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  • 1.
    Busse, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aspects of Crack Growth in Single-Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloys2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Licentiate of Engineering thesis is a product of the results generated in the research project KME-702, which comprises modelling, microstructure investigations and material testing of cast nickel-base superalloys.

    The main objective of this work is to model the fatigue crack propagation behaviour in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys. To achieve this, the influence of the crystal orientations on the cracking behaviour is assessed. The results show that the crystal orientation is strongly affecting the material response and must be accounted for. Furthermore, a linear elastic crack driving force parameter suitable for describing crystallographic cracking has been developed. This parameter is based on resolved anisotropic stress intensity factors and is able to predict the correct crystallographic cracking plane after a transition from a Mode I crack. Finally, a method to account for inelastic deformations in a linear elastic fracture mechanics context was investigated. A residual stress field is extracted from an uncracked finite-element model with a perfectly plastic material model and superimposed on the stress field from the cracked model with a linear elastic material model to account for the inelastic deformations during the determination of the crack driving force. The modelling work is validated by material testing on two different specimen geometries at different temperatures.

    This Licentiate of Engineering thesis consists of two parts, where Part I gives an introduction and background to the research area, while Part II consists of three papers.

    List of papers
    1. A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CRYSTAL ORIENTATION AND MISALIGNMENT ON THE CRACK DRIVING FORCE IN A SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CRYSTAL ORIENTATION AND MISALIGNMENT ON THE CRACK DRIVING FORCE IN A SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME TURBO EXPO: TURBINE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, 2016, VOL 7A, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016, no UNSP V07AT28A002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elastic and plastic anisotropy of the single-crystal materials bring many difficulties in terms of modeling, evaluation and prediction of fatigue crack growth. In this paper a single-crystal material model has been adopted to a finite element-environment, which is paired with a crack growth tool. All simulations are performed in a three-dimensional context. This methodology makes it possible to analyze complex finite element-models, which are more application-near than traditional two-dimensional models. The influence of the crystal orientation, as well as the influence of misalignments of the crystal orientation due to the casting process are investigated. It is shown that both the crystal orientation and the misalignment from the ideal crystal orientation are important for the crack driving force. The realistic maximum limit of 10 degrees misalignment is considered. It can be seen that crack growth behavior is highly influenced by the misalignment. This knowledge is of great interest for the industry in order to evaluate the crack growth in single-crystal components more accurately.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 2016
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132570 (URN)10.1115/GT2016-56305 (DOI)000385461600011 ()978-0-7918-4983-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ASME Turbo Expo: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
    Available from: 2016-11-14 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-19
    2. Three-Dimensional LEFM Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gas Turbine Disk Material at Component Near Conditions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-Dimensional LEFM Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gas Turbine Disk Material at Component Near Conditions
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 138, no 4, article id 042506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the possibility to use linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), with and without a superimposed residual stress field, to predict fatigue crack propagation in the gas turbine disk material Inconel 718 has been studied. A temperature of 400 degrees C and applied strain ranges corresponding to component near conditions have been considered. A three-dimensional crack propagation software was used for determining the stress intensity factors (SIFs) along the crack path. In the first approach, a linear elastic material behavior was used when analyzing the material response. The second approach extracts the residual stresses from an uncracked model with perfectly plastic material behavior after one loading cycle. As a benchmark, the investigated methods are compared to experimental tests, where the cyclic lifetimes were calculated by an integration of Paris law. When comparing the results, it can be concluded that the investigated approaches give good results, at least for longer cracks, even though plastic flow was taking place in the specimen. The pure linear elastic simulation overestimates the crack growth for all crack lengths and gives conservative results over all considered crack lengths. Noteworthy with this work is that the 3D-crack propagation could be predicted with the two considered methods in an LEFM context, although plastic flow was present in the specimens during the experiments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME, 2016
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126240 (URN)10.1115/1.4031526 (DOI)000371125800020 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB through Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-702]; Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2019-11-19
  • 2.
    Busse, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modelling of Crack Growth in Single-Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloys2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation was produced at the Division of Solid Mechanics at Linköping University and is part of a research project, which comprises modelling, microstructure investigations and material testing of cast nickel-base superalloys. The main objective of this work was to deepen the understanding of the fracture behaviour of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys and to develop a model to predict the fatigue crack growth behaviour. Frequently, crack growth in these materials has been observed to follow one of two distinct cracking modes; Mode I like cracking perpendicular to the loading direction or crystallographic crack growth on the octahedral {111}-planes, where the latter is associated with an increased fatigue crack growth rate. Thus, it is of major importance to account for this behaviour in component life prediction. Consequently, a model for the prediction of the transition of cracking modes and the correct active crystallographic plane, i.e. the crack path, and the crystallographic crack growth rate has been developed. This model is based on the evaluation of appropriate crack driving forces using three-dimensional finite-element simulations. A special focus was given towards the influence of the crystallographic orientation on the fracture behaviour. Further, a model to incorporate residual stresses in the crack growth modelling is presented. All modelling work is calibrated and validated by experiments on different specimen geometries with different crystallographic orientations. This dissertation consists of two parts, where Part I gives an introduction and background to the field of research, while Part II consists of six appended papers.

    List of papers
    1. A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CRYSTAL ORIENTATION AND MISALIGNMENT ON THE CRACK DRIVING FORCE IN A SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CRYSTAL ORIENTATION AND MISALIGNMENT ON THE CRACK DRIVING FORCE IN A SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME TURBO EXPO: TURBINE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, 2016, VOL 7A, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016, no UNSP V07AT28A002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elastic and plastic anisotropy of the single-crystal materials bring many difficulties in terms of modeling, evaluation and prediction of fatigue crack growth. In this paper a single-crystal material model has been adopted to a finite element-environment, which is paired with a crack growth tool. All simulations are performed in a three-dimensional context. This methodology makes it possible to analyze complex finite element-models, which are more application-near than traditional two-dimensional models. The influence of the crystal orientation, as well as the influence of misalignments of the crystal orientation due to the casting process are investigated. It is shown that both the crystal orientation and the misalignment from the ideal crystal orientation are important for the crack driving force. The realistic maximum limit of 10 degrees misalignment is considered. It can be seen that crack growth behavior is highly influenced by the misalignment. This knowledge is of great interest for the industry in order to evaluate the crack growth in single-crystal components more accurately.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 2016
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132570 (URN)10.1115/GT2016-56305 (DOI)000385461600011 ()978-0-7918-4983-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ASME Turbo Expo: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
    Available from: 2016-11-14 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-19
    2. Prediction of crystallographic cracking planes in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of crystallographic cracking planes in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 196, p. 206-223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The inherent anisotropy of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys brings many difficulties in terms of modelling, evaluation and prediction of fatigue crack growth. Two models to predict on which crystallographic plane cracking will occur is presented. The models are based on anisotropic stress intensity factors resolved on crystallographic slip planes calculated in a three-dimensional finite-element context. The developed models have been compared to experiments on two different test specimen geometries. The results show that a correct prediction of the crystallographic cracking plane can be achieved. This knowledge is of great interest for the industry and academia to better understand and predict crack growth in single-crystal materials.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Single-crystal nickel-base superalloys; Anisotropy; Fracture mechanics; Stress intensity factor; Crystallographic cracking
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148380 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2018.04.047 (DOI)000432704300014 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-702]

    Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2019-11-19
    3. Evaluation of the crystallographic fatigue crack growth rate in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the crystallographic fatigue crack growth rate in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 127, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cracks in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys have been observed to switch cracking mode from Mode I to crystallographic cracking. The crack propagation rate is usually higher on the crystallographic planes compared to Mode I, which is important to account for in crack growth life predictions. In this paper, a method to evaluate the crystallographic fatigue crack growth rate, based on a previously developed crystallographic crack driving force parameter, is presented. The crystallographic crack growth rate was determined by evaluating heat tints on the fracture surfaces of the test specimens from the experiments. Complicated crack geometries including multiple crystallographic crack fronts were modelled in a three dimensional finite element context, The data points of the crystallographic fatigue crack growth rate collapse on a narrow scatter band for the crystallographic cracks indicating a correlation with the previously developed crystallographic crack driving force.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
    Keywords
    Single-crystal nickel-base superalloys; Finite element analysis; Fracture mechanics; Stress intensity factor; Crystallographic cracking; Fatigue crack growth rate
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160388 (URN)10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2019.05.023 (DOI)000482492600024 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University; Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-11-19
    4. Three-Dimensional LEFM Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gas Turbine Disk Material at Component Near Conditions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-Dimensional LEFM Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gas Turbine Disk Material at Component Near Conditions
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 138, no 4, article id 042506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the possibility to use linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), with and without a superimposed residual stress field, to predict fatigue crack propagation in the gas turbine disk material Inconel 718 has been studied. A temperature of 400 degrees C and applied strain ranges corresponding to component near conditions have been considered. A three-dimensional crack propagation software was used for determining the stress intensity factors (SIFs) along the crack path. In the first approach, a linear elastic material behavior was used when analyzing the material response. The second approach extracts the residual stresses from an uncracked model with perfectly plastic material behavior after one loading cycle. As a benchmark, the investigated methods are compared to experimental tests, where the cyclic lifetimes were calculated by an integration of Paris law. When comparing the results, it can be concluded that the investigated approaches give good results, at least for longer cracks, even though plastic flow was taking place in the specimen. The pure linear elastic simulation overestimates the crack growth for all crack lengths and gives conservative results over all considered crack lengths. Noteworthy with this work is that the 3D-crack propagation could be predicted with the two considered methods in an LEFM context, although plastic flow was present in the specimens during the experiments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME, 2016
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126240 (URN)10.1115/1.4031526 (DOI)000371125800020 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB through Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-702]; Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2019-11-19
  • 3.
    Busse, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, David
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Rasmusson, Patrik
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Sjodin, Bjorn
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Three-Dimensional LEFM Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gas Turbine Disk Material at Component Near Conditions2016In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 138, no 4, article id 042506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the possibility to use linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), with and without a superimposed residual stress field, to predict fatigue crack propagation in the gas turbine disk material Inconel 718 has been studied. A temperature of 400 degrees C and applied strain ranges corresponding to component near conditions have been considered. A three-dimensional crack propagation software was used for determining the stress intensity factors (SIFs) along the crack path. In the first approach, a linear elastic material behavior was used when analyzing the material response. The second approach extracts the residual stresses from an uncracked model with perfectly plastic material behavior after one loading cycle. As a benchmark, the investigated methods are compared to experimental tests, where the cyclic lifetimes were calculated by an integration of Paris law. When comparing the results, it can be concluded that the investigated approaches give good results, at least for longer cracks, even though plastic flow was taking place in the specimen. The pure linear elastic simulation overestimates the crack growth for all crack lengths and gives conservative results over all considered crack lengths. Noteworthy with this work is that the 3D-crack propagation could be predicted with the two considered methods in an LEFM context, although plastic flow was present in the specimens during the experiments.

  • 4.
    Busse, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Loureiro Homs, Jordi
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, David
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Palmert, Frans
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Sjodin, Bjorn
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CRYSTAL ORIENTATION AND MISALIGNMENT ON THE CRACK DRIVING FORCE IN A SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME TURBO EXPO: TURBINE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, 2016, VOL 7A, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016, no UNSP V07AT28A002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elastic and plastic anisotropy of the single-crystal materials bring many difficulties in terms of modeling, evaluation and prediction of fatigue crack growth. In this paper a single-crystal material model has been adopted to a finite element-environment, which is paired with a crack growth tool. All simulations are performed in a three-dimensional context. This methodology makes it possible to analyze complex finite element-models, which are more application-near than traditional two-dimensional models. The influence of the crystal orientation, as well as the influence of misalignments of the crystal orientation due to the casting process are investigated. It is shown that both the crystal orientation and the misalignment from the ideal crystal orientation are important for the crack driving force. The realistic maximum limit of 10 degrees misalignment is considered. It can be seen that crack growth behavior is highly influenced by the misalignment. This knowledge is of great interest for the industry in order to evaluate the crack growth in single-crystal components more accurately.

  • 5.
    Busse, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palmert, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjodin, B.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Almroth, P.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, D.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Prediction of crystallographic cracking planes in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys2018In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 196, p. 206-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inherent anisotropy of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys brings many difficulties in terms of modelling, evaluation and prediction of fatigue crack growth. Two models to predict on which crystallographic plane cracking will occur is presented. The models are based on anisotropic stress intensity factors resolved on crystallographic slip planes calculated in a three-dimensional finite-element context. The developed models have been compared to experiments on two different test specimen geometries. The results show that a correct prediction of the crystallographic cracking plane can be achieved. This knowledge is of great interest for the industry and academia to better understand and predict crack growth in single-crystal materials.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-05-05 15:21
  • 6.
    Busse, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palmert, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Wawrzynek, Paul
    Fracture Anal Consultants Inc, NY USA.
    Sjodin, Bjorn
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, David
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crystallographic crack propagation rate in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys2018In: 12TH INTERNATIONAL FATIGUE CONGRESS (FATIGUE 2018), E D P SCIENCES , 2018, Vol. 165, article id 13012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystal nickel-base superalloys are often used in the hot sections of gas turbines due to their good mechanical properties at high temperatures such as enhanced creep resistance. However, the anisotropic material properties of these materials bring many difficulties in terms of modelling and crack growth prediction. Cracks tend to switch cracking mode from Mode I cracking to crystallographic cracking. Crystallographic crack growth is often associated with a decrease in crack propagation life compared to Mode I cracking and this must be taken into account for reliable component lifing. In this paper a method to evaluate the crystallographic crack propagation rate related to a crystallographic crack driving force parameter is presented. The crystallographic crack growth rate is determined by an evaluation of heat tints on the fracture surface of a specimen subjected to fatigue loading. The complicated crack geometry including two crystallographic crack fronts is modelled in a three dimensional finite element context. The crack driving force parameter is determined by calculating anisotropic stress intensity factors along the two crystallographic crack fronts by finite-element simulations and post-processing the data in a fracture mechanics tool that resolves the stress intensity factors on the crystallographic slip planes in the slip directions. The evaluated crack propagation rate shows a good correlation for both considered crystallographic cracks fronts.

  • 7.
    Palmert, Frans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, David
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Busse, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fatigue crack growth behaviour of an alternative single crystal nickel base superalloy2018In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 109, p. 166-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fatigue crack growth behaviour of a single crystal nickel base superalloy was studied at three different temperatures (20 degrees C, 500 degrees C and 750 degrees C) and three different crystallographic orientations. At the highest testing temperature, the influence of hold time at maximum load was also evaluated. Under some of the testing conditions, crystallographic crack growth occurred along {1 1 1} planes, which were non-perpendicular to the loading direction. The propensity for crystallographic cracking was observed to be strongly temperature dependent with a maximum occurring at the intermediate testing temperature of 500 degrees C. During non-crystallographic, Mode I crack growth the crack tended to avoid the gamma particles and propagated preferentially through the gamma matrix.

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