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  • 1.
    Coldwell, David
    et al.
    University of Witwatersand, South Africa.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cross-cultural knowledge management in collaborative academic research2014In: Handbook of research on knowledge management: Adaptation and context / [ed] Anders Ortenblad, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 128-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management as we frame it for this chapter is perceived as a bundle of structural initiatives to enable learning within and by organizations (Ackerman et al. 2003). It supports sharing of knowledge and is a ‘relational approach towards knowledge [that] places greater emphasis on the level of the group, the community, the network and the organization, than on the individual employee’ (Huysman and de Wit 2002, p. 4; see also Adair 2004). The relational approach to knowledge management is grounded in the idea that ‘the intelligence of a collective comes from individual contributions combined by people’s interactions’ (Perkins 2003, p. 246). These contributions and interactions yield effective decisions, solutions and plans (Perkins 2003) that are progressively kept track of (Adair 2004). Several concepts including ‘local ontology’ (Gergen 1995), organizations’ ‘cognitive systems and memories’ (Hedberg 1981), ‘mutual knowledge’ (Giddens 1979), ‘collective mind’ (Weick and Roberts 1993) or ‘collective knowledge’ (Spender 1994) understand organizational knowledge as cognitively embedded but shared among organizational members (Fried 2003). To be shared, knowledge needs to be enacted in organizational practices that are an ‘ongoing activity stream and emerges in the style with which activities are interrelated’ (Weick and Roberts 1993, p. 365). From a strategic point of view, shared organizational knowledge and practices constitute competitive advantages that can be pitted against the heterogeneous character of competitors

  • 2.
    Coldwell, David
    et al.
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    International Research Collaboration: The Meaning of Reflexive Processes in Scientific Communities of Practice2014In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the British Academy of Management / [ed] British Academy of Management, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes a multidisciplinary international collaborative academic research group. The study is cross sectional and adopts a mixed methods approach. It contributes to the literature by describing and analyzing reflexive processes’ costs and benefits in international collaborative research in generating and disseminating knowledge against a background of increasing globalization. The study suggests that research capabilities can be enhanced through research collaboration, although specific challenges with such an approach are evident.

  • 3.
    Coldwell, David
    et al.
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Learning organizations without borders?: A cross-cultural study of university HR practitioners' perceptions of the salience of Senge's five disciplines in effective work outcomes2012In: International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, ISSN 1470-5958, E-ISSN 1741-2838, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 101-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The learning organization has been put forward as an effective way of conflict management through the adoption of the disciplines of personal mastery, mental models, team learning, systems thinking and shared vision (O’Keefe and Stewart, 2004; Fisher-Yoshida, 2005), but this depends to a large extent on the transferability of the concept cross-culturally (Fisher-Yoshida, 2005). This paper investigates the transferability of the learning organization concept in British, German and South African contexts with a sample of university-based human resource (HR) management employees. Specifically, the paper investigates the comparative importance of Senge’s (1990) learning organization disciplines in generating effective work outcomes among HR employees in three different national cultural contexts. It is suggested that the importance of the learning disciplines in different countries may be influenced by prevailing cultural differences. The study interrogates the notion that the model provides a globally relevant tool for general applications in effective workoutcomes. A survey was conducted utilizing HR practitioners employed by three separate universities in three countries (the United Kingdom, South Africa and Germany). Specific measuring instruments were constructed to operationalize Senge’s (1990) model. Results suggest influences of national culture on emphases put on specific aspects of the five disciplines in effective work outcomes.

  • 4.
    Coldwell, David
    et al.
    School of Economic and Business Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Papageorgiou, Elena
    School of Accountancy, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Callaghan, Chris
    School of Economic & Business Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research,Department of Metallic Materials, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Germany.
    Academic citizenship and wellbeing: An exploratory cross-cultural study of South African and Swedish academic perceptions2016In: South African Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 1011-3487, E-ISSN 1753-5913, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 80-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic citizenship is, conceptually speaking, closely related to organisational citizenship behaviour, as both concepts can be regarded as consisting essentially of personal co-worker and organisational support behaviours. Academics across the world operate in widely divergent settings in different socioeconomic and political situations and higher education environments. Such differing circumstances might be expected to have a bearing on the priorities that academics face in different countries and the ways academic citizenship is understood. This paper uses a mixed methods approach to analyse perceptions of academic citizenship and employee well-being in one Swedish and one South African university which operate in starkly different socioeconomic circumstances. The findings of the exploratory study suggest that despite wide-ranging differences in socioeconomic environments between the two countries, there is a high degree of common understanding of the form and substance of academic citizenship and its bearing on well-being. Key words Academic citizenship, organisational citizenship behaviour, South African and Swedish universities, well-being

  • 5.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möller, Klaus
    University of St. Gallen, St.Gallen, Switzerland.
    Pecas, Paulo
    Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Innovation and management control2017In: Journal of Management Control, ISSN 2191-4761, E-ISSN 2191-477X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lighting up 'blind spots' while measuring knowledge capital2006In: Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1479-4411, E-ISSN 1479-4411, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practical experiences in developing and introducing performance measurements systems for measuring and managing knowledge capital have shown that these instruments do not sufficiently fulfil the expectations of their users. Some authors even point out that the fundamental understanding of methodological and conceptual issues is inadequate. Therefore, we suggest that instead of creating further new instruments, an explanation of how and when Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) become effective is necessary. We argue that highlighting their potential production of “blind spots” and comprehending the use of PMS more reflexively will bring more sustainable effects. As a result, the concept of First and Second Order Reflection of PMS is introduced.

  • 7.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performance measurement systems and their relation to strategic learning: A case study in a software-developing organization2010In: Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Vol. 21, p. 118-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authors have often suggested that expert systems for measuring and assessing intangible andtangibleresourcesfulfillstrategiclearningpurposes. This role requires further theoretical discussion and empirical investigation since strategic learning does not automatically result from the implementation of performance measurement systems (PMS). PMS can be used for internal or external control purposes in addition their development and usage can lead to strategic learning processes. Depending on how PMS are conceptualized they can be related to different modes of learning. Thus, this article links different types of PMS enactment with specific modes of learning. Strategic learning is thereby defined as specific mode within the organizational learning approach by Bateson (1972) and Argyris and Schön (1978). Orlikowski’s work on technologies (2000) provides a framework for the different types of PMS enactment. A strategic learning process initiated by the development of PMS is illustrated through a case study in the software development industry.

  • 8.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Terminological distinctions of 'control': a review of the implications for management control research in the context of innovation2017In: Journal of Management Control, ISSN 2191-4761, E-ISSN 2191-477X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 5-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reviews the terminological distinctions (e.g. action and result control, interactive and diagnostic control) used for control in twenty-five empirical studies on management control in the context of innovation. The terminological distinctions are classed in three categorizations. These are (a) the types of managerialcontrol, (b) the design and use mode of managerial control instruments and (c) the enabling and constraining character of managerial control instruments. By analyzing the categorizations, it becomes evident that there are two, almost independent ontological streams shaping the empirical field: the determinist perspective and the voluntarist perspective of management control with different understandings of contingency. The 'ideal fit' approach to contingency of the determinist perspective adds little cumulative knowledge to the field of management control in the context of innovation. Therefore, the article suggests to strengthen the voluntarist perspective and to develop a 'quasi fit' interpretation of contingency. The agenda for prospective research in management control in the context of innovation includes to investigate deviant and repair behavior related to management control systems (MCS) in innovating activities, to understand MCS as dependent as well as independent variable and to explore the role of MCS ineconomizing innovative activities.

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    Terminological distinctions of 'control': a review of the implications for management control research in the context of innovation
  • 9.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The importance of studying deviance in management control2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In management control, it almost goes without saying that contemporary organizations need far more complex logics and organizational control mechanisms than the once dominant bureaucratic control regime could offer. Today, contemporary organizations must cope with uncertain situations inherent, for instance, in innovation processes, organizational learning, professional services, knowledge creation, temporary forms of work, communities of practice, and cross-boundary organizations. All in all, however, they are still confronted with the resilience of the bureaucratic control regime, de-personalized control relations and de-contextualized management systems for monitoring global standardized routines. This paper works therefore further on the question how management control can overcome the classical notion of control which changes when systems are undetermined and when managerial questions are principally undecidable. The paper does it by exploring the dialectic of control (Giddens) to further discover novel directions for research in the field.

  • 10.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding deviance from standards: implications for corporate responsibility and criminal law2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Andrea Fried, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 271-279Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, Andrea Fried discusses the implications of a better understanding of deviance from standards for corporate responsibility in terms of both compliance-related duties for companies and their criminal liability. Five questions related to this are answered in this summarizing chapter: Is voluntary self-regulation of companies a way of ensuring corporate responsibility? What contributes to a manipulation of standards even if a strong external control and sanctioning system is in place? Should legislative authorities only sanction actual knowledge of and engagement in wrongful acts of standard deviation? Should legislation stipulate a criminal liability also for companies? Why should companies allow organizational members to deviate from standards? Answers to these questions relate to the empirical investigations presented in previous chapters of the book and show strong support for a corporate criminal law that should apply when standard deviations lead to health, environmental, or safety risks.

  • 11.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding deviance in a world of standards2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards have become widespread regulatory tools that are set to promote global trade, innovation, efficiency, and quality. They contribute significantly to the creation of safe, reliable, and high quality services and technologies to ensure human health, environmental protection, or information security. Yet intentional deviations from standards by organizations are often reported in many sectors, which can either contribute to or challenge the measures of safety and quality they are designed to safeguard.Why then, despite all potential consequences, do organizations choose to deviate from standards in one way or another? This book uses structuration theory - covering aspects of both structure and agency - to explore the organizational conditions and contradictions under which different types of deviance occur. It provides empirical explanations for deviance in organizations that go beyond an understanding of individual misbehaviour where mainly a single person is held responsible. Case studies of software-developing organizations illustrate insightful generalizations on standards as a mechanism of sensemaking, resource allocation, and sanctioning, and provide ground to re-think corporate responsibility when deviating from standards in the 'audit society'.

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  • 12.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Unfassbares sichtbar machen. Ressourcenmanagement in der Wissensarbeit2007In: Verwertung immaterieller Ressourcen: Nachhaltigkeit von Unternehmensführung und Arbeit III / [ed] Manfred Moldaschl, München: Rainer Hampp Verlag, 2007, p. 63-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    „Wachsen oder nicht, das ist die Frage …“: Systemdifferenzierungen junger Unternehmen am Beispiel einer Kommunikationsagentur2010In: Schmalenbach Business Review, ISSN 0341-2687, Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung (ZfbF), Vol. 62, no 3, p. 334-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Wenn etablierte unternehmensbezogene ansätze der Gründungsforschung Unternehmenswachstum untersuchen, dann zielen sie auf eine analyse der kausalen Beziehungen von Erfolgsfaktoren ab. Wachstum junger Unternehmen wird in diesem Beitrag alternativ als evolutionärer Prozess verstanden. Der Begriff Wachstum vereinigt hier die quantitative wie qualitative Veränderung junger Unternehmen im Zeitverlauf. Grundlage für die analyse von Wachstum sind die funktional-strukturellen Überlegungen innerhalb der Theorie sozialer Systeme nach Niklas Luhmann (1964). Im Beitrag wird eine problemorientierte analyse des Wachstumsdrucks junger Unternehmen anhand von fünf Merkmalen vorgeschlagen: Mitgliedschaft, arbeitsteilung, Formalisierung, Führung und Grenzstellen. Exemplarisch geschieht dies am Fall einer jungen Kommunikationsagentur. auf diese Weise wird das Potential organisationstheoretischer ansätze und qualitativer Forschungsmethoden für die Gründungsforschung erschlossen. Zudem wird deutlich, wie auch Gründungsforschung und -beratung voneinander profitieren können.

  • 14.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gey, Ronny
    University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Pretorius, Agnieta
    Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa.
    Günther, Lars
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    Decoupling from Standards - Process Management and Technical Innovation in Software Development Organizations2013In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 17, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores process management standards in software development organisations. It centres on the question how organisations manage the compliance with process standards as well as the need for ongoing technical innovation at the same time. It refers to former studies where it was concluded that process management standards tend to crowd out technical innovations in organisations. By reconsidering the coupling approach of Orton and Weick (1990) we show based on four case studies that it does not apply to those organisations which allow innovating activities being loosely coupled or decoupled from the reigning standard script. These organisations sustain their chances for incremental and fundamental technical innovations. Dealing with loosely coupled or decoupled innovating activities implies a dialectical standard management. It means that potentially contradictory and conflict-ridden activities like standardised practices and innovating activities are manageable by specific institutional, temporarily limited and formal/informal solutions. Furthermore, we scrutinise in this paper the decoupling discussion of some parts of the standard management literature. Standard decoupling is often seen as an unfortunate, but necessary solution to cope with external pressure for internal standardisation. In contrast to this, we develop an understanding where standard decoupling is not defined as a set of activities without affecting the ‘technical core’ of an organisation (Brunsson and Jacobsson, 2000b; Meyer and Rowan, 1967). Rather, decoupling is seen as a temporary and locally limited situation of an innovating subsystem within an organisation where it is allowed to detach from reigning standardised practices and to test and develop innovative ideas under less formalised conditions.

  • 15.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gey, Ronny
    Friedrich Schiller University, Jena.
    Pretorius, Agnieta
    Tshwane University of Technology.
    Günther, Lars
    Technische Universität Chemnitz.
    Coetzee, Petrie
    Tshwane University of Technology.
    Emancipation from standards –Process management in software development and its influence on technical innovations2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaa, Besma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Introduction to deviance in a world of standards2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Andrea Fried, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, Andrea Fried and Besma Glaa develop and reason the important and topical question why organizations deviate from standards. The chapter reflects on the current discourse on standards and standardization in management and organization studies, and positions Understanding Deviance in a World of Standards within it. The chapter distinguishes the terms standards and standardization, defines what standards are, and explains which categories exist to distinguish them. It points out why investigation of the actual enactment of standards in organizations is fundamental to understanding not only the manipulation of but also the commitment to standards. The chapter concludes by introducing the structure of Understanding Deviance in a World of Standards.

  • 17.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karadzhova-Beyer, Diana
    Langer, Sarah
    Pretorius, Agnieta
    The nexus between standards and innovation - an explanation of contradictory results through the concept of social agency2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Langer, Sarah
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Typology of organizational deviance from standards2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Fried, Andrea, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 241-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, Andrea Fried and Sarah Langer present a novel typology to systematize the variety of and reasons for organizational deviance from standards. The typology explains why organizations deviate from standards. It identifies four types of organizational deviance: two types of commitment-oriented deviance (attentive deviance from standards and over-conformity with standards) and two types of manipulation-oriented deviance (non-regulated deviance from standards and illegitimate deviance from standards). The basis of the typology is a cross-case comparison of CraneSolutions, MedTech, and MetroEngineers, as presented in part II of the book. In this comparison the authors explain which organizational conditions and contradictions in standard enactment make a certain type of organizational deviance likely.

  • 19.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Langer, Sarah
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Karadzhova-Beyer, Diana
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Gey, Ronny
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Thinking standards as practice: the interplay of legitimation, signification and domination2017In: ACAD MANAGE PROC (Meeting Abstract Supplement) / [ed] Academy of Management, 2017, , p. 38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are interested in organizations as recipients of standards and question how standards are enacted in their daily practice. The aim of the paper is to develop a practice lens on standards to gain knowledge about the use of standards. To understand recent critical deviances from standards in several industries better, we suggest to investigate the interplay of legitimation, signification and domination during the enactment of standards within organizations. Based on the structuration theory (Giddens, 1984) and the enactment approach (Weick, 1988), we develop a heuristic framework for the analysis of standards as practice. We deliver qualitative, ethnographic insights from ongoing empirical research on the enactment of standards in a railway vehicle engineering company which is engaged in a metro development project for a Chinese client. We could retrace 28 metaphors for standards in the empirical data describing how standards appear in the daily practice. Our empirical investigations reveal that legitimation, signification and domination are intertwined during the enactment of standards. Furthermore, the interaction of legitimation, signification and domination induces three organizational tensions: (1) divergent interests for standard compliance, (2) blurred responsibilities for standard compliance, and (3) the drift between the internal significance of standards and the available resources. We trust that depending on how organizations solve these tensions it will have an influence on the organizational deviance from or compliance with standards and finally a crucial impact on human health, safety or environmental protection.

  • 20.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Singhal, Arvind
    Department of Communication, University of Texas, El Paso, USA.
    A second-order observation of organizational deviance2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Andrea Fried, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 21-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, Andrea Fried and Arvind Singhal highlight which novel research questions break ground when taking a second-order perspective on organizational deviance. The concept of the ‘second-order observer’ for researchers leaves the assessment of organizational deviance explicitly to the empirical field, and brings organizations and their members as describers, as assessors, and as sanctioners of organizational deviance into the discussion. The chapter strengthens social agency in deviations from standards to counteract the view that deviants are a ‘passive non-entity’. Fried and Singhal describe how organizational deviance has three dimensions and can analytically be distinguished as a descriptive, a normative, and a sanctioning aspect. The chapter concludes with six assignments for developing a concept of organizational deviance.

  • 21.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Singhal, Arvind
    The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA; Faculty of Business Administration, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Deviance in management and organization studies: functionalist and interactionist perspectives2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Fried, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Walgenbach, Peter
    Department of Business Administration, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Structurationist framework to explore organizational deviance from standards2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Andrea Fried, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 39-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, based on structuration theory, Fried and Walgenbach develop a theoretical framework for exploring organizational deviance from standards empirically. They identify standards as modalities of action which trigger rules of interpretation, claim allocative and authoritative resources, and furthermore cause rules of sanctions in organizations. This overrides the view that failed standard enactment has something to do with either missing financial investments, or an inadequate ‘tone at the top’, or ineffective audits. It is rather, as the authors argue, its interplay that leads to an effective standard enactment or not. This interplay can yield different asymmetries and contradictions, which then lead to different types of organizational deviance.

  • 23.
    Gey, Ronny
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Metastructuring for Standards: How Organizations Respond to the Multiplicity of Standards2018In: Corporate and global standardization initiatives in contemporary society / [ed] Jakobs, Kai, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2018, p. 252-276Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focusses on the appearance and implementation of process standards in software development organizations. The authors are interested in the way organizations handle the plurality of process standards. Organizations respond by metastructuring to the increasing demand for standardizing their development processes. Standards metastructuring summarizes all organizational mechanisms for facilitating the ongoing adaption of global standards to the organizational context. Based on an in-depth single case study of a software developing organization in the automotive technology sector, the authors found four areas of metastructuring, four roles for standard mediation, and four types of metastructuring activities. With the case study, they encourage further research that proves standards in use and how organizations respond to the challenges of standardization.

  • 24.
    Gey, Ronny
    et al.
    University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “Standard Bibles” and mediators as a way of software development organizations to cope with the multiplicity and plurality of standards2014In: International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research, ISSN 1539-3062, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 57-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on the appearance and implementation of process standards in software development organizations. In particular, we are interested in the way organizations handle the plurality and multitude of process standards they are faced with in a modern working environment. The process how organizations respond to environmental challenges like the increasing demand for process standards we call metastructuring. Based on the metastructuring approach by Orlikowski et al. (1995) we explore the process of internal standard-use mediation by an in-depth single case study. The case company develops step by step a dedicated institutional entity reacting to standard complexity and customer pressure. As a result, mediators shape extensively the standard use of the employees in the case company. They develop a process library which integrates different standards. We shed light on how this metastructuring process is accomplished, which areas of metastructuring regarding process standards can be found and explore different types of metastructuring activities by the involved standard-use mediators.

  • 25.
    Gey, Ronny
    et al.
    Department of Metallic Materials, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Metallic Materials, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Langer, Sarah
    Department of Metallic Materials, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Certification matters - competition of market, rational-bureaucratic and professional logics in software development organisations2015In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology (IEEE SIIT) / [ed] Kai Jakobs, Red Hook, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 9-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We refer to an ongoing discussion around micro-institutionalist approaches in the neo-institutional perspective on organizations ([ 1 ], (2), (3), [ 4 ]). The paper addresses how organizations respond to pressures from competing and potentially conflicting institutional logics (1). An understanding of organizational responses is drawn from the conflict of the professional, rational -bureaucratic and market logic (5). By investigating the implementation of the process improvement standard CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) in software development organizations, we show different organizational responses to these conflicting institutional logics. A CMMI certificate for a software development process embodies all three institutional logics: (a) the market logic due its potential of a competitive advantage resulting from an increased trust in the final software product by customers, (b) the rational-bureaucratic logic by exercising managerial control over compliance of software development processes with the CMMI standards requirements and (c) the professional logic in form of its inscribed expertise in software engineering. Our empirical results show three different responses: ( I) an integrative approach that balances between the conflicting logics, (2) a durable and a (3) non-durable response which favor market and rational bureaucratic logic. At the same time, the three investigated cases highlight different consequences for the software developers and their professional logic. The findings of the study contribute to neo-institutional theory by delivering empirical insights on how differently logics are managed in the day-to-day practice of actors. Thus, we call for further empirical investigation on the micro-institutionalist level. A link of the neo-institutionalist perspective to the theoretical perspective of the professions is suggested.

  • 26.
    Gey, Ronny
    et al.
    Facylty of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Langer, Sarah
    Facylty of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Attentive deviance from standards at CraneSolutions2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Fried, Andrea, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 89-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, Ronny Gey, Sarah Langer, and Andrea Fried draw attention to the actual enactment of standards in organizations. They describe a software developing project of the crane manufacturer CraneSolutions which is confronted with a situation where no standards are directly suitable for its niche products. The case of CraneSolutions is a striking example of mainly attentive deviance from standards. The chapter analyses how the organization succeeds in committing to standards while deviating from them attentively. Based on a structurationist framework, the analysis of CraneSolutions enables understanding of the enactment of standards as represented in the interpretative schemes, the facilities, and the social norms of the organization. Moreover, the authors explain organizational deviance from standards as a way of how organizations deal effectively with emerging asymmetries and contradictions during the enactment of standards. This chapter represents one of the two commitment-oriented types of organizational deviance introduced in the book.

  • 27.
    Gey, Ronny
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena.
    Langer, Sarah
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Over-conformity with standards at MedTech2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Fried, Andrea, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 139-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a case of a medical technology company where standards have already shaped software development processes for a long time. Ronny Gey, Sarah Langer, and Andrea Fried reflect here on how MedTech’s organizational members over-conform with standards. In contrast to CraneSolutions in the previous chapter, productive asymmetries and even contradictions were hardly found in standard enactment at MedTech. MedTech provides adequate allocative and authoritative resources for standardization, refers to strong internal and external sanctioning systems for standard deviations, but hardly reflects on the internal effects of standards on software development. The case described in this chapter delivers an explanation why over-commitment of organizational members to standards tends to reinforce organizational inertia and shows the importance of reflexive handling of standard-induced requirements within the organization. This chapter represents one of the two commitment-oriented types of organizational deviance introduced in the book.

  • 28.
    Knoll, Michael
    et al.
    Chemnitz University of Technology.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Netzwerkkapital. Ein Ansatz zur Analyse von Unternehmensgründungen unter Berücksichtigung von Einbettung, Relation und Entwicklungsverlauf2008Book (Refereed)
  • 29. Langer, Sarah
    et al.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Compliance in the 'Audit Society'? Creation of Deviance by Standards2016In: ACAD MANAGE PROC (Meeting Abstract Supplement) / [ed] Academy of Management, 2016, article id 16227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is of conceptual nature and sheds light on the increasing pressure on organizations for compliance to standards in the audit society (Power, 1994). Compliance implies conformity with a rule such as a specification, policy, law or standard. Hitherto, management literature does not scrutinize the underlying functional impetus of the idea of compliance sufficiently. In our reading, to become compliant with standards for an organization is not a simple search of indicators of control as well as a decision for suitable modes of governance. It is rather a fairly ambiguous process where different perceptions of deviance and compliance with a certain standard evolve within an organization. For this reason, we explore and develop the concept of deviance (Becker, 1963) for organizations theoretically to explore standard compliance/noncompliance in practice on the one hand. On the other hand, we suggest that the concept of deviance from standards can specify for whom a certain deviation is purposeful and for whom not. Thus, contrary to existing managerial literature on deviance focusing on individual deviant behavior (Kidwell & Martin, 2005), we consider it as important to emphasize the relative nature of compliance and deviance. This way we also make the analytical concept of deviance proliferous for organizational analysis and explore standard compliance as a multidimensional concept. To underline the creation of deviance by standards we deliver initial qualitative, ethnographic reflections from ongoing empirical research.

  • 30.
    Langer, Sarah
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Monitoring of standard enactment for exploration and exploitation2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Andrea Fried, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 256-270Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, Sarah Langer and Andrea Fried reflect on the relationship between standards and innovation. They observe how studies of the relationship between standards and innovation show contradictory results; standards can both enable and constrain innovation. There are several reviews that deal with the question of the standard–innovation nexus and come to the same conclusion that the results are not satisfactory thus far. By identifying reflexive, diagnostic, self-monitoring, and inadequate ways of monitoring standard enactment, the standard–innovation nexus can be explained in a novel way. The authors suggest that the way in which organizations monitor deviations from standards influences whether their organizational processes are explorative or exploitative in nature. The chapter concludes with propositions for further research.

  • 31.
    Langer, Sarah
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena.
    Gey, Ronny
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Karadzhova-Beyer, Diana
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Non-regulated deviance from standards at MetroEngineers2020In: Understanding deviance in a world of standards / [ed] Fried, Andrea, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 1, p. 189-237Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the case study MetroEngineers, Sarah Langer, Ronny Gey, Diana Karadzhova-Beyer, and Andrea Fried highlight organizational deviance from standards in the software development of a service engineering company for rail vehicles called MetroEngineers. Despite the initial intention to develop software according to European standards, the case study explains the reasons why the software developers deviate from standards nonetheless. First, software development at MetroEngineers is provided for a Chinese market which is hardly regulated through standards. Deviations from standards are therefore hardly sanctioned, but even MetroEngineers itself has not established an adequate internal sanctioning system for standard deviations. Second, MetroEngineers’ software developers lack allocative and authoritative resources for standard enactment and a lively internal discourse on the importance of standard-compliant development involving middle management and the customer. This means that software developers are ambitiously trying to develop in accordance with European standards, but ultimately fail to overcome the various contradictions that arise in standard enactment. This chapter represents one of the two manipulation-oriented types of organizational deviance introduced in the book.

  • 32.
    Sarah, Langer
    et al.
    Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Otto Schott Institute, Germany.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A phenomenological perspective on organizational deviance – the enactment of standards in software development2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Volker, Linss
    et al.
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Fried, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The ADVIAN® Classification - A New Classification Approach for the Rating of Impact Factors2010In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 77, p. 110-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new classification scheme for the impact analysis based on an impact matrix is presented. In contrast to the state-of-the-art methods the impact factors of a social system are not grouped into 4 or 5 groups but ranked according to different criteria. The criteria include for instance the driving impact factors as keys for improvements to the system and the driven impact factors that may be indicators for the improvement success. The ranking for each criterion is on a scalefrom 0 to 100, independent of the number of impact factors.

1 - 33 of 33
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