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  • 1.
    Alegret, Guillem
    et al.
    MAN Diesel & Turbo, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Llamas, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten
    MAN Diesel & Turbo, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modeling of a Large Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engine with Cylinder Bypass Valve and EGR System2015In: 10th IFAC Conference on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft MCMC 2015: Copenhagen, 24–26 August 2015 / [ed] Roberto Galeazzi and Mogens Blanke, IFAC Papers Online, 2015, Vol. 48, p. 273-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nonlinear mean value engine model (MVEM) of a two-stroke turbocharged marine diesel engine is developed, parameterized and validated against measurement data. The goal is to have a computationally fast and accurate engine model that captures the main dynamics and can be used in the development of control systems for the newly introduced EGR system. The tuning procedure used is explained, and the result is a six-state MVEM with seven control inputs that capture the main system dynamics.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Llamas, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekberg, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leek, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Turbochargers2017In: Dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Turbochargers: Advancements, Applications and Research / [ed] Evangelos G. Giakoumis, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2017, p. 176-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbochargers stand for the dominating dynamics in engines and in the design, analysis, and optimization of new engines, it becomes more and more important to analyze system interactions and dynamics. In the development process, modeling, simulation, and optimization have evolved from being used in research to being stan- dard tools for engineers and play an important role in the engine development. To be successful in the process, one needs to both have component models, and methods and tools where system models can be built, analyzed, and optimized. The component models should also have capabilities to extrapolate behavior outside the nominal re- gion since design explorations can go to extreme points while searching for optimal solutions.

    The first part of the chapter summarizes the compressor and turbine maps and how they can be used in simulation models. A generic model structure for compressors and turbines that fit into an engine modeling and simulation framework is described. Then the Ellipse compressor flow model and the Enthalpy based efficiency model will be described, they have been developed so that they can be integrated in a simulation environment and also used in optimization. Their main features are that they are ca- pable of extrapolating compressor behavior outside the normal range of the map in a physically sane way. In addition to this, a tuning method has been developed that takes a normal manufacturer map and returns all model parameters for compressor flow and efficiency models. Thereafter, compact turbine flow and efficiency models will be described.

    Then the attention is turned to simulation and optimization applications where compressor models are used. First an engine experiment where compressor surge oc- curs is modelled and used to illustrate the extrapolation capabilities using the models presented. Then the scope is turned to control and optimization of turbocharger opera- tion on an engine, where the focus will be on a VGT controlled diesel engine equipped with EGR. First the steady state mapping of the engine is demonstrated, then optimal control of the turbo operation is investigated using modern computer tools for dynamic optimization. 

  • 3.
    Llamas, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modeling and Control of EGR on Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international marine shipping industry is responsible for the transport of around 90% of the total world trade. Low-speed two-stroke diesel engines usually propel the largest trading ships. This engine type choice is mainly motivated by its high fuel efficiency and the capacity to burn cheap low-quality fuels. To reduce the marine freight impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has introduced stricter limits on the engine pollutant emissions. One of these new restrictions, named Tier III, sets the maximum NOx emissions permitted. New emission reduction technologies have to be developed to fulfill the Tier III limits on two-stroke engines since adjusting the engine combustion alone is not sufficient. There are several promising technologies to achieve the required NOx reductions, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of them.  For automotive applications, EGR is a mature technology, and many of the research findings can be used directly in marine applications. However, there are some differences in marine two-stroke engines, which require further development to apply and control EGR.

    The number of available engines for testing EGR controllers on ships and test beds is low due to the recent introduction of EGR. Hence, engine simulation models are a good alternative for developing controllers, and many different engine loading scenarios can be simulated without the high costs of running real engine tests. The primary focus of this thesis is the development and validation of models for two-stroke marine engines with EGR. The modeling follows a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) approach, which has a low computational complexity and permits faster than real-time simulations suitable for controller testing. A parameterization process that deals with the low measurement data availability, compared to the available data on automotive engines, is also investigated and described. As a result, the proposed model is parameterized to two different two-stroke engines showing a good agreement with the measurements in both stationary and dynamic conditions.

    Several engine components have been developed. One of these is a new analytic in-cylinder pressure model that captures the influence of the injection and exhaust valve timings without increasing the simulation time. A new compressor model that can extrapolate to low speeds and pressure ratios in a physically sound way is also described. This compressor model is a requirement to be able to simulate low engine loads. Moreover, a novel parameterization algorithm is shown to handle well the model nonlinearities and to obtain a good model agreement with a large number of tested compressor maps. Furthermore, the engine model is complemented with dynamic models for ship and propeller to be able to simulate transient sailing scenarios, where good EGR controller performance is crucial. The model is used to identify the low load area as the most challenging for the controller performance, due to the slower engine air path dynamics. Further low load simulations indicate that sensor bias can be problematic and lead to an undesired black smoke formation, while errors in the parameters of the controller flow estimators are not as critical. This result is valuable because for a newly built engine a proper sensor setup is more straightforward to verify than to get the right parameters for the flow estimators.

    List of papers
    1. Parameterizing Compact and Extensible Compressor Models Using Orthogonal Distance Minimization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parameterizing Compact and Extensible Compressor Models Using Orthogonal Distance Minimization
    2017 (English)In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 139, no 1, p. 012601-1-012601-10, article id GTP-15-1569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A complete and compact control-oriented compressor model consisting of a mass flow submodel and an efficiency submodel is described. The final application of the model is a complete two-stroke mean value engine model (MVEM) which requires simulating the compressor operating at the low-flow and low-pressure ratio area. The model is based on previous research done for automotive-size compressors, and it is shown to be general enough to adapt well to the characteristics of the marine-size compressors. A physics-based efficiency model allows, together with the mass flow model, extrapolating to low-pressure ratios. The complexity of the model makes its parameterization a difficult task; hence, a method to efficiently estimate the 19 model parameters is proposed. The method computes analytic model gradients and uses them to minimize the orthogonal distances between the modeled speed lines (SpLs) and the measured points. The results of the parameter estimation are tested against nine different standard marine-size maps showing good agreement with the measured data. Furthermore, the results also show the importance of estimating the parameters of the mass flow and efficiency submodels at the same time to obtain an accurate model. The extrapolation capabilities to low-load regions are also tested using low-load measurements from an automotive-size compressor. It is shown that the model follows the measured efficiency trend down to low loads.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME Press, 2017
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136199 (URN)10.1115/1.4034152 (DOI)000395511600016 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Union [634135]

    Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Control-Oriented Compressor Model with Adiabatic Efficiency Extrapolation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control-Oriented Compressor Model with Adiabatic Efficiency Extrapolation
    2017 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, E-ISSN 1946-3944, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Downsizing and turbocharging with single or multiple stages has been one of the main solutions to decrease fuel consumption and harmful exhaust emissions, while keeping a sufficient power output. An accurate and reliable control-oriented compressor model can be very helpful during the development phase, as well as for engine calibration, control design, diagnostic purposes or observer design. A complete compressor model consisting of mass flow and efficiency models is developed and motivated. The proposed model is not only able to represent accurately the normal region measured in a compressor map but also it is capable to extrapolate to low compressor speeds. Moreover, the efficiency extrapolation is studied by analyzing the known problem with heat transfer from the hot turbine side, which introduces errors in the measurements done in standard gas stands. Since the parameterization of the model is an important and necessary step in the modeling, a tailored parameterization approach is presented based on Total Least Squares. A standard compressor map is the only data required to parameterize the model. The parameterization is tested with a database of more than 230 compressor maps showing that it can deal well with different compressor sizes and characteristics. Also, general initialization values for the model parameters are provided using the complete database parameterization results. The results show that the model accuracy is good and in general achieves relative errors below one percent. A comparison of the model accuracy for compressor maps with and without heat transfer influence is carried out, showing a similar model accuracy for both cases but better when no heat transfer is present. Furthermore, it is shown that the model is capable to predict the efficiency characteristics at low speed of two compressor maps, measured with near adiabatic conditions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    United States: S A E Inc., 2017
    National Category
    Control Engineering Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136799 (URN)10.4271/2017-01-1032 (DOI)
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 634135
    Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2018-01-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Modeling of a Large Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engine with Cylinder Bypass Valve and EGR System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling of a Large Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engine with Cylinder Bypass Valve and EGR System
    2015 (English)In: 10th IFAC Conference on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft MCMC 2015: Copenhagen, 24–26 August 2015 / [ed] Roberto Galeazzi and Mogens Blanke, IFAC Papers Online, 2015, Vol. 48, p. 273-278Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nonlinear mean value engine model (MVEM) of a two-stroke turbocharged marine diesel engine is developed, parameterized and validated against measurement data. The goal is to have a computationally fast and accurate engine model that captures the main dynamics and can be used in the development of control systems for the newly introduced EGR system. The tuning procedure used is explained, and the result is a six-state MVEM with seven control inputs that capture the main system dynamics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IFAC Papers Online, 2015
    Keywords
    Engine modeling, diesel engines, parametrization, validation, nonlinear systems
    National Category
    Control Engineering Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136802 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.10.292 (DOI)2-s2.0-84992491352 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    10th IFAC Conference on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft
    Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
    4. A Model of a Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engine with EGR for Low Load Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model of a Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engine with EGR for Low Load Simulation
    2016 (English)In: 9th EUROSIM Congress, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mean value engine model of a two-stroke ma-rine diesel engine with EGR that is capable of simulatingduring low load operation is developed. In order to beable to perform low load simulations, a compressor modelcapable of low speed extrapolation is also investigated andparameterized for two different compressors. Moreover, aparameterization procedure to get good parameters for bothstationary and dynamic simulations is described and applied.The model is validated for two engine layouts of the same testengine but with different turbocharger units. The simulationresults show a good agreement with the different measuredsignals, including the oxygen content in the scavengingmanifold.

    Keywords
    Modeling, Parameterization, Simulations, Exhaust gas recirculation, Combustion engines
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136804 (URN)
    Conference
    9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation. 12 - 16 September 2016 in Oulu, Finland.
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 634135
    Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
    5. Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications
    2019 (English)In: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment (Part M), ISSN 1475-0902, E-ISSN 2041-3084, Vol. 233, no 2, p. 551-574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Large marine two-stroke diesel engines are widely used as propulsion systems for shipping worldwide and are facing stricter NOx emission limits. Exhaust gas recirculation is introduced to these engines to reduce the produced combustion NOx to the allowed levels. Since the current number of engines built with exhaust gas recirculation is low and engine testing is very expensive, a powerful alternative for developing exhaust gas recirculation controllers for such engines is to use control-oriented simulation models. Unfortunately, the same reasons that motivate the use of simulation models also hinder the capacity to obtain sufficient measurement data at different operating points for developing the models. A mean value engine model of a large two-stroke diesel with exhaust gas recirculation that can be simulated faster than real time is presented and validated. An analytic model for the cylinder pressure that captures the effects of changes in the fuel control inputs is also developed and validated with cylinder pressure measurements. A parameterization procedure that deals with the low number of measurement data available is proposed. After the parameterization, the model is shown to capture the stationary operation of the real engine well. The transient prediction capability of the model is also considered satisfactory which is important if the model is to be used for exhaust gas recirculation controller development during transients. Furthermore, the experience gathered while developing the model about essential signals to be measured is summarized, which can be very helpful for future applications of the model. Finally, models for the ship propeller and resistance are also investigated, showing good agreement with the measured ship sailing signals during maneuvers. These models give a complete vessel model and make it possible to simulate various maneuvering scenarios, giving different loading profiles that can be used to investigate the performance of exhaust gas recirculation and other controllers during transients.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2019
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147828 (URN)10.1177/1475090218768992 (DOI)000470866500011 ()
    Conference
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
    Note

    Funding agencies: European Union [634135]

    Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2019-07-15
  • 4.
    Llamas, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Model of a Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engine with EGR for Low Load Simulation2016In: 9th EUROSIM Congress, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mean value engine model of a two-stroke ma-rine diesel engine with EGR that is capable of simulatingduring low load operation is developed. In order to beable to perform low load simulations, a compressor modelcapable of low speed extrapolation is also investigated andparameterized for two different compressors. Moreover, aparameterization procedure to get good parameters for bothstationary and dynamic simulations is described and applied.The model is validated for two engine layouts of the same testengine but with different turbocharger units. The simulationresults show a good agreement with the different measuredsignals, including the oxygen content in the scavengingmanifold.

  • 5.
    Llamas, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control-Oriented Compressor Model with Adiabatic Efficiency Extrapolation2017In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, E-ISSN 1946-3944, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Downsizing and turbocharging with single or multiple stages has been one of the main solutions to decrease fuel consumption and harmful exhaust emissions, while keeping a sufficient power output. An accurate and reliable control-oriented compressor model can be very helpful during the development phase, as well as for engine calibration, control design, diagnostic purposes or observer design. A complete compressor model consisting of mass flow and efficiency models is developed and motivated. The proposed model is not only able to represent accurately the normal region measured in a compressor map but also it is capable to extrapolate to low compressor speeds. Moreover, the efficiency extrapolation is studied by analyzing the known problem with heat transfer from the hot turbine side, which introduces errors in the measurements done in standard gas stands. Since the parameterization of the model is an important and necessary step in the modeling, a tailored parameterization approach is presented based on Total Least Squares. A standard compressor map is the only data required to parameterize the model. The parameterization is tested with a database of more than 230 compressor maps showing that it can deal well with different compressor sizes and characteristics. Also, general initialization values for the model parameters are provided using the complete database parameterization results. The results show that the model accuracy is good and in general achieves relative errors below one percent. A comparison of the model accuracy for compressor maps with and without heat transfer influence is carried out, showing a similar model accuracy for both cases but better when no heat transfer is present. Furthermore, it is shown that the model is capable to predict the efficiency characteristics at low speed of two compressor maps, measured with near adiabatic conditions.

  • 6.
    Llamas, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications2019In: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment (Part M), ISSN 1475-0902, E-ISSN 2041-3084, Vol. 233, no 2, p. 551-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large marine two-stroke diesel engines are widely used as propulsion systems for shipping worldwide and are facing stricter NOx emission limits. Exhaust gas recirculation is introduced to these engines to reduce the produced combustion NOx to the allowed levels. Since the current number of engines built with exhaust gas recirculation is low and engine testing is very expensive, a powerful alternative for developing exhaust gas recirculation controllers for such engines is to use control-oriented simulation models. Unfortunately, the same reasons that motivate the use of simulation models also hinder the capacity to obtain sufficient measurement data at different operating points for developing the models. A mean value engine model of a large two-stroke diesel with exhaust gas recirculation that can be simulated faster than real time is presented and validated. An analytic model for the cylinder pressure that captures the effects of changes in the fuel control inputs is also developed and validated with cylinder pressure measurements. A parameterization procedure that deals with the low number of measurement data available is proposed. After the parameterization, the model is shown to capture the stationary operation of the real engine well. The transient prediction capability of the model is also considered satisfactory which is important if the model is to be used for exhaust gas recirculation controller development during transients. Furthermore, the experience gathered while developing the model about essential signals to be measured is summarized, which can be very helpful for future applications of the model. Finally, models for the ship propeller and resistance are also investigated, showing good agreement with the measured ship sailing signals during maneuvers. These models give a complete vessel model and make it possible to simulate various maneuvering scenarios, giving different loading profiles that can be used to investigate the performance of exhaust gas recirculation and other controllers during transients.

  • 7.
    Llamas, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    LiU CPgui: A Toolbox for Parameterizing Compressor Models2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A toolbox for parameterizing the ellipse model, that is a control-oriented compressor model, to any given measured compressor map is described in detail in this document. The compressor model has been developed in previous publications and shown to be capable of accurately reproducing the measured data obtained from gas stand measurements, for a wide range of compressors, starting from small automotive applications to large compressors used in marine propulsion. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to extrapolate both mass flow and efficiency to the unmeasured low speed region of the compressor in a physical way. The parameterization algorithm is based on Total Least Squares (TLS), which is shown here and in previous publications to be a fast and reliable approach to fit the compressor model to the map. The toolbox is implemented in a Matlab Graphical User Interface (GUI) in order to make it easy for the user to parameterize the compressor model. To demonstrate the workflow and ease of use, a complete step-by-step example of how to work with the toolbox is provided. To further facilitate the user in applying the model, the package also provides implementations of the ellipse compressor model both as a Matlab function and as a Simulink block. This way, the user can quickly and reliably use the results of the parameterization process in a desired application, e.g. including the compressor model of a given compressor map in a combustion engine simulation model.

  • 8.
    Llamas, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optimal Transient Control of a Heavy DutyDiesel Engine with EGR and VGT2014In: Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress / [ed] Boje, Edward, Xia, Xiaohua, Cape Town, South Africa: IFAC Papers Online, 2014, Vol. 19, p. 11854-11859Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal control of a heavy duty diesel engine with EGR and VGT during transients is investigated. Minimum time and fuel optimal control problems are defined for transients from low to high output torque. A validated diesel engine model is used with minor changes in order to be suitable for the selected solver. The problem is solved for several feasible minimum EGR fractions and smoke-limiter values in order to provide comparisons. The optimization results show that the smoke-limiter has great effect on the transient duration while the required EGR fraction influences the control signals' shape. The fuel optimal control keeps the control actuators more closed than the time optimal, however both time and fuel optimal results become very similar when high EGR fractions and smoke-limiter values are required.

  • 9.
    Llamas, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parameterizing Compact and Extensible Compressor Models Using Orthogonal Distance Minimization2017In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 139, no 1, p. 012601-1-012601-10, article id GTP-15-1569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A complete and compact control-oriented compressor model consisting of a mass flow submodel and an efficiency submodel is described. The final application of the model is a complete two-stroke mean value engine model (MVEM) which requires simulating the compressor operating at the low-flow and low-pressure ratio area. The model is based on previous research done for automotive-size compressors, and it is shown to be general enough to adapt well to the characteristics of the marine-size compressors. A physics-based efficiency model allows, together with the mass flow model, extrapolating to low-pressure ratios. The complexity of the model makes its parameterization a difficult task; hence, a method to efficiently estimate the 19 model parameters is proposed. The method computes analytic model gradients and uses them to minimize the orthogonal distances between the modeled speed lines (SpLs) and the measured points. The results of the parameter estimation are tested against nine different standard marine-size maps showing good agreement with the measured data. Furthermore, the results also show the importance of estimating the parameters of the mass flow and efficiency submodels at the same time to obtain an accurate model. The extrapolation capabilities to low-load regions are also tested using low-load measurements from an automotive-size compressor. It is shown that the model follows the measured efficiency trend down to low loads.

  • 10.
    Llamas, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundström, Christofer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fuel Efficient Speed Profiles for Finite Time Gear Shift with Multi-Phase Optimization2013In: 54th SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modelling, SIMS 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method that finds fuel optimal speed profiles for traveling a predefined distance is presented. The vehicle is modeled using a quasistatic formulation and an optimal control problem is defined. In addition, the solving method is based on a multi-phase optimization algorithm based on dynamic programming. This approach results in lower computational time than solving the problem directly with dynamic programming, it also makes the computational time independent of the travel distance. In addition, the simulation generated data can be used to get the solution to several optimal control problems in parallel that have additional constraints. Further a finite time gear shift model is presented to include the gear selection in the optimization problem. The problem also considers speed losses and fuel consumption during the maneuver. The results presented show the optimal speed and gear profiles to cover a distance, making special emphasis at the acceleration phase, where it is optimal to perform a fast acceleration to engage the highest gear as soon as possible. Finally a proposed application is to use the simulation data to provide eco-driving tips to the driver.

  • 11.
    Thomasson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Llamas, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turbo Speed Estimation Using Fixed-Point Iteration2017In: WCX 17: SAE World Congress Experience, 4-6 April 2017, Detroit, MI, USA, United States, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern turbocharged engines the power output is strongly connected to the turbocharger speed, through the flow characteristics of the turbocharger. Turbo speed is therefore an important state for the engine operation, but it is usually not measured or controlled directly. Still the control system must ensure that the turbo speed does not exceed its maximum allowed value to prevent damaging the turbocharger. Having access to a turbo speed signal, preferably by a cheap and reliable estimation instead of a sensor, could be beneficial for over speed protection and supervision of the turbocharger.

    This paper proposes a turbo speed observer that only utilizes the conditions around the compressor and a model for the compressor map. These conditions are either measured or can be more easily estimated from available sensors compared the conditions on the turbine side. The observer utilizes an ellipse model for the compressor that outputs pressure ratio as a function of turbo speed and compressor mass flow, alternatively mass flow as a function of pressure ratio and turbo speed. The model is however hard to solve analytically for the turbo speed, which is the state to be estimated. To solve this problem a fixed-point iteration is proposed, where the turbo speed estimation from the previous sample step together with measured mass flow is used to estimate the pressure ratio. The estimation is then compared to the measured pressure ratio and the difference is used to update the turbo speed estimation for the next iteration.

    The observer is first validated in simulation showing that it converges exactly when the model is perfect. Robustness to model errors and noise is then shown using engine experiments where the observer converges to track the measured turbo speed.

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