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  • 1.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA).
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Visualization and Haptics in Molecular Life Science - A Multi-sensory Representation of Proteins2006In: Third Scandinavian Symposium on Research in Science Education, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    SEE-SEP: From a separate to a holistic view on socio-scientific issues2010In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, E-ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 11, no 1, p. Article 2-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend of socioscientific issues (SSIs) has been emergent in the science- and technology-dominated society of today. Accordingly, during the past 20 years, students’ skills of argumentation and informal reasoning about SSIs have achieved greater emphasis and profile in school education. Based upon the importance of SSIs, more and more researchers have investigated how students reason and make arguments about SSIs, and also explored the dimensions influencing students’ arguments and also involved in the various SSIs. This article has a threefold purpose. Firstly, we want to address the different roles of SSIs in science education nowadays, and secondly, after reviewing the divergent dimensions involved in SSIs from previous literature, we want to provide a holistic view to represent the essence of SSIs via the SEE-SEP model (connecting six subject areas of Sociology/culture, Environment, Economy, Science, Ethics/morality and Policy with three aspects of value, personal experience and knowledge) developed here. Thirdly, to support the SEE-SEP model, examples extracted from former studies are presented. The implications for research and for school science education are discussed.

  • 3.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang, Chun-Yen
    NTNU.
    Tseng, Y-H
    NTNU.
    Cultural comparison of scientific literacy in media (SLiM) – From the perspective of biology subject2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang, C-Y
    NTNU.
    Comparing Swedish senior high and undergraduate students’ scientific literacy in media (SLiM) regarding biological terms2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att börja tala 'biokemiska': betydelsen av metaforer och hjälpord för meningsskapande kring proteiner2006In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 30-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the process of acquiring a subject-specific language. When confronted with the visual representations and scientific terms of molecular life science, students try to make meaning using the language they have access to and their prior experience. In this process students use a kind of intermediate language, with frequent use of metaphors. Some metaphors can be traced back to the teaching they have experienced, while some are spontaneous metaphors created by the students. They also make use of words that seemingly have no meaning, here referred to as helpwords. The results from this study indicate that spontaneous metaphors and helpwords are important in learning situations, especially in an abstract discipline such as molecular life science. This paper aims to give a preliminary theoretical description of the phenomenon of helpwords, based on an interview study of 20 students taking natural science courses in their upper secondary school education.

  • 6.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Betydelsen av metaforer och hjälpord för meningsskapande vid lärande av molekylärbiologi.2005In: Naturfagsdidaktikkens mange facetter.: The proceedings of Det 8 nordiske forskersymposium om undervisningen i naturfag, Ålborg/Denmark. / [ed] Bering, L.; Dolin, J.; Krogh, L. B.; Sølberg, J.; Sørensen, H. & Troelsen, R., Copenhagen: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag , 2005, p. 267-274Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Visual thinking, visual speech: a semiotic perspective on meaning-making in molecular life science2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular life science has become one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific and technical innovation. An important issue for tomorrow’s education is to meet the challenge posed by various facets of molecular life science. Images, diagrams and other forms of visualization are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science teaching and research, both for conveying information and as conceptual tools, transforming the way we think about the events and processes the subject covers.

    This thesis highlights different aspects of molecular life science education: the rapid production and flow of information, its multi- and interdisciplinary character, the complexity of life phenomena and our knowledge of them, and the high level of abstraction of the knowledge produced. This study also examines how upper secondary and tertiary students interpret visualizations of proteins. The participating upper secondary students were taking different variants of the natural science program in the second (grade 11) or third (grade 12) year. A set of 20 upper secondary students, and four third-year biochemistry students were interviewed in semistructured, revised clinical interviews. Furthermore, 31 university students participated in a group discussion and answered a questionnaire. The interviews, group discussions and questionnaires were structured around 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water molecules being transported through a channel in the cell membrane.

    Three critical features of the ability to visualize molecular processes were identified: the complexity of biomolecular processes, the dynamic and stochastic nature of biomolecular interaction, and extrapolation between 2D and 3D. The results also indicate that the students may possess an understanding of a process which they cannot express in words.

    Furthermore, the results indicate that beginner students use a kind of intermediate language when learning a new content area, frequently making use of metaphors, some that they have obtained from their teaching and some that they create themselves, i.e. spontaneous metaphors. They also make use of words that seemingly have no meaning, such as “plupp” and “flopp”. These words are here referred to as help-words. The results from this study indicate that spontaneous metaphors and helpwords do take on a meaning in learning situations and that they play a role in the meaning-making of the students. Moreover, the results indicate that difficulties in science education may to a large degree be connected to the problems of communicating the precise and general nature of scientific terms.

    List of papers
    1. Educational Challenges of Molecular Life Science- Characteristics and implications for education and research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educational Challenges of Molecular Life Science- Characteristics and implications for education and research
    2010 (English)In: CBE - Life Sciences Education, ISSN 1931-7913, E-ISSN 1931-7913, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular life science is one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific and technical innovation, and biotechnology has profound effects on many aspects of daily life, often with deep ethical dimensions. At the same time the content is inherently complex, highly abstract and deeply rooted in diverse disciplines ranging from “pure sciences,” such as maths, chemistry, and physics, through “applied sciences”, such as medicine and agriculture, to subjects that are traditionally within the remit of humanities, notably philosophy and ethics. Together these features pose diverse, important, and exciting challenges for tomorrow’s teachers and educational establishments.

    With backgrounds in molecular life science research and secondary life science teaching, we (LT and CJR, respectively) bring different experiences, perspectives, concerns, and awareness of these issues. Taking the nature of the discipline as a starting point, we highlight important facets of molecular life science that are both characteristic of the domain and challenging for learning and education. Of these challenges we focus in most detail on content, reasoning difficulties, and communication issues. We also discuss implications for education research and teaching in the molecular life sciences.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bethesda, MD, United States: American Society for Cell Biology, 2010
    Keywords
    Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Visualization, Complex learning, Abstraction, Multidisciplinary, Reasoning difficulties
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51568 (URN)10.1187/cbe.08-09-0055 (DOI)000284836100006 ()20194805 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    VisMolLS
    Note

    Original Publication: Lena Tibell and Carl-Johan Rundgren, Educational Challenges of Molecular Life Science- Characteristics and implications for education and research, 2010, CBE Life Sciences Education, (9), 1, 25-33. Copyright: American Society for Cell Biology http://www.ascb.org/

    Available from: 2009-11-07 Created: 2009-11-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Critical Features of Visualizations of Transport through the Cell Membrane: An Empirical Study of Upper Secondary and Tertiary Students' Meaning-Making of a Still Image and an Animation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Features of Visualizations of Transport through the Cell Membrane: An Empirical Study of Upper Secondary and Tertiary Students' Meaning-Making of a Still Image and an Animation
    2010 (English)In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 223-246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Images, diagrams and other forms of visualization are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science teaching and research, both for conveying information and as conceptual tools, transforming the way we think about the events and processes the subject covers. This study examines how upper secondary and tertiary students interpret visualizations of transport through the cell membrane in the form of a still image and an animation. Twenty upper secondary and five tertiary students were interviewed. In addition, 31 university students participated in a group discussion and answered a questionnaire regarding the animation. A model, based on variation theory, was then tested as a tool for distinguishing between what is expected to be learned, what is present in the visualizations, and what is actually learned by the students.

    Three critical features of the ability to visualize biomolecular processes were identified from the students’ interpretations of the animation: the complexity of biomolecular processes, the dynamic and random nature of biomolecular interactions, and extrapolation between 2D and 3D. The results of this study support the use of multiple representations to achieve different learning goals.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Dordrecht: Springer, 2010
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17662 (URN)10.1007/s10763-009-9171-1 (DOI)000292146300002 ()
    Note

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Carl-Johan A. Rundgren and Lena Tibell, Critical Features of Visualizations of Transport through the Cell Membrane: An Empirical Study of Upper Secondary and Tertiary Students' Meaning-Making of a Still Image and an Animation, 2010, International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, (8), 2, 223-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10763-009-9171-1 Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/

    Available from: 2009-04-08 Created: 2009-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Death of Metaphors in Life Science?: A study of upper secondary and tertiary students' use of metaphors and help-words in their meaning-making of scientific content.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Death of Metaphors in Life Science?: A study of upper secondary and tertiary students' use of metaphors and help-words in their meaning-making of scientific content.
    2009 (English)In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 10, no 3, p. Article 3-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The study reported in this article investigated the use of metaphors by upper secondary and tertiary students while learning a specific content area in molecular life science, protein function. Terms and expressions in science can be used in such precise and general senses that they are totally dissociated from their metaphoric origins. Beginners in a scientific field, however, lack the experience of using a term of metaphorical origin in its domain-specific precise and general sense, and may therefore be more cognitively affected than the expert by the underlying metaphor. The study shows that beginners in the field of molecular life science use spontaneous metaphors and metaphors used in teaching in a way that demonstrates that they have difficulty using the proper scientific terminology. The results of this study indicate, among other things, that difficulties in science education may, to a large degree, be connected with problems of communicating the generality and precision of scientific terms and metaphors used in science. The article ends with a suggestion as how to enable students to move from general and vague metaphoric uses of scientific terms toward a more general and precise usage.

    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19733 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-07-23 Created: 2009-07-23 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Help-words – a Creative Way of Making Sense of visualizations in molecular life science
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Help-words – a Creative Way of Making Sense of visualizations in molecular life science
    2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When confronted with the representations and terms of science, students make meaning using the knowledge and language they possess. They make frequent use of conventional expressions, but they also use words that seemingly have no conventional meaning, here labelled help-words. This study explores the verbal resources upper secondary students use to make meaning of molecular life science. The paper gives a description of the phenomenon of non-conventionalised expressions, help-words, based on a study of 20 upper secondary students. The results indicate that help-words are meaningful in learning situations, especially in abstract disciplines such as molecular life science.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Braga, Portugal: , 2010
    Keywords
    Help-words, Communication, Molecular life science
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52239 (URN)
    Conference
    ERIDOB 2010
    Available from: 2009-12-11 Created: 2009-12-11 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    5. Att börja tala 'biokemiska': betydelsen av metaforer och hjälpord för meningsskapande kring proteiner
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att börja tala 'biokemiska': betydelsen av metaforer och hjälpord för meningsskapande kring proteiner
    2006 (Swedish)In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 30-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the process of acquiring a subject-specific language. When confronted with the visual representations and scientific terms of molecular life science, students try to make meaning using the language they have access to and their prior experience. In this process students use a kind of intermediate language, with frequent use of metaphors. Some metaphors can be traced back to the teaching they have experienced, while some are spontaneous metaphors created by the students. They also make use of words that seemingly have no meaning, here referred to as helpwords. The results from this study indicate that spontaneous metaphors and helpwords are important in learning situations, especially in an abstract discipline such as molecular life science. This paper aims to give a preliminary theoretical description of the phenomenon of helpwords, based on an interview study of 20 students taking natural science courses in their upper secondary school education.

    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21102 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-09-29 Created: 2009-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Students’ conceptions of water transport
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students’ conceptions of water transport
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the diffusion of water into and out of the cell through osmosis is fundamental to the learning and teaching of biology. Although the movement of water into (and out of) the cell is typically thought of as occurring directly across the lipid bilayer, the major proportion of osmosis actually occurs via specialized transmembranal water-channels called aquaporins. The objective of this study was to investigate students’ prior knowledge of water transport from Taiwan and Sweden by three individual studies. A questionnaire with open-ended question and question using a Likert scale was used at upper secondary level and an open-ended questionnaire was developed to let university students draw and write down their ideas. The results generated from three individual studies including an initial study conducted with 118 Swedish upper secondary biology students, and the other two studies implemented in Taiwan with 101 non-science majors and in Sweden with 37 science majors enrolled in a third-year biochemistry course. The results from the initial study indicated that 50% of respondents to a questionnaire on diffusion seemed to be oblivious of the fact that water is transported through the cell membrane through specialised channels. The Taiwanese data showed that the non-science majors explained water transport mainly as a phenomenon occurring at a cellular level. Furthermore, the majority of the students showed no awareness of specialised water channels and seemed to think that water molecules can diffuse directly into (and out) of the cell membrane. From the Swedish students’ responses, surprisingly, one third of these “expert” students did not provide explanations of water transport that involved specialised water channels. In addition, a larger proportion of the students (41%) used explanations on a molecular level than the Taiwanese students, but the majority (54%) still based their explanations on cellular level descriptions of the process. The preliminary findings of the study presented here indicate that the majority of the students in this study thought that water penetrates the bilayer directly. Our results indicate that teaching the topic of diffusion is often not up to date with the current world-view of science.

    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52240 (URN)000285984200007 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Carl-Johan Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang Rundgren and Konrad Schönborn, Students’ conceptions of water transport, 2010, Journal of Biological Education, (44), 3, 129-135. Copyright: Institute of Biology http://www.iob.org/homeAvailable from: 2009-12-11 Created: 2009-12-11 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication . Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Meaning-Making in Molecular Life Science Education: upper secondary school students´interpretation of visualizations of proteins2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular life science has become one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific and technical innovation. An important issue for tomorrow-s education is to meet the challenge posed by various facets of molecular life science. This thesis highlights four aspects of molecular life science education: the rapid production and flow of information, its multi- and interdisciplinary character, the complexity of life phenomena and our knowledge of them, and the high level of abstraction of the knowledge produced. Images, diagrams and other forms of visualization are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science teaching and research, both for conveying information and as conceptual tools, transforming the way we think about the events and processes the subject covers. This study examines how upper secondary school students interpret visualizations of proteins. The participating students were taking different variants of the natural science program in the second (grade 11) or third (grade 12) year of their upper secondary school education in Sweden. A set of 107 students answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions about proteins, and 20 were interviewed in semi-structured, revised clinical interviews. The interviews were structured around 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water molecules being transported through a channel in the cell membrane. The results from the study indicate occurrence of alternative conceptions relating to scale and systems level, DNA-related problems and confusion about the properties of the cell membrane. Three sources of difficulties regarding the ability to visualize biomolecular processes were identified: the complexity of biomolecular processes, the dynamic nature of the processes and extrapolations between 2D and 3D conceptions. The results indicate that the students may possess an understanding of a process (expressed in the visual code) which they cannot express in words. The results also indicate that beginner students use a kind of intermediate language when learning a new content area, frequently making use of metaphors, some that they have obtained from their teaching and some that they create themselves, i.e. spontaneous metaphors. They also make use of words that seemingly have no meaning, such as -plupp- and -flopp-. These words are here referred to as helpwords. The results from this study indicate that spontaneous metaphors and helpwords do take on a meaning in learning situations and that they play a role in the meaning-making of the students.   

  • 9.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Upper Secondary School Students´ Interpretation of Visualizations of Proteins - A Case Study.2007In: ESERA 2007,2007, Malmö: Malmö högskola , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Images, diagrams and other forms of visualization are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science teaching and research, both for conveying information and as conceptual tools, transforming the way we think about the events and processes the subject covers. This study examines how upper secondary school students interpret visualizations of proteins in the form of 2D images and animations. A set of 107 students taking different variants of the natural science program answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions about proteins, and 20 were interviewed in semi-structured, revised clinical interviews. The interviews were structured around three 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water molecules being transported through a channel in the cell membrane. The results from the study indicate occurrence of alternative conceptions relating to scale and systems level, DNA-related problems and confusion about the properties of the cell membrane. Three sources of difficulties regarding the ability to visualize biomolecular processes were identified: the complexity of biomolecular processes, the dynamic nature of the processes and extrapolations between 2D and 3D conceptions.  

  • 10.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Critical Features of Visualizations of Transport through the Cell Membrane: An Empirical Study of Upper Secondary and Tertiary Students' Meaning-Making of a Still Image and an Animation2010In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 223-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Images, diagrams and other forms of visualization are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science teaching and research, both for conveying information and as conceptual tools, transforming the way we think about the events and processes the subject covers. This study examines how upper secondary and tertiary students interpret visualizations of transport through the cell membrane in the form of a still image and an animation. Twenty upper secondary and five tertiary students were interviewed. In addition, 31 university students participated in a group discussion and answered a questionnaire regarding the animation. A model, based on variation theory, was then tested as a tool for distinguishing between what is expected to be learned, what is present in the visualizations, and what is actually learned by the students.

    Three critical features of the ability to visualize biomolecular processes were identified from the students’ interpretations of the animation: the complexity of biomolecular processes, the dynamic and random nature of biomolecular interactions, and extrapolation between 2D and 3D. The results of this study support the use of multiple representations to achieve different learning goals.

  • 11.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang, C-Y
    NTNU.
    Are you SLiM from a biological perspective? -- Evaluating scientific literacy in media regarding biological terms2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Students’ conceptions of water transport2010In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the diffusion of water into and out of the cell through osmosis is fundamental to the learning and teaching of biology. Although the movement of water into (and out of) the cell is typically thought of as occurring directly across the lipid bilayer, the major proportion of osmosis actually occurs via specialized transmembranal water-channels called aquaporins. The objective of this study was to investigate students’ prior knowledge of water transport from Taiwan and Sweden by three individual studies. A questionnaire with open-ended question and question using a Likert scale was used at upper secondary level and an open-ended questionnaire was developed to let university students draw and write down their ideas. The results generated from three individual studies including an initial study conducted with 118 Swedish upper secondary biology students, and the other two studies implemented in Taiwan with 101 non-science majors and in Sweden with 37 science majors enrolled in a third-year biochemistry course. The results from the initial study indicated that 50% of respondents to a questionnaire on diffusion seemed to be oblivious of the fact that water is transported through the cell membrane through specialised channels. The Taiwanese data showed that the non-science majors explained water transport mainly as a phenomenon occurring at a cellular level. Furthermore, the majority of the students showed no awareness of specialised water channels and seemed to think that water molecules can diffuse directly into (and out) of the cell membrane. From the Swedish students’ responses, surprisingly, one third of these “expert” students did not provide explanations of water transport that involved specialised water channels. In addition, a larger proportion of the students (41%) used explanations on a molecular level than the Taiwanese students, but the majority (54%) still based their explanations on cellular level descriptions of the process. The preliminary findings of the study presented here indicate that the majority of the students in this study thought that water penetrates the bilayer directly. Our results indicate that teaching the topic of diffusion is often not up to date with the current world-view of science.

  • 13.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Tseng, Yuen-Hsien
    National Taiwan Normal University.
    Chang, Chun-Yen
    National Taiwan Normal University.
    Difficult biological concepts in media coverage2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of citizens to be able to understand and critically read and discuss the scientific reports presented in media is of inc creasing importance in science education. The SLiM (Scientific Literacy in Media) approach, on which this study is based, gives a possibility to measure scientific literacy based on the most commonly appearing scientific terms in news media. This study analyzed the 22 biology items from the prior SLiM study and identified the most difficult biology concepts for Taiwanese (N=619) and Swedish (N=117) non-science majors from university and upper secondary levels. The correct rate (%) of each item was analyzed to present students’ performances on each item. From the results, in general, it was found that Taiwanese students performed better than Swedish students at both university and upper secondary levels. However, Swedish university students were a bit better than the Taiwanese in definition-based (DB) items. Looking at the individual country, both Swedish and Taiwanese students’ performances on context-based (CB) items were better than DB items with significant difference (p<.01). Among the four items that were found difficult for both Swedish and Taiwanese students, two relates to biotechnology, and the other two are about function of enzymes and cell biology.

  • 14.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tseng, Yuen-Hsien
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei.
    Lin, Pei-Ling
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei.
    Chang, Chun-Yen
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei.
    Are you SLiM? Developing an instrument for civic scientific literacy measurement(SLiM) based on media coverage2012In: Public Understanding of Science, ISSN 0963-6625, E-ISSN 1361-6609, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 759-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument to assess civic scientific literacy in media (SLiM). A total of 50 multiple-choice items were developed based on the 95 most common scientific terms appearing in media covering the subjects of biology (45.26%, 22 items), earth science (37.90%, 19 items), physics (11.58%, 6 items) and chemistry (5.26%, 3 items) in Taiwan. A total of 1034 students from three distinct groups (7th graders, 10th graders and undergraduates) were invited to participate in this study. The reliability of this instrument was 0.86 (KR20). The average difficulty of the SLiM ranged from 0.19 to 0.91, and the discrimination power is 0.1 to 0.59. According to participants’ performances on SLiM, it was revealed that 10th graders (Mean = 37.3±4.2) performed better than undergraduates (Mean = 33.0±5.5) and 7th graders (Mean = 26.7±8.3) with significant differences (p< .05).

  • 15.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA).
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Help-words – a Creative Way of Making Sense of visualizations in molecular life science2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When confronted with the representations and terms of science, students make meaning using the knowledge and language they possess. They make frequent use of conventional expressions, but they also use words that seemingly have no conventional meaning, here labelled help-words. This study explores the verbal resources upper secondary students use to make meaning of molecular life science. The paper gives a description of the phenomenon of non-conventionalised expressions, help-words, based on a study of 20 upper secondary students. The results indicate that help-words are meaningful in learning situations, especially in abstract disciplines such as molecular life science.

  • 16.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Death of Metaphors in Life Science?: A study of upper secondary and tertiary students' use of metaphors and help-words in their meaning-making of scientific content.2009In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 10, no 3, p. Article 3-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reported in this article investigated the use of metaphors by upper secondary and tertiary students while learning a specific content area in molecular life science, protein function. Terms and expressions in science can be used in such precise and general senses that they are totally dissociated from their metaphoric origins. Beginners in a scientific field, however, lack the experience of using a term of metaphorical origin in its domain-specific precise and general sense, and may therefore be more cognitively affected than the expert by the underlying metaphor. The study shows that beginners in the field of molecular life science use spontaneous metaphors and metaphors used in teaching in a way that demonstrates that they have difficulty using the proper scientific terminology. The results of this study indicate, among other things, that difficulties in science education may, to a large degree, be connected with problems of communicating the generality and precision of scientific terms and metaphors used in science. The article ends with a suggestion as how to enable students to move from general and vague metaphoric uses of scientific terms toward a more general and precise usage.

  • 17.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Students’ Use of Terms and Conceptual Understanding inMaking Meaning of Visualizations of Protein Function2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular life science has become one of the fastest-growing fields regarding scientific and technical innovation. Images, diagrams and other forms of visualizations are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science research, teaching and learning. This study examines how upper secondary students interpret visualizations of protein function. Thirteen upper secondary students and four tertiary students (majoring in biochemistry) were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were structured around two 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water molecules being transported through a channel in the cell membrane. In the analysis of the transcripts, a score, based on the SOLO-taxonomy, was developed to evaluate the depth of students’ conceptual understanding. Furthermore, the relative use of scientific terms, metaphors, deictic and non-conventionalized expressions in the students’ explanations was also disclosed. The results indicate that the beginner students frequently use metaphors which came from their school education or created by themselves, i.e. spontaneous metaphors. Students also make use of non-conventionalized expressions that seemingly have no meaning in relation to scientific concepts and processes. The results from this study indicated that there was no simple positive correlation between use of scientific terms and the depth of conceptual understanding. Interestingly, in the interviews, non-conventionalized expressions were used to express conceptual understanding and they play a role in the meaning-making of the students. Moreover, the results revealed that difficulties in science education may to a large degree be connected to the potential problems concerning communicating the precise and general nature of scientific terms.

  • 18.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A ELinköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Critical Features in Visualization of Protein Function.: An Empirical Study of Student´s Meaning-Making of Diagrams and an Animation.2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since Watson’s & Crick’s first image of the double helix of DNA was published in 1953, the use of visualizations in molecular life science has continued to grow in importance. Several studies of students’ interpretation of images and other forms of visualizations have been conducted in science education research, especially physics. These studies have shown that ambiguities, simplifications and potentially misleading elements in the design of visualizations can give rise to unexpected difficulties or alternative interpretations.

    In this study we are using variation theory as a framework for our analysis. According to variation theory, which can be characterized as a theoretical development and framework with roots in phenomenographic research, variation in how a phenomenon is experienced by a learner is decisive for the learning outcome. According to variation theory, there are some critical features that corresponds to the aspects of a phenomenon that makes the student grasp the content. The key objetive of this investigation is to study which critical features of biomolecular processes involving proteins can be discerned using still images as compared to an animation.

    In the study, a set of 107 students taking different variants of the natural science program in the second (grade 11) or third (grade 12) year of their upper secondary education answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions, focusing of the structure, function and occurrence of proteins. From those students, 20 were interviewed in semi-structured, revised clinical interviews. The interviews focused on the structure and function of proteins and were structured around three 2D visualizations of proteins redesigned from examples in text books used in their biology and chemistry courses, and an animation. The analysis of the interview transcripts yielded three categories of critical features relating to learning biomolecular processes, which caused a major part of the difficulties students experienced when interpreting the visualizations: 1) Features that shows the complexity of biomolecular interactions arising from the multitude of different molecules that are simultaneously interacting with each other. 2) Features that shows the dynamic and random character of movement of the particles, including the unimaginable speed at which reactions occur. 3) Extrapolation from 2D to 3D and visualizing 3D-structures.

  • 19.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    The importance of using visualizations as an interactive tool in science education2005In: ESERA 2005,2005, Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona , 2005, p. 1180-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Educational Challenges of Molecular Life Science- Characteristics and implications for education and research2010In: CBE - Life Sciences Education, ISSN 1931-7913, E-ISSN 1931-7913, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular life science is one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific and technical innovation, and biotechnology has profound effects on many aspects of daily life, often with deep ethical dimensions. At the same time the content is inherently complex, highly abstract and deeply rooted in diverse disciplines ranging from “pure sciences,” such as maths, chemistry, and physics, through “applied sciences”, such as medicine and agriculture, to subjects that are traditionally within the remit of humanities, notably philosophy and ethics. Together these features pose diverse, important, and exciting challenges for tomorrow’s teachers and educational establishments.

    With backgrounds in molecular life science research and secondary life science teaching, we (LT and CJR, respectively) bring different experiences, perspectives, concerns, and awareness of these issues. Taking the nature of the discipline as a starting point, we highlight important facets of molecular life science that are both characteristic of the domain and challenging for learning and education. Of these challenges we focus in most detail on content, reasoning difficulties, and communication issues. We also discuss implications for education research and teaching in the molecular life sciences.

  • 21.
    Tseng, Yuen-Hsien
    et al.
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chang, Chun-Yen
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Mining Concept Maps from News Stories for Measuring Civic Scientific Literacy in Media.2010In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 165-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by a long-term goal in education for measuring Taiwanese civic scientific literacy in media (SLiM), this work reports the detailed techniques to efficiently mine a concept map from two years of Chinese news articles (901,446 in total) for SLiM instrument development. From the Chinese news stories, key terms (important words or phrases), known or new to existing lexicons, were first extracted by a simple, yet effective, rule-based algorithm. They were subjected to an association analysis based on their co-occurrence in sentences to reveal their term-to-term relationship. A given list of 3,657 index terms from science textbooks were then matched against the term association network. The resulting term network (including 95 scientific terms) was visualized in a concept map to scaffold the instrument developers. When developing an item, the linked term pair not only suggests the topic for the item due to the clear context being mutually reinforced by each other, but also the content itself because of the rich background provided by the recurrent snippets in which they co-occur. In this way, the resulting instrument (comprised of 50 items) reflect the scientific knowledge revealed in the daily news stories, meeting the goal for measuring civic scientific literacy in media. In addition, the concept map mined from the texts served as a convenient tool for item classification, developer collaboration, and expert review and discussion.

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