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  • 1. Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Gremyr, Ida
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Nilsson, Anders
    Rehn, Alf
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Öhman, Peter
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering2016Book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    A framework for PSS business models: formalization and application2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47, 519-524 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to successfully move "from products to solutions", companies need to redesign their business model. Nevertheless, service oriented BMs in product-centric firms are under-investigated in the literature: very few works develop a scheme of analysis of such BMs. To provide a first step into closing this gap, we propose a new framework to describe service-oriented BMs, pointing out the main BM components and related PSS characteristics. Thus, the proposed framework aims to help companies to take into account the relevant elements that need to be designed to successfully implement a service-oriented BM and thus guide strategic decisions. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 3.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Vilo, Jyrki
    KINE Robot Solut, Finland.
    PSS business model conceptualization and application2017In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 28, no 15, 1251-1263 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion about business models has gained considerable attention in the last decade. Business model frameworks have been developed in the literature as management methods helping companies to comprehend and analyse their current business logic and guide the deployment of new strategies. In response to calls for a deeper understanding of the application of a business model approach to product-service systems (PSS), this study develops a two-level hierarchical framework that (i) includes a set of components with pertinent, second-order variables to take into account when undergoing the shift from products to solutions; (ii) supports industrial companies, especially SMEs, in designing their future business model and in consistently planning the actions needed to implement it. The framework was applied and refined within real-life settings. The application to KINE - a robot solutions supplier - shows how key challenges faced by servitization firms may be thoroughly addressed through the adoption of a business model perspective.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-17 17:02
  • 4.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maley, Jane
    Creation and implementation of business solutions: Effects on supplier firms’ network identity and position2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the dynamic effects that the creation and implementation of business solutions have on the supplier’s network position and identity. The study is based on publicly available data from websites and industry reports, as well as interviews with key decision makers in industrial firms and their networks. It contributes to business marketing literature by modelling the dynamic changes that organisational networks experience when organisational actors interact to create and implement business solutions. It focuses on the concepts of network position and network identity.

    Previous research on the creation and implementation of business solutions find that this is a highly interactive process that reshapes markets, introduces new actors, and makes redundant other actors to the focal company network. Overall, the wider business environment where organisational actors operate is affected. Dynamic changes on the network level occur despite the parties' intentions and are also difficult to predict. Nevertheless, the effects on the shape of the network become quite apparent, and affect the parties' rights and obligations as perceived by other organizations; that is, the changes on the network shape affect organizations’ network position. As the process of creation of business solutions evolves, both customer and supplier find themselves interacting with new companies and organisations. This change requires the learning of new norms and rules, and creates opportunities to develop new skills. The introduction of new parties onto the network changes the set of resources and capabilities that the supplier can access and thus make available to their customers. Customers, then, construe the supplier’s network identity differently, eventually more capable than the network identity of competitors, which may create and lead to sustained competitive advantage of the supplier. To conclude, this paper portrays how the network identity changes as a consequence of the parties’ interaction in creating and developing business solutions.

  • 5. Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maley, Jane
    Creation and implementation of business solutions: Effects on supplier firms’ network position and identity2015In: Proceedings of the 31st IMP Conference, 2015, 1-12 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the dynamic effects that the creation and implementation of business solutions have on the supplier’s network position and identity. The study is based on publicly available data from websites and industry reports, as well as interviews with key decision makers in industrial firms and their networks. It contributes to business marketing literature by modelling the dynamic changes that organisational networks experience when organisational actors interact to create and implement business solutions. It focuses on the concepts of network position and network identity.

    Previous research on the creation and implementation of business solutions find that this is a highly interactive process that reshapes markets, introduces new actors, and makes redundant other actors to the focal company network. Overall, the wider business environment where organisational actors operate is affected. Dynamic changes on the network level occur despite the parties' intentions and are also difficult to predict. Nevertheless, the effects on the shape of the network become quite apparent, and affect the parties' rights and obligations as perceived by other organizations; that is, the changes on the network shape affect organizations’ network position. As the process of creation of business solutions evolves, both customer and supplier find themselves interacting with new companies and organisations. This change requires the learning of new norms and rules, and creates opportunities to develop new skills. The introduction of new parties onto the network changes the set of resources and capabilities that the supplier can access and thus make available to their customers. Customers, then, construe the supplier’s network identity differently, eventually more capable than the network identity of competitors, which may create and lead to sustained competitive advantage of the supplier. To conclude, this paper portrays how the network identity changes as a consequence of the parties’ interaction in creating and developing business solutions.

  • 6.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maley, Jane
    Development and implementation of business solutions as drivers of new business models in the mining industry2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    University of Otago, Department of Marketing, New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics.
    Maley, Jane
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development and implementation of customer solutions: A study of process dynamics and market shaping2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 7, 1083-1092 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A broad, dynamic network perspective on solution processes remains scarce. This article presents the process of developing and implementing customer solutions and its effects on the wider business environment by investigating customers and suppliers in the global mining industry (Australia, Chile, and Sweden), analyzing the deployment of a new customer solution, and assessing the changes to the competitive environment and focal firms' relationships with other customers and suppliers. It shows that the forces that drive customer and supplier interests and motivation to co-develop customer solutions may change over time, thus redefining the aim and scope of solutions and creating failure risks. Customers present problems; suppliers respond, on the basis of not only the feasibility of the customer-specific solution but also of their evaluation of future solutions in a broader market; then suppliers aim to standardize successful solutions across markets. Customers want close supplier relationships and unique solutions but also like standardized and repeatable solutions, so they can share development costs with competitors and expose the supplier to competition to avoid lock-in effects. From a network perspective, a novel solution can have a market-shaping effect and evoke reactions from other actors who want to enhance their market position. However, these changes are not necessarily deliberate, and the dynamics that market introductions of solutions trigger may be difficult to predict.

  • 8.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio Andres
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interdisciplinary Insights Found for Product/Service System Design2016In: DS 84: PROCEEDINGS OF THE DESIGN 2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-4, The Design Society, 2016, 137-144 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service System (PSS) is a different way of fulfilling customer needs by providing a bundle of products and services. PSS is by nature an interdisciplinary field of research that needs collaboration across disciplines. This research paper investigates how much interdisciplinary research has been carried in terms of insights used between two important disciplines, namely, Engineering Design and Industrial Marketing. The results show that few insights have been used across disciplines which shows a gap for further research.

  • 9.
    Brashear Alejandro, Thomas
    et al.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ritter, João Gustavo da Silva Freire
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, PUC/PR, Curitiba.
    Marchetti, Renato Zancan
    Programa de Pos-Graduação em Administração – PPAD/PUCPR, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, PUC/PR, Curitiba.
    Prado, Paulo Henrique
    Centro de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Administração, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CEPPAD/UFPR, Curitiba.
    Information search in complex industrial buying: Empirical evidence from Brazil2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 1, 17-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study develops and tests a model of information search in complex buying. We incorporate three categories of influences of organizational, personal and situational factors that affect information searching efforts. A sample of 96 of the largest Brazilian firms reported their use of the various influences in the decision to purchase integrated business management systems. Findings show that formalization of the organization is a key driver of information search efforts. Situational characteristics of importance, novelty and bargaining power increased the level of information search. Also, conformity of the purchasing agent and organizational centralization reduce information search efforts among the sampled Brazilian firms.

  • 10.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics .
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Organizing for Enhanced Service Offerings - The Role of Central and Local Entities in Service Development and Production2007In: EGOS Colloquium,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vilgon, Mats
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Clashing logics: The SKF case2011In: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Logistics, ISL 2011, Berlin, Germany, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ellström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    When service turns smart: Implications for customer-firm relationships2016In: Frontiers in Service, Bergen, 2016, Vol. 25Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A lean approach for service productivityimprovements: Synergy or oxymoron?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Service productivity has received increasing attention as service continues to cover greater parts of the economy. And as the competition increases, the need to look at service productivity becomes increasingly important. However, there is scant research on developing services that are both efficient and with high customer satisfaction. The present study aims to address this topic by conceptualizing the applicability of lean principles to service.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a conceptual analysis of the six most commonly used lean principles in manufacturing and their applicability in a service context for different types of services.

    Findings: The study suggests promising synergies, as well as important obstacles, for applying lean principles in services. Standardizing services and increasing reliability in service processes through lean principles can increase efficiency. However, the active role of the customer in certain services along with simultaneously high diversity makes it increasingly difficult to apply lean principles. Also, customer satisfaction must be considered when improving service productivity, otherwise the positive long-term effects of a lean approach in service will be absent.

    Practical implications: The findings are useful for organizations aiming to improve their service productivity. Particularly, lean principles are invaluable to increase the efficiency for services with low diversity and low customer participation. This paper suggests a direction for the proper use of lean  principles for different service types, and how efficiency and customer satisfaction is affected through a lean approach.

    Originality/Value: The study contributes to the research on service productivity. The study also contributes to continuing discussions on prototypic characteristics of service and manufacturing orientations.

  • 14.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics.
    A lean approach to service productivity improvements: Synergy or oxymoron?2013In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 23, no 4, 291-304 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Service productivity continues to receive ever-greater amounts of attention as service covers a greater portion of the economy. As competition increases, service productivity becomes increasingly important. This study aims to explore the applicability of lean principles in a service context and to conceptualize how these principles impact service productivity.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the six most commonly used lean principles in manufacturing and their applicability to a service context for different types of services. Using this analysis, six propositions are developed to examine the influence of lean on service productivity.

    Findings – This study suggests promising synergies, as well as important obstacles, for applying lean principles in services. Standardizing services and increasing reliability in service processes through lean principles can increase efficiency. However, the customer's active role in certain services and, simultaneously, high diversity make the application of lean principles increasingly difficult. Also, customer satisfaction must be considered when improving service productivity, otherwise the positive long-term effects of a lean approach in service will be absent.

    Practical implications – These findings are useful for organizations aiming to improve their service productivity. Particularly, lean principles are invaluable to increase efficiency and customer satisfaction for services with low diversity and low customer participation. This paper suggests a direction for the proper use of lean principles for different service types, and how efficiency and customer satisfaction are affected through a lean approach.

    Originality/value – This study contributes to the research on service productivity and continues the discussion on prototypic characteristics of service and manufacturing orientations.

  • 15.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean principles in business-to-business services: Synergy or oxymoron?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics.
    Service innovation and new service development: An analysis of research 1986-20122013In: Proceedings of the QUIS13 International Research Symposium onService Excellence in Management, Karlstad, Sweden, 2013, 480-482 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service modularity as an enabler for value co-creation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    The evolution of service innovation research: A critical review and synthesis2014In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, no 5, 373-398 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of service innovation articles has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. By reviewing 128 articles published between 1986 and 2010, primarily in leading marketing and innovation journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to topicality and perspective. The authors summarize prior research by clustering it into three evolutional phases and drawing parallels with the evolution of the wider services marketing field. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing notion that entails several functions, both within and outside the firm.

  • 19.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The service innovation concept: A literature review2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Value in Service Systems: Extending the Service Innovation Concept2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Diaz Ruiz, Carlos
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics.
    Market representations in industrial markerting: Could representations influence strategy?2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 6, 1026-1034 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central question in industrial marketing is whether the form in which the external environment of a firm is represented influences the marketing strategy. This influence has been studied generally through case study research, and quantitative evidence is limited. In response to this limitation, this paper reports on a quasi-experiment investigating whether market representations have a constructive aspect in business. Empirically, this study compares two types of ostensive and performative market representations—service focus and product differentiation—in order to test for influence exacted by industrial marketing on strategies. Results indicate that service focus is selected when market representations rely on agency in firms (i.e., performative), and product strategies are selected when structures are emphasized (i.e., ostensive). This paper contributes to methodology development by expanding the link between a case study approach and quasi-experiments explaining how quasi-experiments can replicate findings in industrial marketing.

  • 22.
    Diaz Ruiz, Carlos
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics.
    Market representations in industrial marketing: An experimental investigation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    CTF, Karlstads universitet.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strandvik, Tore
    Hanken Svenska handelshögskolan.
    Voima, Päivi
    Hanken Svenska handelshögskolan.
    Critical Waves in Business Markets: Towards a Framework for Analyzing Relationship Turbulence2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strandvik, Tore
    Hanken Svenska handelshögskolan.
    Voima, Päivi
    Hanken Svenska handelshögskolan.
    Critical waves in business relationships: An extension of the critical incident perspective2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Strandvik, Tore
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Voima, Päivi
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Negative critical waves in business relationships: an extension of the critical incident perspective2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 4, 284-294 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims to extend understanding of business-to-business relationship dynamics by introducing and discussing the phenomenon of a ‘negative critical wave’ (NCW), defined as a disturbance in a relationship that emerges and develops within or beyond individual working relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The dynamics of working relationships in two manufacturing firms in Finland and Sweden were studied by analysing the narratives of unstructured personal interviews with 16 middle managers and 14 operational executives, who recalled experiences of relevant situations over three years, with emphasis on unexpected disturbances, challenges and problems.

    Findings

    Respondents discussed 77 NCWs, the development and effect of which proved to depend upon the original ‘locus’, ‘magnitude’ and ‘amplitude’, and embedded ‘energy’. Waves could be distinguished as: ‘silent compact’, ‘silent extensive’, ‘intense compact’ or ‘intense extensive’.

    Research limitations/implications

    The wave metaphor for relationships dynamics, consistent with but distinct from established notions of ‘critical time’ and ‘critical incidents’ and the associated classification system are a useful starting point for further research into the phenomenon. Though the qualitative methodology achieved richness, the small sample and restricted scope place limits on the objectivity and generalisability of the findings.

    Practical implications

    The NCW framework offers strategists and managers a holistic understanding of the dynamic process of criticality, synthesising the complexities of relationship dynamics and pointing to ways in which to absorb the energy of negative waves.

    Originality/value of the paper

    More is now known about the domino effects of critical incidents in internal and external business-to-business relationships.

  • 26.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Universität St. Gallen.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Customer-focused and service-focused orientation in organizational structures2009In: CBIM Academic Workshop,2009, Atlanta: CBIM , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The paper provides a better understanding of the interrelatedness of customer and service orientation in the organizational structures of capital goods manufacturing companies. A qualitative, multi-case research design with 36 European capital goods manufacturing companies was employed.

  • 27.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    EAWAG – Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Research, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Customer-focused and service-focused orientation in organizational structures2012In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, no 7, 527-537 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper aims to provide a better understanding of the interrelatedness of customer and service orientations in the organizational structures of capital goods manufacturing companies.

    Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative, multi-case research design was employed using 36 European capital goods manufacturing companies.

    Findings – This article explored four different patterns of how companies move from being product-focused to service-focused, and from having an organizational structure that is geographically focused to one that is customer-focused. The four patterns are termed as follows: emphasizing service orientation, service-focused organizational structure, emphasizing customer orientation, and customer-focused organizational structure.

    Research limitations/implications – Although the study is based on 36 case studies, the external validity (generalizability) of the findings could not be assessed accurately.

    Practical implications – The description of the four organizational approaches offers guidance for managers to restructure their companies towards service and customer orientations.

    Originality/value – The article links the relatively independent discussions of service and customer orientations in the context of organizational structures. The four patterns provide a better understanding of how capital goods manufacturers integrate increased customer and service focuses in their organizational structures.

  • 28.
    Gummerus, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    von Koskull, Catharina
    Department of Marketing, University of Vaasa, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Relationship marketing: Past, present, and future2017In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 31, no 1, 1-5 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a time when relationships have become recognized as an integral part of contemporary marketing theory and practice, what role can the sub-discipline of relationship marketing play? The aim with this special issue is to critically assess the state of relationship marketing and call for new ideas to take the field forward.

    Design/methodology/approach: We had an open call for papers with an original perspective and advanced thinking on relationship marketing, resulting in 50 originally submitted manuscripts that were subjected to double-blind review. Of these, this issue presents five articles. In addition, we invited well-renowned thought leaders who have contributed to theory development within relationship marketing. This issue starts with their four thoughtful, forward-orientated contributions.

    Findings: Several thought-provoking reflections and research findings are presented that urge relationship marketing researchers to explore novel avenues for the future of this area. A prominent way forward may be looking for a common ground in relationship marketing thinking, assessing the extent to which the different literature streams add to marketing research and when they do not, and testing/deploying the learnings in new settings.

    Research limitations/implications: This special issue does not address all areas of relationship marketing research. Potential areas for future relationship marketing research are identified.

    Originality/value: To assess existent knowledge of relationship marketing is needed to take the field forward.

  • 29.
    Holmlund, Maria
    et al.
    Hanken, Svenska handelshögskolan, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki,Helsinki, Finland.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    Marketing Department, School of Business, University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Organizational Behavior in Innovation, Marketing, and Purchasing in Business Service Contexts: An Agenda for Academic Inquiry2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, 2457-2462 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many businesses today recognize the increased significance of service and the transition toward service orientation. Nonetheless, organizational practitioners frequently encounter problems managing this shift and seizing service-related business opportunities. This practical relevance, together with many still-unanswered service research questions, has inspired the preparation of this special section that advances the extant literatures on business services. We finish by providing a research agenda. First, more research is needed on the buyer perspective. Second, researchers need to keep in mind financial issues related to business services. Third, more researchers could tap into management, leadership, and decision-making in business service companies. Finally, sustainability, social responsibility, and environmental considerations are important topics for further exploration.

  • 30.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 78, 101-110 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the development and current state of pricing strategy research by undertaking a content analysis of 515 articles published in leading academic journals between 1995 and 2016. The results suggest several developments in research focus and methodology; recent research has focused more strongly on services and applies more rigorous research designs. The results also indicate a persistent focus on consumer markets and economic theories, as well as an increasing consideration of demand-side respondents, at the expense of supply-side respondents. An important feature of this review is a set of actionable takeaways, with both theoretical and methodological implications for pricing strategy research.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-05-11 16:06
  • 31.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    Pricing strategy: An assessment of 20 years of B2B marketing research2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    Service and Solution Pricing and Revenue Models: A Review and Categorization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    Hoshi Larsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Managerial Intuition in Price Setting: Boon or Bane?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service selling in industrial organizations: An exploratory study of challenges and opportunities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Development of Industrial Service Offerings - A Processual Framework2008In: AMA ServSIG International Research Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of industrial service offerings: a process framework2009In: JOURNAL OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT, ISSN 1757-5818, Vol. 20, no 2, 156-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a service development process that is adapted to manufacturing companies and to discuss its implications for companies with a traditional focus on product development and product sales. Design/methodology/approach - The paper looks at new service development (NSD) literature and argues for a rationale to study NSD processes in a manufacturing context. Next, a generic NSD framework for manufacturing companies is presented. Examples are given based on an explorative multiple case study (ten companies) with in-depth interviews and focus groups. The analysis reveals organizational requirements and other critical factors related to each stage of the NSD process. Findings - A four-stage service offering development framework is presented. Critical aspects of NSD in a manufacturing context are highlighted. The importance of considering both NSD and new product development (NPD) together is also emphasized. Research limitations/implications - The limitations are based primarily on methodology; the case studies focused only on the service organizations of the manufacturing companies studied. Practical implications - Managers need to be aware of the inter-relationship that exists between NSD and NPD and on the specificities of service development in companies where an industrial logic dominates. A number of managerial implications are proposed and discussed. Originality/value - The paper emphasizes the importance of latter stages in NSD, something that has not previously been extensively studied or addressed. In addition, to explicitly discuss NSD in a manufacturing context is novel.

  • 37.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Editorial: Service innovation in business-­‐to-­‐business firms2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 2, 93-95 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How World Leading Manufacturers Can Achieve Differentiation Through E-Business: New Services, Enhanced Relationships, and Reduced Costs2007In: 18th Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Vancouver, Canada: Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications with Information Technology, Hershey, New York: IGI Global , 2007, 502-506 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-business development is today driven by mature and established companies and is becoming an important tool to increase competitive advantage and to sustain profitability. This paper investigates how world-leading manufacturers can achieve differentiation through their use of e-business. Many companies use e-business as vehicles to launch new information-based service, as an important enabler to enhance and deepen customer relationships, and to reduce costs associated with customer management. Using e-business in this way will increase the opportunities for differentiation and create sustainable competitive advantage. Successful employment of e-business creates services that retain current customers and attract new ones as well as justifies premium prices and keeps low-cost competitors in check.

  • 39.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Introduction2009In: Creating Business out of Industrial Offerings: Findings From Market Leading B2B Companies, Solna: MTC , 2009, 1, 13-19 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics.
    Service Driven Business Model Innovation: Organizing the Shift from a Product-based to a Service-centric Business Model2015In: Business Model Innovation: The Organizational Dimension / [ed] Nicolai Foss, Tina Saebi, Oxford University Press, 2015, 1, 191-216 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • Features contributions by leading international authors on the topics of business model and business model innovation
    • The first sustained and focused inquiry into the organizational dimension of business model innovation
    • Covers areas of business strategy, innovation and organizational change

    Business model innovation is an important source of competitive advantage and corporate renewal. An increasing number of companies have to innovate their business models, not just because of competitive forces but also because of the ongoing change from product-based to service-based business models. Yet, business model innovation also involves organizational change process that challenges existing processes, structures and modes of control.This volume features thirteen chapters written by authorities on business model innovation. The specific angle, and the novel feature of this book, is to thoroughly examine the organizational dimension of business model innovation. Drawing on organizational theory and empirical observation, the contributors specifically highlight organizational design aspects of business model innovation, focusing on how reward systems, power distributions, routines and standard operating procedures, the allocation of authority, and other aspects of organizational structure and control should be designed to support the business model the firm chooses. Also discussed is how existing organizational structures, capabilities, beliefs, cultures and so on influence the firm's ability to flexibly change to new business models.

    Readership: Researchers and academics in business and management interested in business strategy, innovation and organizational change; Practitioners, consultants and executives involved with implementation of new business models

  • 41.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Service innovation in product-centric firms: a multidimensional business model perspective2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 2, 96-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This article aims to investigate the nature and characteristics of business model elements required for successful service innovation. The authors examine which unique resources and capabilities product-centric firms should develop and deploy to pursue service innovation.

    Design/methodology/approach – Data collected from several research projects support iterations across empirical data and theory, in an abductive process. Empirical data come from product-centric firms; interviews and focus groups were the main data collection methods.

    Findings – Specific resources and capabilities are needed for the proposed business model elements, as defined by the overarching strategy and structure. Firms can approach the process of service innovation from different starting points and sequences, depending on the context.

    Research limitations/implications – Because it takes a synthesizing approach, this research lacks some detail. By taking a business model approach with a holistic perspective, it forgoes detailed descriptions to provide greater breadth.

    Practical implications – Managers can use business models as tools to visualize changes, which should increase internal transparency, understanding, and awareness of service opportunities and necessary changes. Dependencies exist among elements; a change in one element likely affects the others. This study provides insights into which efforts are necessary and offers managers a guiding framework.

    Originality/value – By providing a multidimensional perspective on service innovation, this study merges various previous research into a synthesized discussion. Combining a resources and capabilities perspective with a business model framework also leads to new insights regarding service innovation and associated activities.

  • 42.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Servitization dynamics and business model innovation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Servitization dynamics and business model innovation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Shifting from Product Sales to Offerings - Approaching Customers from Two Directions2008In: European Marketing Academy EMAC Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 45.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brashear Alejandro, Thomas
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, USA.
    Adding services to product-based portfolios: Adding services to product-based portfolios: An exploration of the implications for the sales function2015In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 26, no 3, 372-393 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the implications for the sales function of the infusion of services by formerly product-based firms. In particular, it aims at identifying the changes that need to be made at the sales-function level if the services are to be successfully sold.Design/Methodology: This research is an exploratory qualitative case study. Data were collected by focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with relevant managers in three large multinational companies based in Northern Europe, which were pursuing service-led growth. Findings: The effects of service infusion processes on the sales function could be seen with respect to the three parts of the analytical framework: organization, roles, and competences. The results illustrate the need for a changed perspective with respect to all three parts, if a product-based firm is to be successful in the infusing of associated services into its portfolio of offerings. Analysis of the results identifies key operational initiatives that management needs to understand and implement when corporate and marketing strategies increasingly focus on service-led growth.Research limitations:The study was exploratory and vendor centric, which means that it did not quantitatively assess the results or directly involve the customers at whom the services were directed. Also, the choice of business-to-business firms limits the capacity to generalize the findings. Originality/Value:Whereas relationship-based and value-based selling are approaches more geared to the sales-force level, the study reported in this paper set out to understand fundamental differences at the sales-function level when firms pursue service-led growth. The findings suggest that the realignment of corporate strategy towards an increased focus on services may have far-reaching implications for the sales function.

  • 46.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An increased focus on service selling: Implications for the sales function2011In: QUIS 12, 2011, 136-139 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Visualization of service-enhanced offerings - empirical findings from the manufacturing industry2008In: 17 Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, American Marketing Association,2008, 2008, 65- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 48.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Visualization strategies for service offerings: empirical findings from the manufacturing industry2009In: CBIM Academic Workshop,2009, Atlanta: CBIM , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visualizing Industrial Offerings2009In: Creating Business out of Industrial Offerings: Findings From Market Leading B2B Companies, 2009, 1, 71-91 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University.
    Visualizing the value of service-based offerings: Empirical findings from the manufacturing industry2012In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, no 7, 538-546 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore strategies for visualizing the value of service-based offerings in a B2B context. By taking a process perspective on the offering life cycle, this paper also aims at distinguishing which visualization strategies are most appropriate using at which life-cycle stages.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case study research design involving five manufacturing firms.

    Findings – Primary findings are that firms need to make use of several different visualization strategies depending on, among other things, the key stakeholders and also where the firm's offering is currently positioned in the service-based offering life cycle.

    Research limitations/implications – While the empirical data is from only one sector – i.e. manufacturing – managers from other B2B sectors should have an interest in the results and the key aspects identified. Further research could also establish linkages to performance metrics.

    Originality/value – Visualization strategies have been relatively rarely studied from a B2B perspective, and the process dimension, especially, is novel.

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