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  • 1.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Transport Economics, Stockholm.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    European Railway Deregulation: An overview of market organization and capacity allocation2022In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 594-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway markets in Europe have been reorganized to allow competition between different operators. Thus, European railways have been vertically separated, separating infrastructure management from provisions of train services. This allows several train operators to compete for passengers and freight services. Different ways have emerged for vertical separation, capacity allocation and track access charges. This paper reviews, compares and discusses important deregulation aspects, using examples from a number of European countries to show different possible solutions. The study describes how competition has been introduced and regulated, with a particular focus on describing the different ways capacity is allocated and how conflicting requests by different train operators are resolved. It also reviews the related issue of how access charges are constructed and applied. Although guided by the same European legislation, we conclude that the studied railways have different deregulation outcomes, e.g., market organization, capacity allocation. Besides, few countries have so far managed to create efficient and transparent processes for allocating capacity between competing train operators. Although allowed by the legislation, market-based allocation is absent or never used. In order to foster more competition which can yield substantial social benefits, the survey indicates that most European railways still need to develop and experiment with more efficient and transparent capacity allocation procedures.

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  • 2.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The value of additional data for public transport origin–destination matrix estimation2022In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 419-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passenger origin–destination data is an important input for public transport planning. In recent years, new data sources have become increasingly common through the use of the automatic collection of entry counts, exit counts and link flows. However, collecting such data can be sometimes costly. The value of additional data collection hence has to be weighed against its costs. We study the value of additional data for estimating time-dependent origin–destination matrices, using a case study from the London Piccadilly underground line. Our focus is on how the precision of the estimated matrix increases when additional data on link flow, destination count and/or average travel distance is added, starting from origin counts only. We concentrate on the precision of the most policy-relevant estimation outputs, namely, link flows and station exit flows. Our results suggest that link flows are harder to estimate than exit flows, and only using entry and exit data is far from enough to estimate link flows with any precision. Information about the average trip distance adds greatly to the estimation precision. The marginal value of additional destination counts decreases only slowly, so a relatively large number of exit station measurement points seem warranted. Link flow data for a subset of links hardly add to the precision, especially if other data have already been added.

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  • 3.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Stockholm.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), Solna.
    Warg, Jennifer
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Are commuter train timetables consistent with passengers' valuations of waiting times and in-vehicle crowding?2022In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 116, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social cost-benefit analysis is often used to analyse transport investments, and can also be used for transport operation planning and capacity allocation. If it is to be used for resolving capacity conflicts, however, it is important to know whether transit agencies' timetable requests are consistent with the cost-benefit framework, which is based on passenger preferences. We show how a public transport agency's implicit valuations of waiting time and crowding can be estimated by analysing timetables, apply the method to commuter train timetables in Stockholm, and compare the implicit valuations to the corresponding passenger valuations in the official Swedish cost-benefit analysis guidelines. The results suggest that the agency puts a slightly lower value on waiting time and crowding than the passenger valuations codified in the official guidelines. We discuss possible reasons for this and implications for using cost-benefit analysis for capacity allocation. We also find that optimal frequencies are more sensitive to the waiting time valuation than to that of crowding.

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  • 4.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. VTI.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Trafikverket.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH.
    Measuring the Socio-economic Benefits of Train Timetables: Application to Commuter Train Services in Stockholm2017In: / [ed] Domokos Esztergár-Kiss, Tamás Mátrai, János Tóth, István Varga, 2017, Vol. 27, p. 849-856Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On highly used railway lines with heterogeneous traffic, timetabling is challenging. In particular, the limited existing capacity means that to guarantee an acceptable level of quality, the infrastructure manager must cancel some train services on the expense of others. In this article, we study the conflict between commercial long-distance trains and subsidized commuter trains with a socio-economic perspective (i.e. travelers and train operators). The study attempts to answer the following question: What is the socio-economic effect of modifying the timetable of a commuter service?

    The case study treats the commuter train services in Stockholm. Trip data was collected from the local commuter train operator. An entropy maximization-based model was implemented to estimate the dynamic network Origin-Destination (OD) matrix. This dynamic matrix, of one full working day, was then used to estimate the number of travelers per train, and further converted for use in the microscopic simulation tool RailSys. Travel and waiting time are estimated for each OD pair and with that the generalized costs for the travelers and operators. The effect of crowding in the trains is included in the estimation. The article can be considered as an initiation to a novel method to calculate effects of changes in commuter train timetables. This novel approach enables to price commercial train slots in the capacity allocation process such as in an auction. It provides a new way to estimate the local train operator´s valuation of the different parameters (i.e. waiting, travel time and interchanges). Using RailSys for the estimation of times makes it possible to include capacity aspects that normally are difficult to reveal.

  • 5.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A disaggregate bundle method for train timetabling problems2020In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 16, article id 100200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The train timetabling problem (TTP) consists of finding a feasible timetable for a number of trains which minimises some objective function, e.g., sum of running times or deviations from ideal departure times. One solution approach is to solve the dual problem of the TTP using so-called bundle methods. This paper presents a new bundle method that uses disaggregate data, as opposed to the standard bundle method which in a certain sense relies on aggregate data. We compare the disaggregate and aggregate methods on realistic train timetabling scenarios from the Iron Ore line in Northern Sweden. Numerical results indicate that the proposed disaggregate method reaches better solutions faster than the standard aggregate approach.

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  • 6.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. VTI.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pricing commercial train path requests based on societal costs2020In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 132, p. 452-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On deregulated railway markets, efficient capacity allocation is important. We study the case where commercial trains and publicly controlled traffic (“commuter trains”) use the same railway infrastructure and hence compete for capacity. We develop a method that can be used by an infrastructure manager trying to allocate capacity in a socially efficient way. The method calculates the loss of societal benefits incurred by changing the commuter train timetable to accommodate a commercial train path request, and based on this calculates a reservation price for the train path request. If the commercial operator’s willingness-to-pay for the train path exceeds the loss of societal benefits, its request is approved. The calculation of these benefits takes into account changes in commuter train passengers’ travel times, waiting times, transfers and crowding, and changes in operating costs for the commuter train operator(s). The method is implemented in a microscopic simulation program, which makes it possible to test the robustness and feasibility of timetable alternatives. We show that the method is possible to apply in practice by demonstrating it in a case study from Stockholm, illustrating the magnitudes of the resulting commercial train path prices. We conclude that marginal societal costs of railway capacity in Stockholm are considerably higher than the current track access charges.

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  • 7.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, Transport och lokaliseringsanalys (stängd 20110301).
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Transek AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, Transport och lokaliseringsanalys (stängd 20110301).
    Is it time to use activity-based urban transport models? A discussion of planning needs and modelling possibilities2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 767-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some decades now, transport researchers have put considerable efforts into developing what is called activity-based approaches for modelling urban travel demand. The basic idea is that travel demand is derived from people's desires to take part in different activities. In particular, the interrelationships among different activities with respect to temporal and spatial constraints are in focus. It means that such models treat the activities and the travelling of the households with respect to where and when the activities can be carried out and how they may be scheduled, given characteristics of the households and potential opportunities, the transport networks and various institutional constraints. We discuss what demands we see on future travel demand models, with a focus on urban analysis. This discussion is somewhat biased towards what role activity-based models could play in meeting these demands. We then review in some detail three prominent and distinctly different representatives of operational activity-based models to give an indication of what new modelling possibilities they offer. Theoretical appeal, empirical validity, usefulness for planning, need for data and easiness of implementation are discussed. In the final section we draw some conclusions about the prospects of these models and of their descendants.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, Sweden; WSP Analysis & Strategy, Sweden.
    Brundell-Freij, K.
    WSP Analysis & Strategy, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Sweden.
    Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 96, p. 101-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have compared Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 with the actual outcomes, and we found substantial differences between forecasts of passenger kilometers by mode and actual outcomes. In forecasts produced since the early 1990 s, road and air traffic growth rates have generally been overpredicted. Aggregate railway growth has been fairly accurate, but commercial long-distance railway growth has been overpredicted, and the growth of subsidized intra-regional railway travel has been underpredicted (following vast unanticipated supply increases). Focusing on car traffic forecasts, we show that a very large share of forecast errors can be explained by input variables turning out to be different than what was assumed in the forecasts. Even the original forecasts are much closer to actual outcomes than simple trendlines would have been, and once the input assumptions are corrected, the forecasts vastly outperform simple trendlines. The potential problems of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes thus seem to be limited. This tentative conclusion is also supported by the finding that elasticities from the cross-sectional models are consistent with those from a time-series model.

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  • 9.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    Center for Transport Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; WSP Analysis & Strategy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglund, Svante
    Center for Transport Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm,Sweden; WSP Analysis & Strategy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Center for Transport Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Matts
    Center for Transport Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; WSP Analysis & Strategy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Congestion Charges and Labour Market Imperfections2016In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 113-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures will not capture all benefits and losses if there are labour market imperfections. In the case of congestion charges, theoretical analyses have raised concerns that these effects may constitute considerable losses, possibly to the extent that aggregate welfare is reduced, contrary to conventional wisdom. We investigate this by estimating the effects on labour income of the Stockholm congestion charges, using an estimated relationship between accessibility and income. Results show that effects on labour income are, in fact, positive. It turns out to be crucial that the model accounts for value-of-time heterogeneity.

  • 10.
    Asplund, Disa
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden; Örebro University School of Business, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik, Sweden.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Provided that decisions are based on CBA outcomes, reducing uncertainty is still worthwhile, however, because of the huge sums at stake. Even moderate reductions of uncertainties about unit values, investment costs, future demand and project effects may increase the realized benefits infrastructure investment plans by tens or hundreds of million euros. We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 11.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    Department for Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Department for Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Department for Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Explaining “peak car” with economic variables2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 88, p. 236-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP and fuel prices. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel; what we are experiencing is not just a temporary plateau, but a true “peak car”. However, this study shows that the traditional variables GDP and fuel price are in fact sufficient to explain the observed trends in car traffic in all the countries included in our study: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and (to a large extent) Australia and Germany. We argue that the importance of the fuel price increases in the early 2000s has been underappreciated in the studies that shaped the later debate. Results also indicate that GDP elasticities tend to decrease with rising GDP, and that fuel price elasticities tend to increase at high price levels and during periods of rapid price increases.

  • 12.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    Department for Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Department for Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Department for Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Response to Wadud and Baierl: “Explaining ‘peak car’ with economic variables: An observation”2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, p. 386-389Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Broman, Emanuel
    et al.
    KTH, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Sweden.
    Market dynamics in on-rail competition2017In: 19th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT2016 / [ed] Celikoglu, HB Lav, AH Silgu, MA, Elsevier , 2017, p. 232-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-rail competition is perhaps the most far-reaching form of deregulation of the railways, giving travellers several options on a single line. It aims to lower fairs and raise quality of service, thereby boosting demand and social welfare. Concerns have been raised, however, regarding if effective competition is possible on such a market, allowing two or more operators to be profitable and eliminating through incentives or regulation the purchase by one operator of the others' access rights, thus restoring monopoly. In addition, the effect of competition on total welfare is unclear. The issue of how to regulate the market and conduct capacity allocation in order to maximise welfare is also as yet unanswered. Addressing these issues, the present paper studies a duopoly market through simulations. It builds on the hypothesis that competition occurs between trains with close departure times. Results indicate that total welfare increases significantly when going from profit-maximising monopoly to competition, as consumers make large gains while operators' profits fall. The way the regulator allocates departure slots has significant importance for market outcomes, including prices, frequencies and total welfare. In particular, it is possible to improve welfare by regulating the succession of departures. If trading in access rights is allowed, a would-be monopolist has incentives to buy its competitors' slots for a price they would accept. A monopolist that uses high frequency of departures as a deterrence strategy against competition increases frequency a lot compared to the profit-maximising level.

  • 14.
    Broman, Emanuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE, Kista, Sweden.
    Efficient capacity allocation on deregulated railway markets2022In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 21, article id 100294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As railway markets are increasingly deregulated, coordinating and prioritising between capacity requests becomes more complex and more important. This paper describes the advantages and challenges of different allocation methods in vertically separated open-access railway markets, with several railway operators and heterogeneous traffic, and where a public infrastructure manager must resolve operators conflicting path requests. Three broad groups of allocation methods are described: administrative methods, allocation by social cost-benefit analysis and willingness-to-pay based allocation. We describe pros and cons of these allocation principles for three different market segments: commercial traffic with long planning horizons, (subsidized) traffic controlled by public transport agencies, and traffic with short planning horizons. We then outline an allocation process that meets the requirements of a deregulated market better than conventional methods. It is a mixed method, which uses an auction-like mechanism to allocate pre-defined paths to commercial operators on specified, capacity-constrained lines. The net social benefits of capacity reserved for traffic controlled by public transport agencies is assessed through social cost-benefit analysis of timetables. The benefits decrease when timetables are adjusted to make room for additional commercial train paths; the size of this loss determines the reservation price of the auction-like mechanism. Dynamic pricing is used for short-term allocation on congested line segments.

  • 15.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bastian, Anne
    City of Stockholm, Sweden .
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Transport Adm, Sweden.
    The economics of low emission zones2021In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 153, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides two microeconomic models that derive the social cost of a low emission zone (LEZ) for light vehicles. We apply the models to a proposed LEZ for light vehicles in Stockholm, which would prohibit diesel cars of Euro 5 or lower and gasoline cars of Euro 4 or lower in the inner city (25 km2) and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed LEZ. The first model is based on how an increase in user cost impacts traffic volumes in the inner city. This rather conventional user cost calculation of drivers loss requires however some strong assumptions. The second model shows that drivers losses can be calculated based on price changes observed on the used car market. Our empirical results indicate that the welfare loss resulting from the two models are of the same magnitude. The forecast benefits of the LEZ consist primarily of air quality improvements leading to health benefits. Even if our empirical results must be interpreted with caution, it seems clear that the costs considerably outweigh the benefits in this case study.

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  • 16.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Sweden.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Sweden.
    Not invented here: Transferability of congestion charges effects2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the effects of congestion charges rely on specific features of a city and its transport system. We use Stockholm, and its current congestion charging scheme, as a case study by making various modifications in the transport system influencing the availability and attractiveness of public transport, bypasses and bottleneck capacities. We use a transport model to forecast the effects of the Stockholm charges given each transport system modification. Our main conclusion is that although the social benefit of a given charging system is considerably and non-linearly dependent on initial congestion levels, traffic effects and adaptations costs are surprisingly stable across transport system modifications. Specifically, the level of public transport provision has only small effects on baseline congestion, and therefore on the total benefit of the charges. Contrary to expectation, the charges' effect on traffic volumes remains virtually unchanged regardless of the changes in public transport supply. All results are compared to and consistent with the one-market standard model. We interpret our results with respect to common arguments against the transferability of experiences from cities having introduced congestion charges.

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  • 17.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, p. 144-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a synthesis of results and insights from the Swedish Value of Time study, with focus on what is relevant for transport appraisal and understanding travel behavior. We summarize recent econometric advances, and show how these enable a better understanding and identification of the value of time distribution. The influence of the sign and size of changes is estimated and discussed, including the problems of loss aversion and the value of small time savings. Further, we show how the value of time depends on trip and traveler characteristics, discuss in what dimensions the value of time should be differentiated in appraisal, and provide recommended values for use in applied transport appraisal.

  • 18.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a synthesis of results and insights from the Swedish Value of Time study, with focus on what is relevant for transport appraisal and understanding travel behaviour. We summarize recent econometric advances, and show how these enable a better understanding and identification of the value of time distribution. The influence of the sign and size of changes is estimated and discussed, including the problems of loss aversion and the value of small time savings. Further, we show how the value of time depends on trip and traveller characteristics, discuss in what dimensions the value of time should be differentiated in appraisal, and provide recommended values for use in applied transport appraisal.

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  • 19.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finanspolitiska rådet, 2015.: Svensk finanspolitik. Underlagsrapport2015Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hur mycket kan förbättringar för cyklister bidra till att minska vägträngseln och förbättra miljön? PM till TV42010Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Centre for Transport Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Centre for Transport Studies KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är upplagd på följande sätt. I kapitel 2 beskrivs vad som ingår i en samhällsekonomisk kalkyl och hur den tas fram. Kapitel 3 redovisar våra slutsatser om hur samhällsekonomiska kalkyler påverkar beslut om infrastrukturinvesteringar. I kapitel 4 diskuteras vanliga invändningar mot kalkyler, till exempel att inte alla effekter finns med eller att den är att resultatet påverkas starkt av antagande om förutsättningar, till exempel framtida bränslepriser etc. Kapitel 5 diskuterar mer utförligt vad det svaga sambandet mellan samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och beslut kan bero på, vilka problem det kan leda till och vad man skulle kunna göra åt det för att få en effektivare resursanvändning i transportsektorn.

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  • 22.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 171-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how passengers on long-distance trains value unexpected delays relative to scheduled travel time and travel cost. For scheduled services with high reliability and long headways, the value of delays is most commonly assumed to be proportional to the average delay. By exploring how the valuation of train delays depends on delay risk and delay length, using three different stated choice data sets, we find that the "average delay" approach does not hold: the disutility increases slower than linearly in the delay risk. This means that using the average delay as a performance indicator, a guide for operations planning or for investment appraisal will underestimate the value of small risks of long delays relative to large risks for short delays. It also means that estimated valuations of "average delay" will depend on the delay risk level: valuations will be higher the lower the risk levels in the study are.

  • 23.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Stockholm City Transportation Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Should values of time be differentiated?2019In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 357-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the issue of differentiating the valuation of travel time savings (VTTS) in transport cost-benefit analysis, summarising and discussing theories forming the basis for arguments for and against VTTS differentiation. We stress some important implications, insights and consequences of different assumptions relating to these theories, many of which we feel have been underappreciated in much of the CBA literature and practice. We derive a welfare rule including a social cost for monetary redistributions and show the implications for how the VTTS can be defined in different choice situations. Crucially, the applicable VTTS definition depends on whether travel costs (fares) are under public control and to whom benefits accrue in the long run. In some choice situations, the VTTS should be controlled for differences in income, but it is important to always take into account differences in marginal utilities of time (e.g. across travel time components, modes and trip purposes). Using Swedish data, we show that controlling the VTTS for income differences changes the VTTS only slightly; the variation in VTTS across modes, trip lengths, trip purposes apparently stems primarily from differences in marginal utilities of time rather than income.

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  • 24.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    The benefits of cycling: Viewing cyclists as travellers rather than non-motorists2012In: Cycling and sustainability / [ed] John Parkin, Emerald Group Publishing Limited , 2012, p. 247-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This chapter provides a think piece on economic evaluation and policy for cycling. Bicycle investments are often motivated by a desire to improve health, the environment and congestion conditions. However, we argue that since the bicycle is a part of the transport system, it should be evaluated as such. Focusing on implications for cycling appraisal in general, we also discuss two conflicting trends in Stockholm: a sharp decrease in cycling in the outer areas, and a sharp increase in the inner parts. Methodology – We use (i) travel survey data to analyse the potential to reduce congestion through improvements for cyclists, (ii) travel survey data from 1986 to 1987 and 2004 and bicycle counts over 25 years and (iii) a value of time survey of Stockholm cyclists including questions of exercise habits. Findings – Additional benefits in appraisal from reduced car traffic and improved health seem to be small. Given bicyclists’ high values of time and low investment costs, bicycling investments are still likely to be socially beneficial. The conflicting bicycling trends can be explained by (i) increased road congestion and improved bicycle infrastructure, (ii) increased visibility of bicyclists generating a ‘positive spiral’, (iii) increased interest in physical fitness and changes in the relative prices of cars versus central residences turn cycling into a high-status mode and (iv) in peripheral areas, increasing distances and less dense land use patterns decrease cycling levels. Practical implications – The results underscore the need for dense, mixeduse spatial planning and ‘smart’ marketing using the effects of cyclist visibility to reinforce the ‘status’ of cycling.

  • 25.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 673-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists' value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis. Bicyclists seem to take health largely into account when making their travel choices, implying that it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, our results suggest that bicycle should be viewed as a competitive mode of travel and not primarily as a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis. Bicyclists seem to take health largely into account when making their travel choices, implying that it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, our results suggest that bicycle should be viewed as a competitive mode of travel and not primarily as a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 27.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The value of time of car drivers choosing route: evidence from the Stockholm congestion charging trial2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Centre for Transport Studies - WSP Analysis & Strategy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Centre for Transport Studies - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Train passengers' valuation of travel time unreliability2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on train passengers? valuation of travel time unreliability (unexpected delays). We also discuss the theoretical underpinning and empirical performance of different ways to measure travel time unreliability, and propose a new way of presenting stated choice questions.

    Investments in rail infrastructure are often motivated by the need to reduce travel time and to reduce travel time unreliability. Knowing travellers? valuation of travel time unreliability relative to in-vehicle time and travel cost is hence important for cost-benefit analysis of rail investments, and for choosing the most (socially) efficient timetable. Knowledge of travellers? valuation of delays is also crucial for the possibility of constructing useful incentive contracts between th Swedish Rail Administration and the train operators, and for operators in order to optimise their own operations.

    The data source consists of two slightly different stated preference surveys conducted on long-distance trains in Sweden, covering the segments business travellers and private travellers. The first survey was conducted in April-May 2003, in which 402 respondents travelling between Stockholm and Göteborg were recruited and interviewed. 2270 travellers, recruited in different train types operating the rail stretching between Malmö and Stockholm, participated in the second study conducted in May 2006.

    Both surveys, the second in particular, were preceded by careful piloting improving the respondent?s ability to interpret the risk of the presented delays. In the second study, a new variation of stated choice questions were tested, where respondents were asked for the ?most preferred improvement? relative to their current trip. Respondents were instructed to pick one out of four improvements varying between the survey questions: frequency of delay, length of delay, cost and compensation as compared to their current trip. Pairwise choices of the standard type were also included in the same survey, in order to test the relative performance of the two methods. The ?most preferred improvement? questions gave satisfying results in line with the pairwise choices. Both results from the survey and focus group studies indicate that the ?most preferred improvement? questions were easier to answer, hence improving the quaility of the results and possibly also the response rate. In particular, the method seemed to improved the respondent?s ability to interpret and value varying levels of frequency of delays, which has proven to be difficult in the pilot studies as well as in several earlier studies (see e.g. Bates et al, 2001).

    The standard measure of travel time unreliability in public transit (including long-distance trains, as in this case) is the average lateness of the train. The disutility of the unreliable travel time is then assumed to be proportional to the mean of the delay (compared to the scheduled arrival time). We show, however, that this does not seem to hold; while the disutility seem to be a linear function of the length of the delay (given a certain delay risk level), the disutility depends non-linearly on the risk level. It turns out, as a first result of this study, that valuation of infrequent delays is significantly higher (per minute) than less frequent delays. We also give theoretical evidence why this should be expected (as long as there is some heterogeneity among travellers). This means that studies of the value of an ? average minute of delay? resulting from a study will depend on the risk level(s) assumed in the study, and is hence potentially misleading. We show - using these two studies and examples from the literature - that studies with high risk levels tend to get lower valuations of an ?average minute of delay?. Finally, we show that characterising travel time unreliability with the standard deviation of the travel time has much better explanatory power. This is also supported by theoretical evidence (see also Bates et al., 2001, and Fosgerau and Karlström, 2007).

    Finally, the impact different kinds of compensations and information on train passenger?s valuation of unexpected delays were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that compensations and information have a significant effect on traveller?s valuation of unexpected delays, which potentially has important implications for cost-benefit analysis and incentive contracts.

  • 29.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Centre for Transport Studies, WSP Analysis and Strategy, Sweden.
    The Stockholm congestion charges-5 years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2012In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 20, no SI, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesising recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 30.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Valuations of travel time variability in scheduling versus mean-variance models2012In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 855-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard method of estimating the value of travel time variability for use in policy appraisal is to estimate the parameters of a reduced-form utility function, where some measure of travel time variability (such as the standard deviation) is included. A problem with this approach is that the obtained valuation will in general depend on the standardized travel time distribution, and hence cannot be transferred from one context to another. A recently suggested remedy for this problem has been to estimate a scheduling model, which in theory is transferrable, and use the implied reduced-form to derive valuations for use in appraisal. In this paper we estimate both a scheduling model and the implied reduced-form model, using stated choice data. The valuation of travel time variability implied by the scheduling model turns out to be substantially smaller than what is obtained from a reduced-form model estimated on the same sample. The results suggest that the scheduling model does not capture all of the disutility arising from travel time variability. Hence, although it can be shown that scheduling and reduced-form models are theoretically equivalent, that hypothesized equivalence is not reflected in the empirical evidence. We speculate that the derivation of reduced-form models from an underlying scheduling model omits two essential features: first, the notion of an exogenously fixed "preferred arrival time" neglects the fact that most activities can be rescheduled given full information about the travel times in advance, and second, disutility may be derived from uncertainty as such, in the form of anxiety, decisions costs or costs for having contingency plans. We also report our estimates of the valuation of travel time variability for public transit trips, for use in applied appraisal.

  • 31.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franklin, Joel
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Valuations of travel time variability in scheduling versus mean-variance models2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard method of estimating the value of travel time variability for use in policy appraisal is to estimate the parameters of a reduced-form utility function, where some measure of travel time variability (such as the standard deviation) is included. A problem with this approach is that the obtained valuation will in general depend on the standardized travel time distribution, and hence cannot be transferred from one context to another. A recently suggested remedy of this problem has been to estimate a scheduling model, which in theory is transferrable, and use the implied reduced-form to derive valuations for use in appraisal. In this paper we estimate both a scheduling model and the implied reduced-form model, using stated choice data. The valuation of travel time variability implied by the scheduling model turns out to be substantially smaller than what is obtained from a reduced-form model estimated on the same sample. The results suggest that the scheduling model does not capture all of the disutility arising from travel time variability. Hence, although it can be shown that scheduling and reduced-form models are “theoretically equivalent”, that hypothesized equivalence is not reflected in the empirical evidence. We speculate that the derivation of reduced-form models from an underlying scheduling model omits two essential features: first, the notion of an exogenously fixed “preferred arrival time” neglects the fact that most activities can be rescheduled given full information about the travel times in advance, and second, disutility may be derived from uncertainty as such, in the form of anxiety, decisions costs or costs for having contingency plans. We also report our estimates of the valuation of travel time variability for public transit trips, for use in applied appraisal.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 32.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hugosson, Muriel
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & strategy, Sweden.
    The Stockholm congestion charges - five years on: effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesizing recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 33.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wieweg, Lena
    ASEKs uppgifter och arbetsuppläggning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Infrastrukturens påverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt2013Book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Infrastrukturens påverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt2013In: Tillväxt- och sysselsättningseffekterav infrastrukturinvesteringar,FoU och utbildning – En litteraturöversikt, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2013, , p. 153p. 23-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Johnsson Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Why experience changes attitudes to congestion pricing: The case of Gothenburg2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 85, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities have seen public support for congestion charges increase substantially after charges have been introduced. Several alternative explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested, but so far little evidence has been available to assess the relative importance of these explanations. We study attitudes to congestion pricing in Gothenburg before and after congestion charges were introduced in January 2013. Attitudes to the charges did indeed become more positive after the introduction, just as in previous cities. Using a two-wave postal survey, we separate contributions to the attitude change from a number of sources: benefits and costs being different than anticipated, use of hypothecated revenues, reframing processes, and changes in related attitudes such as attitudes to environment, equity, taxation and pricing measures in general. We conclude that the dominant reason for the attitude change is status quo bias, rather than any substantial changes in beliefs or related attitudes, although some of these factors also contribute. Contrary to a common belief, nothing of the attitude change is due to benefits being larger than anticipated.

  • 37.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS..
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS..
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik..
    Trängselskatt på Essingeleden minskar trängseln kraftigt. PM till TV4 201104252011Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tågens höghastighetsbanor en dålig affär för samhället: DN debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kågesson, Per
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ett gigantiskt projekt med oklart syfte2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-04Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Centre for Transport Studies, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Centre for Transport Studies, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Levander, A
    Centre for Transport Studies, Royal Institute of Technology.
    The value of time of car drivers choosing route: evidence from the Stockholm congestion charging trial2007In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, Leiden, Netherlands, 2007, p. 14-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In applied travel demand forecasting (including network modeling), congestion charges are generally assumed to affect travelers in the same way as fuel costs and other travel costs do. However, there are several reasons to believe that congestion charges affect drivers differently than for example fuel costs: for exampel, it is more ?visible?, since you (as a rule) pay each time you pass a cordon (or equivalent), and it is often connected with a certain amount of hassle to actually pay the charge (calling a customer service, for example). Moreover, the way car drivers actually weigh travel time versus monetary cost when they choose route is largely unknown, since time and monetary cost are in general so correlated (as opposed to values of time in mode choice etc.).

    Data from the Stockholm congestion charging trial allow us to explore this question in detail. Car drivers traveling between the northern part of the county and the southern part could choose either to go through the cordon (paying two charges ? 20-40 SEK depending on the time of day) or use the Essinge bypass, which was free of charge ? a considerable detour for some trip relations. We use a large panel travel survey conducted before and during the charging trial to estimate the charging cost sensitivity compared to fuel cost sensitivity, and also estimate the actual value of time car drivers reveal when choosing route. Note that due to e.g. selection bias or travelers? imperfect information about costs, this value of tme may differ from the average value of time for all travelers and also from the average value time for car drivers.

    The results is very applicable, in that it is easily incorporated into widely used traffic models (network equilibrium models or equivalent), allowing us to make more precise forecasts of the effects of congestion charges. It should also allow us to make more precise route choice modeling in other cases where routes have clearly different monetary costs.

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  • 41.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    WSP Analysis & Strategy; Centre for Transport Studies, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Levander, Anders
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    The value of time of car drivers choosing route: evidence from the Stockholm congestion charging trial2007In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE EUROPEAN TRANSPORT CONFERENCE (ETC) 2007 HELD 17-19 OCTOBER 2007, LEIDEN, THE NETHERLANDS, Leiden, Netherlands, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In applied travel demand forecasting (including network modeling), congestion charges are generally assumed to affect travelers in the same way as fuel costs and other travel costs do. However, there are several reasons to believe that congestion charges affect drivers differently than for example fuel costs: for exampel, it is more “visible”, since you (as a rule) pay each time you pass a cordon (or equivalent), and it is often connected with a certain amount of hassle to actually pay the charge (calling a customer service, for example). Moreover, the way car drivers actually weigh travel time versus monetary cost when they choose route is largely unknown, since time and monetary cost are in general so correlated (as opposed to values of time in mode choice etc.). 

    Data from the Stockholm congestion charging trial allow us to explore this question in detail. Car drivers traveling between the northern part of the county and the southern part could choose either to go through the cordon (paying two charges – 20-40 SEK depending on the time of day) or use the Essinge bypass, which was free of charge – a considerable detour for some trip relations. We use a large panel travel survey conducted before and during the charging trial to estimate the charging cost sensitivity compared to fuel cost sensitivity, and also estimate the actual value of time car drivers reveal when choosing route. Note that due to e.g. selection bias or travelers’ imperfect information about costs, this value of tme may differ from the average value of time for all travelers and also from the average value time for car drivers. The results is very applicable, in that it is easily incorporated into widely used traffic models (network equilibrium models or equivalent), allowing us to make more precise forecasts of the effects of congestion charges. It should also allow us to make more precise route choice modeling in other cases where routes have clearly different monetary costs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 42.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is CBA ranking of transport investments robust?2014In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 189-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analyses (CBA) are often questioned on the grounds that results depend crucially on uncertain assumptions about the future, and on ethically or methodologically contestable trade-offs between different types of benefits. This paper explores the robustness of CBA rankings of transport investments with respect to two types of uncertainties: relative benefit valuations and scenario assumptions related to car ownership, car characteristics and driving costs. The impact of differentiating the value of time with respect to travel mode and purpose is also studied. The study concludes that CBA rankings are robust to all of the studied variations.

  • 43.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Centrum för Transportstudier, KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Centrum för Transportstudier, KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odeck, James
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet.
    Welde, Morten
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet.
    Spelar samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet någon roll för infrastrukturbeslut?: En jämförelse mellan Sverige och Norge2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 15-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Norge använder samhällsekonomiska analyser för att prioritera mellan infrastrukturinvesteringar – eller säger sig åtminstone göra det. Vi analyserar nationella infrastrukturplaner från de två länderna för att undersöka om samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet spelar någon roll för vilka investeringar som väljs och om andra faktorer spelar roll. I den norska infrastrukturplanen 2014–23 verkar inte samhällsekonomisk effektivitet ha påverkat regeringens eller trafikverkens beslut överhuvudtaget. I den svenska infrastrukturplanen 2010–21 verkar effektivitet ha haft viss påverkan på trafikverkens investeringsförslag, men en närmast försumbar betydelse för regeringens beslut. I bägge länderna ökar sannolikheten att en investering genomförs om regeringen har högt väljarstöd i regionen.

  • 44.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odeck, James
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet, Trondheim, Norway.
    Welde, Morten
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet, Trondheim, Norway.
    Spelar samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet någon roll för infrastrukturbeslut?: En jämförelse mellan Sverige och Norge2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 15-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Norge använder samhällsekonomiska analyser för att prioritera mellan infrastrukturinvesteringar – eller säger sig åtminstone göra det. Vi analyserar nationella infrastrukturplaner från de två länderna för att undersöka om samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet spelar någon roll för vilka investeringar som väljs och om andra faktorer spelar roll. I den norska infrastrukturplanen 2014–23 verkar inte samhällsekonomisk effektivitet ha påverkat regeringens eller trafikverkens beslut överhuvudtaget. I den svenska infrastrukturplanen 2010–21 verkar effektivitet ha haft viss påverkan på trafikverkens investeringsförslag, men en närmast försumbar betydelse för regeringens beslut. I bägge länderna ökar sannolikheten att en investering genomförs om regeringen har högt väljarstöd i regionen.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 45.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    West, Jens
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    A dynamic stochastic model for evaluating congestion and crowding effects in transit systems2016In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 89, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common motivations for public transport investments is to reduce congestion and increase capacity. Public transport congestion leads to crowding discomfort, denied boardings and lower service reliability. However, transit assignment models and appraisal methodologies usually do not account for the dynamics of public transport congestion and crowding and thus potentially underestimate the related benefits. This study develops a method to capture the benefits of increased capacity by using a dynamic and stochastic transit assignment model. Using an agent-based public transport simulation model, we dynamically model the evolution of network reliability and on-board crowding. The model is embedded in a comprehensive framework for project appraisal.A case study of a metro extension that partially replaces an overloaded bus network in Stockholm demonstrates that congestion effects may account for a substantial share of the expected benefits. A cost-benefit analysis based on a conventional static model will miss more than a third of the benefits. This suggests that failure to represent dynamic congestion effects may substantially underestimate the benefits of projects, especially if they are primarily intended to increase capacity rather than to reduce travel times.

  • 46.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    West, Jens
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Appraisal of increased public transport capacity: The case of a new metro line to Nacka, Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Stockholm Congestion Charging System2009In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 468-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging system, based on the observed rather than on the model-forecasted data. The most important data sources are travel time and traffic flow measurements made in the year before the charges were introduced (during April 2005) and during the first spring with the charges (during April 2006, 4 months after the charges were introduced). Using matrix calibration, effects on the non-observed link flows and travel times are extrapolated, enabling us to calculate the social value of changes in travel times and travel costs. Impacts on traffic safety and emissions are calculated using standard Swedish CBA relationships. The system is shown to yield a significant social surplus, well enough to cover both investment and operating costs, provided that it is kept for a reasonable lifetime: investment and startup costs are "recovered" in terms of social benefits in around 4 years.

  • 48.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Congestion pricing2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Transport Economics / [ed] Jonathan Cowie, Stephen Ison, Taylor & Francis, 2018, p. 209-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental reason for the existence of cities is that they enable high accessibility. High accessibility is associated both with economic gains such as higher wages and productivity and opportunities to satisfy specialised interests and lifestyles. The history of human civilisation is a history of urbanisation. Scientific and cultural progress rest on two cornerstones: one is the written language, enabling us to communicate innovations and experiences over distance and time; the other is cities, which have always been our engines of innovations and discovery. Since the demand for and the rewards of high accessibility have accelerated over the last two centuries, this has fuelled urbanisation at an ever higher pace. 

  • 49.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Distributional effects of congestion charges and fuel taxes2021In: International Encyclopedia of Transportation / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Elsevier, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effekter av ändrade parkeringsavgifter i StockholmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med början under hösten 2016 infördes nya avgifter för gatuparkering iStockholms stad. I innerstaden utökades den avgiftsbelagda tiden, avgiften förboendeparkering höjdes och avgiften för besöksparkering i centrala city höjdes.I ytterstaden, där parkering tidigare inte varit avgiftsbelagd, infördesparkeringsavgifter på samtliga gator i relativt stora områden. Under 2017höjdes även felparkeringsavgifterna. Denna rapport redovisar effekterna avdessa förändringar, baserat på data fram till och med hösten 2018.

123 1 - 50 of 112
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