimal groups – arbitrarily defined groups void of group-specific qualities – is selected for, and which cannot be ascribed to kin selection.

    Through analyses and simulations of minimal models of two-person games, this paper indicates that only some games are conducive to the evolution of ingroup favouritism. In particular, this class does not contain the prisoners' dilemma, but it does contain anti-co-ordination and co-ordination games. Contrasting to the prisoners' dilemma, these are games where it is not a matter of whether to behave altruistically, but rather one of predicting what the other person will be doing, and where I would benefit from you knowing my intentions.

    In anti-co-ordination games, on average, not only will agents discriminate between groups, but also in such a way that their choices maximise the sum of the available payoffs towards the ingroup more often than towards the outgroup. And in co-ordination games, even if agents do manage to co-ordinate with the whole population, they are more likely to co-ordinate on the socially optimal equilibrium within their group. Simulations show that this occurs most often in games where there is a component of risk-taking, and thus trust, involved. A typical such game is the stag hunt or assurance game.

  • 4.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning; Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Cooperation and Shared Beliefs about Trust in the Assurance Game2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikkel-id e0144191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Determinants of cooperation include ingroup vs. outgroup membership, and individual traits, such as prosociality and trust. We investigated whether these factors can be overridden by beliefs about people’s trust. We manipulated the information players received about each other’s level of general trust, “high” or “low”. These levels were either measured (Experiment 1) or just arbitrarily assigned labels (Experiment 2). Players’ choices whether to cooperate or defect in a stag hunt (or an assurance game)—where it is mutually beneficial to cooperate, but costly if the partner should fail to do so—were strongly predicted by what they were told about the other player’s trust label, as well as by what they were told that the other player was told about their own label. Our findings demonstrate the importance for cooperation in a risky coordination game of both first- and second-order beliefs about how much people trust each other. This supports the idea that institutions can influence cooperation simply by influencing beliefs.

  • 5.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Modeling the Evolution of Creoles2015Inngår i: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 1-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Various theories have been proposed regarding the origin of creole languages. Describing a process where only the end result is documented involves several methodological difficulties. In this paper we try to address some of the issues by using a novel mathematical model together with detailed empirical data on the origin and structure of Mauritian Creole. Our main focus is on whether Mauritian Creole may have originated only from a mutual desire to communicate, without a target language or prestige bias. Our conclusions are affirmative. With a confirmation bias towards learning from successful communication, the model predicts Mauritian Creole better than any of the input languages, including the lexifier French, thus providing a compelling and specific hypothetical model of how creoles emerge. The results also show that it may be possible for a creole to develop quickly after first contact, and that it was created mostly from material found in the input languages, but without inheriting their morphology.

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