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  • 1.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Microfabrication2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 293-318Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, first some basic principles of photolithography and general microfabrication are introduced. These methods have been adapted to fit the microfabrication of conducting polymer actuators, resulting in a toolbox of techniques to engineer microsystems comprising CP microactuators, which will be explained in more detail. CP layers can be patterned using both subtractive and additive techniques to form CP microactuators in a variety of configurations including bulk expansion, bilayer, and trilayer actuators. Methods to integrate CP microactuators into complex microsystems and interfaces to connect them to the outside world are also described. Finally, some specifications, performance, and a short introduction to various applications are presented.

  • 2.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Falk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conjugated polymer microactuators fabricated using soft lithography2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Falk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrication and adhesion of conjugated polymer trilayer structures for soft, flexible micromanipulators2016In: Proc. SPIE 9798, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2016, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2016, Vol. 9797, p. 97980N-1-97980N-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are developing soft, flexible micromanipulators such as micro- tweezers for the handling and manipulation of biological species including cells and surgical tools for minimal invasive surgery. Our aim is to produce tools with minimal dimensions of 100 μm to 1 mm in size, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than existing technology. However, the displacement of the current developed micromanipulator remains limited due to the low ionic conductivity of the materials. Here, we present developed methods for the fabrication of conjugated polymer trilayer structure which exhibit potential to high stretchability/flexibility as well as a good adhesion between the three different layers. The outcomes of this study contribute to the realisation of low-foot print devices articulated with electroactive polymer actuators for which the physical interface with the power source has been a significant challenge limiting their application. Here, we present a new flexible trilayer structure, which will allow the fabrication of metal-free soft microactuators.

  • 4.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoff
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Soft, flexible micromanipulators comprising polypyrrole trilayer microactuators2015In: Proc. SPIE 9430, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2015 / [ed] Bar-Cohen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9430, p. 94301R-1-94301R-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the areas of cell biology, biomedicine and minimal invasive surgery, there is a need for soft, flexible and dextrous biocompatible manipulators for handling biological objects, such as single cells and tissues. Present day technologies are based on simple suction using micropipettes for grasping objects. The micropipettes lack the possibility of accurate force control, nor are they soft and compliant and may thus cause damage to the cells or tissue. Other micromanipulators use conventional electric motors however the further miniaturization of electrical motors and their associated gear boxes and/or push/pull wires has reached its limits. Therefore there is an urgent need for new technologies for micromanipulation of soft biological matter. We are developing soft, flexible micromanipulators such as micro- tweezers for the handling and manipulation of biological species including cells and surgical tools for minimal invasive surgery. Our aim is to produce tools with minimal dimensions of 100 μm to 1 mm in size, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than existing technology. We present newly developed patterning and microfabrication methods for polymer microactuators as well as the latest results to integrate these microactuators into easy to use manipulation tools. The outcomes of this study contribute to the realisation of low-foot print devices articulated with electroactive polymer actuators for which the physical interface with the power source has been a significant challenge limiting their application. Here, we present a new bottom-up microfabrication process. We show for the first time that such a bottom-up fabricated actuator performs a movement in air. This is a significant step towards widening the application areas of the soft microactuators.

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  • 5.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Bottom-up microfabrication process for individually controlled conjugated polymer actuators2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 230, p. 818-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Handling of soft and fragile sub-millimeter sized samples such as cells and tissues requires new tools that allow delicate manipulation. Conducting polymer actuators show unique characteristics suitable to driving such manipulators, however despite their potential, the current fabrication method of the trilayer structures does not allow constructing advanced micromanipulators operating in air using this technology. Here we show a novel bottom-up microfabrication process for conjugated polymer trilayer actuators using various solid polymer electrolytes. In addition, the process design integrates contact pads, which has been an issue for small scale conducting polymer actuators. The microfabrication process starts with a patterned layer of conjugated polymer, followed by depositing a polymer electrolyte and a second patterning of the second conjugated polymer layer. The process resulted in successful fabrication of individually controllable conducting polymer trilayer actuators comprising polyvinylidenefluoride and poly( vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) membranes and showed good interfacial adhesion between the different layers in the final device. The polyvinylidenefluoride trilayer actuator showed good actuation capability. The developed bottom-up microfabrication method paves the way for the development of novel micromanipulation tools. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 6.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Guan, Na
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Sharma, Nimish
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Second generation micromechanical stimulation chips to study mechanotransduction in the urinary tract2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guan, Na
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Svennerstan, Karl
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hallen-Grufman, Katarina
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lab on chip microdevices for cellular mechanotransduction in urothelial cells2016In: Proc. SPIE 9798, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2016, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2016, Vol. 9798, p. 97981R-1-97981R-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular mechanotransduction is crucial for physiological function in the lower urinary tract. The bladder is highly dependent on the ability to sense and process mechanical inputs, illustrated by the regulated filling and voiding of the bladder. However, the mechanisms by which the bladder integrates mechanical inputs, such as intravesicular pressure, and controls the smooth muscles, remain unknown. To date no tools exist that satisfactorily mimic in vitro the dynamic micromechanical events initiated e.g. by an emerging inflammatory process or a growing tumour mass in the urinary tract. More specifically, there is a need for tools to study these events on a single cell level or in a small population of cells. We have developed a micromechanical stimulation chip that can apply physiologically relevant mechanical stimuli to single cells to study mechanosensitive cells in the urinary tract. The chips comprise arrays of microactuators based on the electroactive polymer polypyrrole (PPy). PPy offers unique possibilities and is a good candidate to provide such physiological mechanical stimulation, since it is driven at low voltages, is biocompatible, and can be microfabricated. The PPy microactuators can provide mechanical stimulation at different strains and/or strain rates to single cells or clusters of cells, including controls, all integrated on one single chip, without the need to preprepare the cells. This paper reports initial results on the mechano-response of urothelial cells using the micromechanical stimulation chips. We show that urothelial cells are viable on our microdevices and do respond with intracellular Ca2+ increase when subjected to a micro-mechanical stimulation.

  • 8.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    New textile-based electroactive polymer actuators2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Soft linear electroactive polymer actuators based on polypyrrole2015In: Proc. SPIE 9430, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2015 / [ed] Bar-Cohen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9430, p. 943016-1-943016-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for human-friendly robots that can interact and work closely with humans. Such robots need to be compliant, lightweight and equipped with silent and soft actuators. Electroactive polymers such as conducting polymers (CPs) are “smart” materials that deform in response to electrical simulation and are often addressed as artificial muscles due to their functional similarity with natural muscles. They offer unique possibilities and are perfect candidates for such actuators since they are lightweight, silent, and driven at low voltages. Most CP actuators are fabricated using electrochemical oxidative synthesis. We have developed new CP based fibres employing both vapour phase and liquid phase electrochemical synthesis. We will present the fabrication and characterisation of these fibres as well as their performance as linear actuators.

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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Öberg, Ingrid
    University of Borås.
    Christiansson, Isabella
    University of Borås.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Next generation Smart Textiles - morphing and actuating devices2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Svennersten, Karl
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hallén Grufman, Katarina
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Micromechanical stimulation chips for studying mechanotransduction in micturition2015In: 2015 Transducers - 2015 18th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 1672-1675Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a micromechanical stimulation chipthat can apply physiologically relevant mechanical stimulito single cells to study mechanosensitive cells in the urinarytract. The chips comprise arrays of microactuators based onthe electroactive polymer polypyrrole (PPy). PPy offersunique possibilities and is a good candidate to provide suchphysiological mechanical stimulation, since it is driven atlow voltages, is biocompatible, and can be microfabricated.The PPy microactuators can provide mechanical stimulationat different strains and/or strain rates to single cells orclusters of cells, including controls, all integrated on onesingle chip, without the need to pre-prepare the cells. Thechips allow for in situ stimulation during live imagingstudies. The use of these devices will increase experimentalquality and reduce the number of biological samples. Theseunique tools fill an important gap in presently availabletools, since the chips provide array-based stimulationpatterns and are easily integrated in existing cell biologyequipment. These chips will generate a leap forward in ourunderstanding of the mechanisms involved inmechanotransduction in cells that may lead to breakthroughs,for instance in therapies for urinary incontinence.

  • 12.
    Xiong, Kunli
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Emilsson, Gustav
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlin, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Polymer Gates in Nanochannels2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Zeglio, Erica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trinh, Xuan thang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Blends for Electrochromic and Electrochemical Transistor Devices2015In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 27, no 18, p. 6385-6393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two self-doped conjugated polyelectrolytes, having semiconducting and metallic behaviors, respectively, have been blended from aqueous solutions in order to produce materials with enhanced optical and electrical properties. The intimate blend of two anionic conjugated polyelectrolytes combine the electrical and optical properties of these, and can be tuned by blend stoichiometry. In situ conductance measurements have been done during doping of the blends, while UV vis and EPR spectroelectrochemistry allowed the study of the nature of the involved redox species. We have constructed an accumulation/depletion mode organic electrochemical transistor whose characteristics can be tuned by balancing the stoichiometry of the active material.

1 - 13 of 13
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