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  • 1.
    Carlander, Jakob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integration of Measurements and Time Diaries as Complementary Measures to Improve Resolution of BES2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 1-29, article id 2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy simulation (BES) models rely on a variety of different input data, and the more accurate the input data are, the more accurate the model will be in predicting energy use. The objective of this paper is to show a method for obtaining higher accuracy in building energy simulations of existing buildings by combining time diaries with data from logged measurements, and also to show that more variety is needed in template values of user input data in different kinds of buildings. The case studied in this article is a retirement home in Linköping, Sweden. Results from time diaries and interviews were combined with logged measurements of electricity, temperature, and CO2 levels to create detailed occupant behavior schedules for use in BES models. Two BES models were compared, one with highly detailed schedules of occupancy, electricity use, and airing, and one using standardized input data of occupant behavior. The largest differences between the models could be seen in energy losses due to airing and in household electricity use, where the one with standardized user input data had a higher amount of electricity use and less losses due to airing of 39% and 99%, respectively. Time diaries and interviews, together with logged measurements, can be great tools to detect behavior that affects energy use in buildings. They can also be used to create detailed schedules and behavioral models, and to help develop standardized user input data for more types of buildings. This will help improve the accuracy of BES models so the energy efficiency gap can be reduced.

  • 2.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yufang, Guo
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yonghui
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Liu, Yuxian
    Linköping University. Guangzhou University Research Center on Urban Sustainable Development, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Masuda, Laura Shizue Moriga
    Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zhang, Fagen
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of rapid development in China and the growth of megacities, large amounts of organic wastes are generated within relatively small areas. Part of these wastes can be used to produce biogas, not only to reduce waste-related problems, but also to provide renewable energy, recycle nutrients, and lower greenhouse gases and air polluting emissions. This article is focused on the conditions for biogas solutions in Guangzhou. It is based on a transdisciplinary project that integrates several approaches, for example, literature studies and lab analysis of food waste to estimate the food waste potential, interviews to learn about the socio-technical context and conditions, and life-cycle assessment to investigate the performance of different waste management scenarios involving biogas production. Xiaoguwei Island, with a population of about 250,000 people, was chosen as the area of study. The results show that there are significant food waste potentials on the island, and that all studied scenarios could contribute to a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Several socio-technical barriers were identified, but it is expected that the forthcoming regulatory changes help to overcome some of them.

  • 3.
    Fälton, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Matens betydelse för det hållbara resandet2016In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 17-26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Hermelin, Brita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lokalt utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete: En studie av kommunernas näringslivsfunktioner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om hur kommunerna arbetar med utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete. Förväntningarna på att kommuner ska verka för lokalt utvecklingsarbete har inneburit växande åtaganden för den kommunala sektorn. Genom rapporten redovisas och analyseras resultaten från en enkätstudie som riktade sig till näringslivsanvariga tjänstepersoner i samtliga kommuner i Sverige. Genom enkäten ställdes frågor om vad kommunerna i Sverige gör inom området utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete och på vilket sätt resurser för det här området genereras genom externa relationer med andra kommuner, regionala organ, EU samt statliga organisationer. Resultatet från enkätstudien redovisas dels för alla kommuner som besvarat enkäten (62 procent av Sveriges kommuner) sammantaget och dels uppdelat på olika kommunkategorier. Denna kategorisering utgår från SKLs kommungruppsindelning.

    Den sammanfattande diskussionen utgår från tre slutsatser. För det första kvarstår det som kan betraktas vara det traditionella området för kommunernas tillväxtarbete – som centreras kring kontaktskapande arbete med lokala nätverk, organisationer och företag – som ett centralt moment för kommunernas lokala tillväxtarbete. Detta område benämner vi näringslivsarbete och det omfattar att främja sektorsövergripande kommunikation mellan kommunen och de lokala företagen. Detta område omfattar även att arbeta med platsmarknadsföring.

    För det andra har synen på vad utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete omfattar breddats. Detta ställer krav på samverkan över traditionella gränser inom kommunens förvaltning. Enkätresultatetet visar erfarenheter av att arbetet genom kommunernas näringslivsfunktion innebär att bli involverad för frågor om fysisk planering och för kompetensutveckling. Tidigare studier och den genomförda enkäten illustrerar att kommunernas utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete har kommit att breddats till att relatera till samtliga delar av hållbar utveckling. Samtidigt framträdet frågor om ekonomisk hållbarhet och fysisk planering mer tydligt än frågor om social hållbarhet, genom exempelvis arbetsmarknadsfrågor, och ekologiskt hållbarhet, genom exempelvis samverkan med miljönätverk.

    Slutsats nummer tre handlar om hur tillväxtarbete sker på olika sätt i olika geografier. Enkätstudien visar att kommunkategorier som i högre grad är beroende av sina egna lokala arbetsmarknader (dvs. större städer, mindre städer och landsbygdskommuner) är mer aktiva inom det lokala tillväxtarbetet jämfört med utpendlingskommuner, samtidigt som profilen för det här arbetet skiljer sig åt mellan de tre kategorier av kommuner som är mest aktiva.

    För att värdera resultatet som framkommer genom studien som presenteras och diskuteras i den här rapporten är det också viktigt att påminna om begränsningarna. Det empiriska materialet har genererats genom en enkätstudie som riktade sig till tjänstepersoner i ledningen för kommunernas näringslivsfunktioner. Det betyder att resultatet har genererats utifrån hur en respondent per kommun har besvarat frågor om det breda fält lokalt utvecklingsarbete berör. Studiens design har syftat till att ge en översikt som genererar frågor för fördjupade studier. Ett angeläget tema för framtida studier är frågan om geografiska beroendeförhållanden för det lokala utvecklingsarbetet och som innebär att fördjupa förståelsen för varierande förutsättningar för kommunernas utvecklingsarbete och hur detta skapar villkor för samverkan med andra politiska nivåer och andra kommuner. Jämförelser mellan olika kommunkategorier visar att kommunernas samverkan ser olika ut och att profilen för det lokala utvecklingsarbetet varierar.

  • 5.
    Hermelin, Brita
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    New geographies of work: a case study from Sweden2012In: Urbani Izziv, ISSN 0353-6483, E-ISSN 1855-8399, Vol. 23, no suppl. 1, p. S126-S134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and analyses the geography of work, i.e., the spatial patterns in where paid work is done. The geography of work may diverge from the geography of employment when paid work is done at the premises of client organizations, during commuting, on business trips, on external meetings, at home or at other places. The particular patterns in the geography of work depend on a number of factors, possibilities and constraints. The paper takes its point of departure from the debate about how structural economic changes resulting from evolving service industries and the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entail new forms for the organization of paid work. Flexibility, reflexivity, flows and places are key concepts. The paper presents a case study from Stockholm that takes a workplace perspective and looks at knowledge-intensive work in a public sector organization. The empirical study analyses data from interviews, time diaries and a questionnaire. We analyse how the geography of work is the result of negotiations between different parties and in different arenas, and how this spatial pattern is the result of the character of work tasks and accessibility of ICT support. The discussion illustrates a complex picture of the coexistence of spatial fix and spatial flexibility, and how this may cause tensions but also convenient solutions for organizing and conducting paid work.

  • 6.
    Köhler, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A time-geographical mixed-methods approach: studying the complexities of energy and water use in households2019In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 197, no 1, p. 108-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to describe and assess a methodology based on a time geographical approach for studying energy and water use in households. Energy and water resources are often used in routinized activities, and in activities considered as private, normal and ordinary, which makes them difficult to explore in research. In this article, we give an account of a mixed-methods approach using time diaries, metering data, interviews and simple observations, and analyse and discuss its methodological and empirical implications from two Swedish case studies. We conclude that the suggested combination of methods, despite some complications, provides a comprehensive account of household energy and water use to which various theoretical perspectives could apply. Energy and water using activities are defined in terms of time, place, quantity, material and social context, and are related to user perspectives on resource use and usage data. Such knowledge provides important input for information campaigns, technological retrofitting and other systemic changes in striving towards sustainability.

  • 7.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Arbetets geografi: Kunskapsarbetets organisation och utförande i tidrummet2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis about knowledge-intensive work and the organizational con-texts of such work. The specific objective is to analyze the geography of work. The geography of work may diverge from the geography of employ-ment when paid work is undertaken at the premises of client organizations, during commuting, on business trips, in external meetings, at home or in other places. The focus is on work practice and the perspective of everyday life. The study examines where knowledge workers are located and where knowledge work occurs. It is about what knowledge workers actually do. The everyday perspective is about the relationship between paid work and unpaid work. To understand the organization of knowledge-intensive work in a time–space context, different possibilities and constraints must be taken into con-sideration. This thesis has a time–geographical approach. The case study examines knowledge-intensive organizations located in central Stockholm. The organizations are in PR/communications, management consultancy, and research and development sectors. Both private and public sector organiza-tions are considered. The empirical study combines interviews, time diaries and questionnaires. The NVivo software program is employed to analyze the interview data. The main conclusion from the thesis is that in order to under-stand knowledge-intensive work, different factors such as relations, attitudes and norms need to be considered. These factors affect the organization of work, which in turn is affected by the choices, possibilities, constraints, ex-pectations and negotiations of different actors (i.e. employees, employers, family, clients and colleagues). The working time of the knowledge workers investigated in this study is mainly spent at the office of their employers. Social interaction with col-leagues and clients is an important part of their work. Work routines involve many meetings, both face-to-face and virtual. Face-to-face interactions play a crucial role in shaping the geography of work; teamwork is important. The knowledge workers in this study are “working long hours,” and the norm is to work more than what have been expected.

  • 8.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur boendeformer for äldre hanteras i Sverige2018In: Globala flöden och lokala praktiker: policymobilitet i tid och rum / [ed] Ida Andersson, Stockholm: Svenska sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi , 2018, p. 71-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Kunskapsarbetarnas geografi2014In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 2, no 72, p. 81-95Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Distansarbete har diskuterats flitigt under många år. Det har ansetts vara en fördel för anställda att distansarbeta för att få ihop sitt vardagsliv. Trots att möjligheten finns på de kunskapsintensiva företagen som jag har studerat väljer kunskapsarbetarna att pendla till sina arbetsplatser. Det är en fråga som jag belyser i min doktorsavhandling: Arbetets geografi – Kunskapsarbetets organisation och utförande i tidrummet. Den här artikeln baseras på min avhandling och ska syfta till att förstå hur det moderna arbetslivet utspelar sig för kunskapsarbetare. Det handlar om kunskapsarbetets organisation och utförande i tidrummet. Utgångspunkten är att studera olika rumsliga möjligheter och restriktioner som kunskapsarbetare ställs inför. Syftet är att förstå om det är någon skillnad mellan sysselsättningen geografi och förvärvsarbetets geografi. Med sysselsättningens geografi menas adressen för arbetstillfället vid vilken anställningen är lokaliserad. Med förvärvsarbetets geografi menas platsen där arbetet i praktiken utförs. Förvärvsarbetets geografi kan avvika från sysselsättningens geografi då förvärvsarbete sker hos kund, under pendlings- eller tjänsteresor, i hemmet, på café/restaurang eller på andra platser. I denna studie studeras arbetspraktik och vardagsliv (fokus på arbetslivet) tillsammans och inte separerat som det vanligen görs.

  • 10.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding collaboration and local development: a Swedish case study on different actors’ roles and perspectives2018In: Scottish Geographical Journal, ISSN 1470-2541, E-ISSN 1751-665X, Vol. 134, no 3-4, p. 172-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten years ago, the concept of retirement homes ceased to exist in Sweden. This was a result of the Delegation on Elderly Living’s suggestion whereby the terminology for and characteristics of accommodation for the elderly changed. This makes it hard to plan and change how the elderly live in Sweden. When it comes to renovating housing for the elderly, the municipalities and property owners do not know how to deal with the situation. This is despite the fact that the situation in Sweden is the same as many other countries around the world: the population is ageing and there is a clear need for housing for the elderly. This case study examines a project to renovate a building complex which has failed to get started. The analytical framework of collaborative governance has been adapted and used as inspiration for understanding this at a local level. From a narrative perspective, mixed methods were used. Two conclusions are drawn. Firstly, the concept of drivers for collaborative governance helps to explain why the project was difficult to realise. Secondly, both the categorisation and concept of housing for the elderly have changed with policy implications.

  • 11.
    Trygg, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hermelin, Brita
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Work practice among advanced producer service firms – project work in space-time2017In: Geografisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0016-7223, E-ISSN 1903-2471, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an explorative investigation of a sample of advanced producer service (APS) companies located in Stockholm (the capital and main urban centre of Sweden). The discussion is centred on aspects of work practice and how this is conditioned by space-time constraints. These space-time constraints refer to coupling, authority and capability constraints which are concepts framed in a time-geography approach. Although time-geography is primarily engaged in mapping presence and locations in time-space, its concepts of constraints embrace physical, social and cultural factors. The article presents an empirical in-depth study of project work and work practice among a selection of APS companies. A micro-approach to work practice has been pursued using a multi-method strategy and time-geography methodology including time diaries, interviews and a questionnaire. The experiences among the investigated companies of time-geography constraints make the constant negotiations for the practice of work among these organizations intelligible. To the extent these investigated companies may be considered representative of advanced services more generally, the presence of pressing constraints helps to explain the more general structure of this industry of high labour turnover and rapid company re-structuring processes.

  • 12.
    Trygg, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Köhler, Helena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exkursion - varför då?2015In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 16-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Exkursionen som undervisningsform värnas ofta av lärare och forskare i geografi. Exkursionen är ett centralt inslag för geografistudenternas lärande. Detta för utbildning med inriktning mot lärare i grundskolan och gymnasiet och för utbildning med inriktning mot forskning inom geografi. Exkursionsinslag är ofta inskrivet i kursplaner för geografi. På en exkursion har läraren möjligheten att kontextualisera och ge en djupare förståelse för innebörden av geografiska begrepp.

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