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  • 1.
    Anderson, Tony
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Criticising the critic: Comments on Jahoda's (2012) Critique of discursive social psychology2014In: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, ISSN 0021-8308, E-ISSN 1468-5914, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 123-129Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jahoda (2012) criticizes discursive social psychology (DSP) on several differentgrounds; specifically, he argues that DSP has opaque methodological procedures,is of questionable scientific merit, involves over-interpretation of its data, andimplicitly claims its findings to be universal rather than contextually specific. Wechallenge these criticisms by arguing that observational studies of the kind typicalwithin DSP research have a perfectly valid place within a scientific social psychol-ogy, that the interpretations made by DSP researchers should be seen in thecontext of a temporally extended research process in which they are subject tocriticism and potential replication, and that Jahoda is himself guilty of over-interpretation by inferring claims of universality when such an inference is notwarranted by the data (i.e. the qualitative content of the sample of research papersconsidered by Jahoda).

  • 2. Gibson, Stephen
    et al.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Forrester, Mike
    Gordon-Finlayson, Alastair
    University of Northampton, UK.
    Shaw, Rachel
    Aston University, Birmingham, UK.
    Development of a web-based resource to aid the teaching of qualitative research methods at undergraduate level2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gordon-Finlayson, Alastair
    et al.
    Teeside University, Middlesbrough, Storbritannien.
    Sullivan, Cath
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Becker, Sue
    Teeside University, Middlesbrough, Storbritannien.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Qualitative undergraduate dissertation supervision in psychology: Current practice, needs and support for supervisors2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enhancing psychological literacy  through a group selection exercise.2018Other (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forming groups: Enhancing psychological literacy through a group selection exercise2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social and group psychology has much to offer in terms of applicable knowledge and the development of psychological literacy in students. One area that is particularly suited for application is the formation of groups: how we select group members, and how we understand how group roles can impact on the effectiveness of group work. In light of many university courses using group work as part of teaching and learning activities, this is an ideal opportunity in which to apply psychological knowledge to the students’ own learning practices. This paper reports on the use of a group selection exercise as part of a social/group psychology course at Linköping University. The students are enrolled in the psychologist programme - a five-year educational programme that results in students becoming licensed psychologists – which uses problem-based learning (PBL) throughout its entirety. PBL is a pedagogical approach that is based on problem-solving, self-directed learning and group interaction. The group selection exercise involves: a lecture, the group-selection exercise (in which students must allocate themselves into groups of 6-8 people on the basis of their existing knowledge of group psychology theory), a whole-class reflection and finally a focused reflection on the task in their newly formed groups. This paper will report on each part of this task and will discuss how it enables students to put their understanding of group psychological theory into practice.

  • 6.
    Hendry, Gillian
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    “Anyway, back to the point”: A discursive psychological approach to topic shift in group work interaction2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hendry, Gillian
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Are you still with us?: Managing group togetherness and mobile phone use in PBL tutorials2016In: Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, ISSN 1541-5015, Vol. 10, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As mobile phone technology becomes more advanced, so too does its presence in everyday life. Research has shown, for instance, that students are using their mobile phones in classroom settings, a practice that holds both potential advantages and disadvantages. In group work, these interactions may have consequences for group dynamics in that orienting to a mobile phone can display a shift in an individual’s attention to the group. The current essay details a research project conducted on problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials in the United Kingdom in which student groups were video-recorded as they worked. A discursive psychological analysis focused on instances of interaction in which a group member picked up his or her mobile phone in the middle of a working session and how the accountability for the phone use was managed by either the phone user or a fellow group member. In understanding more about the microprocesses that take place in such environments, we are better positioned to support students’ learning and socialization as they progress through college.

  • 8.
    Hendry, Gillian
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    Constructing cohesion through laughter2014In: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg; Tomas Jungert, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014, Vol. 001, p. 1-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most consistently studied constructs within group dynamics literature is that of cohesiveness; the extent to which individuals within a group feel connected. Members of strongly cohesive groups are more inclined to participate and stay with the group, and past research has reported that laughter has the ability to enhance cohesion between individuals, although there is limited work showing exactly how this happens. Twenty two students comprising eight groups from two UK universities were video-recorded as they partook in group work, with the resultant sixty four hours of video data being analysed using discursive psychology centring on episodes of laughter in interaction. As ‘sticking together’ is a defining feature of cohesiveness, the analysis focused on instances in which a group member did the opposite of this by group-deprecating; revealing a weakness about the group, with findings showing that cohesion is constructed through the acceptance of and expansion upon the disparagement.

  • 9.
    Hendry, Gillian
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    Constructing knowledge through talk: Unpacking the dynamics of group interaction in problem-based learning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hendry, Gillian
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    “That’s me being stupid”: Using discursive psychology to analyse self-deprecating humour as a means of constructing group cohesion in problem-based learning2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hendry, Gillian
    et al.
    School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, UK.
    The discursive construction of group cohesion in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials2016In: Psychology Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 180-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that educators may be reluctant to implement group work in their teaching due to concerns about students partaking in off-task behaviours. However, such off-task interactions have been shown to promote motivation, trust, and rapport-building. This paper details a study in which student groups were video recorded as they engaged in problem-based learning tutorials, with the aim of examining the social interaction within such settings. Eighty-five hours of data were collected from nine groups, with discursive psychology being used to analyse how group cohesion is constructed through off-topic talk such as gossiping and teasing. Two case studies are detailed in which we demonstrate how cohesion is established through a process of collective action against the ‘other’: highlighting the differences between ‘us’ and ‘them’, and how this can impact on group dynamics. There is often a discrepancy between self-reported and observed behaviour in groups and so the more we know about what actually happens in such environments, the better placed we are to support student learning. The paper concludes with recommendations on how analyses of social interaction and the management of psychological issues in problem-based learning tutorials can inform the use of problem-based learning as a teaching and learning approach.

  • 12.
    Hendry, Gillian
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, UK.
    “Who does she think she is, eh?” Using discursive psychology to demonstrate the collaborative nature of teasing, and how it can enhance cohesion in student groups.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hendry, Gillian
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    “You decide ‘cause you’re the Chair”: Using discursive psychology to show how students ‘do’ group decision making2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hepburn, Alexa
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developments in discursive psychology2014In: Qualitative research in psychology: Ten Volume Set / [ed] Brendan Gough, Jeremy Miles and Brian Stucky, London: Sage Publications, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hepburn, Alexa
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Developments in discursive psychology2005In: Discourse & Society, ISSN 0957-9265, E-ISSN 1460-3624, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 595-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discursive psychology is the broad title for a range of research done in different disciplinary contexts – communication, language, sociology and psychology. It moves the theoretical and analytic focus from individual cognitive events and processes to situated interaction. This work is critical of, and developing a progressive, analytically based alternative to, mainstream cognitive social psychology. Discursive psychology (occasionally DP) also counters the social psychological view of the individual as part of a matrix of abstract social processes, and replaces it with a focus on people’s everyday practices in various institutional settings. This entails an important change in analytic focus; rather than whether, or how accurately, participants’ talk reflects inner and outer events, DP investigates how ‘psychology’ and ‘reality’ are produced, dealt with and made relevant by participants in and through interaction. Articles in this Special Issue will, therefore, take various social and psychological categories and consider their role in specific interactional settings. Our aim here is to set out three main strands of contemporary discursive psychology as a way of emphasizing some of the exciting and progressive features of the collection presented in this volume.

  • 16.
    Hepburn, Alexa
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Wiggins, SallyUniversity of Strathclyde, UK.
    Discursive research in practice: New approaches to psychology and everyday interaction2007Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades new ways of conceiving the relation between people, practices and institutions have been developed, enabling an understanding of human conduct in complex situations that is distinctive from traditional psychological and sociological conceptions. This distinctiveness is derived from a sophisticated analytic approach to social action which combines conversation analysis with the fresh treatment of epistemology, mind, cognition and personality developed in discursive psychology. This text is the first to showcase and promote this new method of discursive research in practice. Featuring contributions from a range of international academics, both pioneers in the field and exciting new researchers, this book illustrates an approach to social science issues that cuts across the traditional disciplinary divisions to provide a rich participant-based understanding of action.

  • 17.
    Hepburn, Alexa
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Size matters: Constructing accountable bodies in NSPCC helpline interaction2005In: Discourse & Society, ISSN 0957-9265, E-ISSN 1460-3624, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 625-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on body size or weight has become an increasing source of concern in western society, yet few studies have looked at how people invoke body size in various settings, and the practices to which such talk might be related. Hence this study examines instances in everyday and institutional interaction in which body size is treated as a relevant concern for speakers. A discursive psychological approach is used to examine five extracts from telephone calls to a National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) helpline. The analysis focuses on how the weight or body size of others is constructed and managed, and how these descriptions can be involved in various activities. Three analytic themes emerge – the focus on how formulations of size and embodiment are drawn upon in practice; the relationship between issues of size and issues of knowledge; and the activities in which different size descriptions are enrolled, in particular, the way these activities relate to the institutional practices of the NSPCC helpline. The empirical claims about the data are also related back to basic theoretical questions, raising profound issues about the way traditional psychology has constructed eating and embodiment.

  • 18.
    Horne, Judith
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Doing ‘being on the edge’: Managing the dilemma of being authentically suicidal in an online forum2009In: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Those who attempt suicide have often been described as ‘crying for help’, and there are implications if such cries are not taken seriously. This paper examines how users of an Internet forum for ‘suicidal thoughts’ work up their authenticity in their opening posts, and how these are responded to by fellow forum users. Data were taken from two Internet forums on suicide over a period of one month and were analysed using discursive psychology. The analysis demonstrates that participants display their authenticity through four practices: narrative formatting, going ‘beyond’ depression, displaying rationality and not explicitly asking for help. Furthermore, both initial and subsequent posts worked up identities as being psychologically ‘on the edge’ of life and death. The analysis suggests that the forum in part works as a site for suicidal identities to be tested out, authenticated and validated by individuals. We conclude with some suggestions for the supportive work of suicide ‘postvention’.

  • 19.
    Horton-Salway, Mary
    et al.
    Open University, UK.
    Montague, Jane
    University of Derby, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Seymour-Smith, Sarah
    Nottingham Trent University, UK.
    Mapping the components of the telephone conference: An analysis of tutorial talk at a distance learning institution2008In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 737-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article maps the components of telephone tutorial conferences (TTCs) used for distance learning in higher education. Using conversation analysis we identified four common sequences of TTCs as `calling in'; `agenda-setting'; `tutorial proper'; and `closing down'. Patterns of student participation look similar to those in face-to-face tutorials and the degree of interaction during `calling-in' and agenda setting does not foretell student participation in the `tutorial proper'. Student participation was related to differences in `communicative formats' adopted by tutors and students for different purposes. These findings have helped us reflect on our communicative practices as university teachers and indicate that TTCs are functionally comparable with face-to-face tutorials in higher education settings.

  • 20.
    Laurier, Eric
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Finishing the family meal: The interactional organisation of satiety.2011In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an extended review of psychological, sociological and interactional research on mealtimes and satiety (fullness), arguing for a focus on how fullness and finishing a meal is interactionally achieved. Drawing on three specimen data fragments from contrasting family settings, routinely used resources for pursuing completion and expressing satiety are described. We show how checks on completion are tailored to children according to their age, the intimate knowledge family members have of one another and attuned to contingencies, such as, whether there is a further course to be offered. Equally, that in teaching children how to eat together with others, the family also transmits and transforms all manner of other eating practices such as how to comply, or not, with requests to finish. A central aim of the article is to complement the many studies of satiety that have explained its physiological aspects by providing the familial logics that are expressed in bringing the meal to a close. We offer a suggestive analysis, based on conversation analytic principles, to illustrate our argument and to provide a starting point for further work in this field. Where bodies of work have previously used mealtimes as a convenient setting for accessing other social practices, this article turns its focus back toward the tasks of dining together.

  • 21.
    McCreaddie, May
    et al.
    Nursing Studies, Health in Social Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Row, Edinburgh, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Reconciling the good patient persona with problematic and non-problematic humour: A grounded theory2009In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1079-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Humour is a complex phenomenon, incorporating cognitive, emotional, behavioural, physiological and social aspects. Research to date has concentrated on reviewing (rehearsed) humour and ‘healthy’ individuals via correlation studies using personality-trait based measurements, principally on psychology students in laboratory conditions. Nurses are key participants in modern healthcare interactions however, little is known about their (spontaneous) humour use.

    Aims

    A middle-range theory that accounted for humour use in CNS-patient interactions was the aim of the study. The study reviewed the antecedents of humour exploring the use of humour in relation to (motivational) humour theories.

    Participants and setting

    Twenty Clinical Nurse Specialist–patient interactions and their respective peer groups in a country of the United Kingdom.

    Method

    An evolved constructivist grounded theory approach investigated a complex and dynamic phenomenon in situated contexts. Naturally occurring interactions provided the basis of the data corpus with follow-up interviews, focus groups, observation and field notes. A constant comparative approach to data collection and analysis was applied until theoretical sufficiency incorporating an innovative interpretative and illustrative framework. This paper reports the grounded theory and is principally based upon 20 CNS–patient interactions and follow-up data. The negative case analysis and peer group interactions will be reported in separate publications.

    Findings

    The theory purports that patients’ use humour to reconcile a good patient persona. The core category of the good patient persona, two of its constituent elements (compliance, sycophancy), conditions under which it emerges and how this relates to the use of humour are outlined and discussed. In seeking to establish and maintain a meaningful and therapeutic interaction with the CNS, patients enact a good patient persona to varying degrees depending upon the situated context. The good patient persona needs to be maintained within the interaction and is therefore reconciled with potentially problematic or non-problematic humour use. Humour is therefore used to deferentially package concerns (potentially problematic humour) or affiliate (potentially non-problematic humour). This paper reviews the good patient persona (compliance, sycophancy), potentially problematic humour (self-disparaging, gallows) and briefly, non-problematic humour (incongruity).

    Conclusions

    The middle-range theory differentiates potentially problematic humour from non-problematic humour and notes that how humour is identified and addressed is central to whether patients concerns are resolved or not. The study provides a robust review of humour in healthcare interactions with important implications for practice. Further, this study develops and extends humour research and contributes to an evolved application of constructivist grounded theory.

  • 22.
    McCreaddie, May
    et al.
    Research Associate Nursing Studies, Health in Social Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    The purpose and function of humour in health, health care and nursing: a narrative review2008In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 585-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper is a report of a review conducted to identify, critically analyse and synthesize the humour literature across a number of fields related to health, health care and nursing.

    Background. The humour–health hypothesis suggests that there is a positive link between humour and health. Humour has been a focus of much contention and deliberation for centuries, with three theories dominating the field: the superiority or tendentious theory, the incongruity theory and the relief theory.

    Data sources. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in January 2007 using a number of databases, keywords, manual recursive searching and journal alerts (January 1980–2007) cross‐referenced with the bibliographic databases of the International Society of Humor Studies. An inclusion and exclusion criterion was identified.

    Review methods. A narrative review of evidence‐ and non‐evidence‐based papers was conducted, using a relevant methodological framework with additional scrutiny of secondary data sources in the latter. Humour theories, incorporating definition, process and impact constituted a significant part of the appraisal process.

    Results. A total of 1630 papers were identified, with 220 fully sourced and 88 included in the final review. There is a dearth of humour research within nursing yet, ironically, an abundance of non‐evidence‐based opinion citing prerequisites and exclusion zones. Examination of physician–patient interaction and the humour–health hypothesis demonstrates that use of humour by patients is both challenging and revealing, particularly with regard to self‐deprecating humour.

    Conclusion. Nurses and nursing should adopt a circumspect and evidenced‐based approach to humour use in their work.

  • 23.
    McQuade, Robert
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde.
    Mebley, Seren
    University of Strathclyde.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ventura Medina, Esther
    University of Strathclyde.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde.
    Using discursive psychology to investigate knowledge and task complexity formulations in student-led problem-based learning tutorials.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    McQuade, Robert
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde.
    Ventura Medina, Esther
    University of Strathclyde.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde.
    Elucidating dysfunctional occurrences in student-led group work: ‘doing disagreement well’.2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    McQuade, Robert
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Ventura Medina, Esther
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    The role of institutional power in tutorless problem-based learning: Students’ interactional strategies for self-managing conflict in teamwork2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    McQuade, Robert
    et al.
    Univ Strathclyde, Scotland.
    Ventura-Medina, Esther
    Univ Strathclyde, Scotland.
    Wiggins Young, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anderson, Tony
    Univ Strathclyde, Scotland.
    Examining self-managed problem-based learning interactions in engineering education2019In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing complexity of the engineering role, todays graduates must be capable of confronting both technical and societal problems; underpinned by effective teamwork at their core. Problem-based learning has been implemented in engineering to better prepare students for modern industry. However, limited research has examined the complex social processes involved in PBL. The present study, therefore, reports on how students working in tutorless PBL groups - owing to teaching limitations - must effectively self-manage their team efforts if they are to succeed. This PBL arrangement involved a floating facilitator but the analysis focuses exclusively on the students tutorless interactions. The data collected is from 22 chemical engineering undergraduates in four groups, and consists of naturalistic video-recordings of 32 PBL meetings (35 h). This corpus was examined empirically using conversation analysis to elucidate students recurrent communicational practices. The microanalyses showed how students continuously established PBL as the collective responsibility of the group. Furthermore, students maintained average, equal social identities, and used humour/self-deprecation in constructing an informal learning environment. In the absence of the tutor who would normally maintain cohesion, these strategies offer a means through which students adapt to the unfamiliarity of the tutorless setting, where no member is positioned as the substitute tutor.

  • 27.
    McQuade, Robert
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Storbritannien.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ventura-Medina, Esther
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Storbritannien.
    'Doing' disagreement without being disagreeable: How students deal with conversational norms in group work2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing prevalence of group work in psychology places requirements on students to learn not only their subject matter, but also social and educational skills such as working with their peers. In problem-based learning (PBL), a crucial element is that students should challenge each other in terms of ideas or assumptions (Azer, 2004). Through disagreeing, it is argued that students will develop a more sophisticated understanding of the knowledge. Disagreements in conversation, however, have already been shown by conversation analytic work to be socially troublesome (Pomerantz, 1984), so it is vital that students learn to disagree‘ appropriately’ (Marra, 2012). The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how research in social psychology and discourse can provide empirical insights into how students might learn to interact more effectively in group-work settings. The paper reports on analyses from a project that aims to understand how engineering students develop the ‘soft skills’ of group work alongside their academic knowledge by examining the interactional practices and processes within PBL tutorials. In particular, we focus on how students ‘do’ disagreements in tutorial interaction. The data is taken from 30 hours of video-recorded data from PBL tutorials at a Scottish university. Using conversation analysis, we focus on sequences in which students disagree with one another, and illustrate the different ways in which this is achieved. The paper will discuss the interactional barriers to disagreeing with other students in group work and will offer insights from empirical data to illustrate how these might be overcome.

  • 28.
    McQuade, Robert
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ventura-Medina, Esther
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Knowledge disagreement formulations in problem-based learning tutorials: Balancing pedagogical demands with ‘saving face’2018In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 227-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a pedagogical approach that aims to develop students’ group-working skills and to challenge their current knowledge, problem-based learning (PBL) provides a unique setting in which to examine disagreements in interaction. Previous research on disagreements in classrooms has typically examined tutor–student interaction or student–student interaction in which a tutor is present. This paper, however, examines tutorless PBL tutorials and focuses specifically on those moments in which knowledge claims are challenged by other students. The data comprise 30 h of video recordings from 24 chemical engineering PBL tutorials in a Scottish university. Conversation analysis was used to identify 101 disagreement formulations, many of which follow the format seen in other classroom settings (e.g. agreement-prefaced disagreements). A subset of disagreement formulations manage epistemic responsibility through invoking expert sources (e.g. tutor-provided worksheets and academically superior out-group members). Through invoking an expert source in this way, students attend to the pedagogical activities – without tutor assistance – while minimising the conversational trouble associated with the act of ‘doing’ disagreement (i.e. indirectly enacting disagreements whilst maintaining a neutral stance). This paper thus contributes to CA literature on disagreements, while providing a unique insight into PBL tutorial interaction. Directions for future research are suggested.

  • 29.
    Moore-Millar, Karena
    et al.
    DMEM, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Thomson, A
    DMEM, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Liggat, JJ
    Pure & Applied Chemistry, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow,UK.
    Shilton, S
    Chemical & Process Engineering, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    School of Psychology, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Off the top of your head: what makes a wig work for alopecians?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alopecia UK quote that 1.7% of the British population may experience alopecia areata during their lifetime. A large percentage of this population chose to wear wigs to conceal their hair loss. Since 2008 NHS Scotland has spent over £ 1 million per annum on the provision of wigs to medical hair loss patients, including alopecia. However, little is known about the wig users’experience or how it affects their body image and quality of life. This study has conducted pilot focus groups, semi-structured interviews, online questionnaires, and physical testing of wig materials to gain a holistic understanding of wig users’ experiences. The findings look at identifying any relationship with fiber technology and personal experiences, and how wig design could improve their quality of life.

  • 30.
    Moore-Millar, Karena
    et al.
    Univ Strathclyde, DMEM, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Thomson, Avril
    Univ Strathclyde, DMEM, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Liggat, John
    Univ Strathclyde, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Shilton, Simon
    Univ Strathclyde, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Off the top of your head: What makes a wig work for alopecians2013In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, ISSN 0022-202X, E-ISSN 1523-1747, Vol. 133, no 5, p. 1394-1394, article id P019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alopecia UK quote that 1.7% of the British population may experience alopecia areata during their lifetime. A large percentage of this population chose to wear wigs to conceal their hair loss. Since 2008 NHS Scotland has spent over £1 million per annum on the provision of wigs to medical hair loss patients, including alopecia. However, little is known about the wig users’ experience or how it affects their body image and quality of life. This study has conducted pilot focus groups, semi-structured interviews, online questionnaires, and physical testing of wig materials to gain a holistic understanding of wig users’ experiences. The findings look at identifying any relationship with fiber technology and personal experiences, and how wig design could improve their quality of life.

  • 31.
    Riley, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Burns, MareeEating Difficulties Education Network, Auckland, New Zealand.Frith, HannahUniversity of Plymouth, UK.Wiggins, SallyUniversity of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.Markula, PirkkoUniversity of Alberta, Canada.
    Critical Bodies: Representations, identities and practices of weight and body management2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using work produced from the critical and postmodern arena in social sciences, this book examines three key areas - representation, identities and practice - to explore and interrogate how body and weight management, subjectivities, experiences and practices are constituted within and by the normative discourses of contemporary western culture.

  • 32.
    Riley, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Frith, Hannah
    University of Plymouth, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Markula, Pirkko
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Burns, Maree
    Eating Difficulties Education Network, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Critical bodies: Discourses of health, gender and consumption2007In: Critical Bodies / [ed] Sarah Riley, Maree Burns, Hannah Frith, Sally Wiggins and Pirkko Markula, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, p. 193-203Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Ritchie, Sophie
    et al.
    Univ Strathclyde, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Univ Strathclyde, UK.
    Sanford, Alison
    Univ Strathclyde, UK.
    Perceptions of cosmesis and function in adults with upper limb prostheses: A systematic literature review2011In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 332-341Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Technological developments in prosthesis design of upper limb devices are improving rapidly, and understandings of user's perceptions are important to reduce device abandonment and improve user satisfaction rates. Objectives: The purpose of this review was to establish what is known about adult user's perceptions of upper limb prostheses in terms of both cosmesis and function. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: A search of the literature between 1990 and 2010 identified over 600 possible citations; these were reduced to 15 citations based on selection criteria. Results: The main themes arising from the review were user satisfaction ratings with current prostheses, priorities for future design and the social implications of wearing a prosthetic limb. While users of cosmetic prostheses were mostly satisfied with their prostheses, satisfaction rates vary considerably across studies, due to variability in demographics of users and an ambiguity over the definitions of cosmesis and function. Design priorities also varied, though overall there is a slight trend toward prioritising function over cosmesis. The qualitative studies noted the importance users placed on presenting a 'normal' appearance and 'not standing out'. Conclusions: The reviewed studies mostly examine functionality and cosmesis as separate constructs, and conclusions are limited due to the disparity of user groups studied. Recommendations are made for further work to explore understandings of these constructs in relation to upper limb prosthesis use.

  • 34.
    Stokoe, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Nottingham Trent University, UK.
    Discursive approaches2005In: Handbook of research methods in clinical and health psychology / [ed] Jeremy Miles and Paul Gilbert, Oxford University Press, 2005, 1, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces a method of qualitative analysis that focuses on exploring and explicating language in use. The discourse analytic approach discussed has developed within psychology over the past fifteen years and is called ‘discursive psychology’ (DP). The chapter outlines its origins and foundations, its theory and approach to language, its questions and topics of investigation, its methods of data collection and analysis and, for the current purposes, its utility for clinical and health psychologists.

  • 35.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Adult and child use of love, like, don't like and hate during family mealtimes: Subjective category assessments as food preference talk2014In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 7-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food preference is now a ubiquitous concept in eating research, and closely associated with actual consumption, particularly in relation to children's food preferences. Research in this area is beginning to reveal the effects of parent-child interaction on eating practices though relatively little attention has been paid to the discursive and lexical processes involved. Food preferences are typically associated with the terms 'likes' and 'dislikes' in food preference research. By contrast, adults and children typically use the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate' to construct and manage food preferences in everyday meal conversations. A corpus of 270 video- and audio-recorded English and Scottish family mealtimes, involving children aged 1-17 years, was searched and analysed for any and all occurrences of subjective category assessments (SCAs; e.g., 'I like X'), featuring the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate'. Discursive psychology was used to analyse the transcripts and recordings, and illustrated the disparity between adult and child use of SCAs and food preference talk. Within the data set, parents typically made claims about what their children like, and in doing so claimed epistemic primacy over their children's food preferences. Children, by contrast, typically made claims about their own 'don't likes' and likes, and these were frequently countered by their parents or treated as inappropriate claims. Implications for how parents and researchers might reorient to the food preferences lexicon are discussed

  • 36.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Construction and Action in Food Evaluation: Conversational Data2001In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 445-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study engages both social psychological research on “attitudes” and discursive work on “evaluative practices.” Methodological constraints in both of these fields have resulted in a relative lack of attention to everyday interaction. By using conversational data, the current study extends discursive research and highlights the constructive and constructed nature of food evaluations. Family mealtimes were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using discursive and conversational analytic procedures. Direct evaluative expressions such as “like” and “nice” were examined in terms of their construction and placement in the talk. The rhetorical organization of these expressions highlighted the extent to which food evaluations are oriented to actions such as accounts, compliments, and offers of food. Examples of these activities are discussed in relation to the interactional construction of evaluations. Implications of the study for the fields of food preferences and health promotion are also addressed.

  • 37.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Dealing with weight in clinical interactions2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Wiggins, Sally
    School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde,, University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Eugh’: Disgust markers as assessments in family mealtime interaction2011In: Abstracts from the XXIst Congress 2011 of European Chemoreception Research Organization, ECRO-2011, 7–10 September 2011, Manchester, Conference Centre, Manchester, UK, 2011, p. A10-A10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disgust is a theoretical as well as a sensory concept. To be disgusted, one needs to understand not only the sensory characteristics that might be perceived as disgusting, but also the ideational character- istics that mark out “good” from “bad”, “right” from “wrong”. In describing something as disgusting, one is also evaluating it in a particular way. The current paper examines exactly this process: how disgust is used to make an assessment in everyday language use. The topic is food and eating, the setting is family mealtimes. Families in England and Scotland (with English as the native language) were video and audio recorded as they ate meals in their homes. The audio and video data therefore captures naturalistic interaction: as closely as possible to how people would normally act in those settings. A discursive psychological analysis is used to examine the data. This approach focuses on talk as a social practice: the emphasis is on what is achieved socially through talking in a par- ticular way, rather than on individual cognitive processes that may underpin the talk. The analysis focused on instances where speakers uttered a “disgust marker” such as “eugh”, “yuck” or “disgusting”. The analysis demonstrates that disgust markers are typically characterised by three features: they usually follow a “noticing” about the food/eating practice (i.e. other people’s attention is drawn to the target object), they usually occur at the start of a turn in talk (i.e. turn-initial), and they are predominantly uttered alone (i.e. “eugh” ) without any explanation or clarification. These features enable disgust markers to make an assessment of food or behaviour without indicating the source of the trouble. That is, whether it is the subject (the consumer) or the object (the food) that is the source of the disgust, is not clear. Disgust markers, in their sequential and intonational detail, are thus argued to blur the subject/ object boundary. Speakers may also challenge others Õ assessments of disgust, and so one can also see the social rights to “knowing” disgust being managed in talk and interaction.

  • 39. Wiggins, Sally
    Family mealtimes, yuckiness and the socialisation of disgust responses by pre-school children2014In: Language and Food: Verbal and nonverbal experiences / [ed] Polly E. Szatrowski, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 211-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to research on the socialization of disgust responses by examining the ways in which preschool children (up to and including 5-year-olds) and their parents enact disgust in video recordings of family mealtimes in England and Scotland using a discursive psychological approach. I demonstrate that, in this context, preschool children predominantly use the disgust marker yuck whereas adults most commonly utter eugh. Preschool children’s yuck utterances are typically ignored by parents, treated as humorous or as attention-seeking behavior. I argue that preschool children are not treated as having the right to “know” disgust. The paper aims to stimulate debate in research on food and disgust, and of the role of language and social interaction in children’s eating practices

  • 40.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Nottingham Trent University, UK.
    Fat facts: Knowledge claims and expertise amongst weight management groups2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From Loughborough with love: How discursive psychology rocked the heart of psychology’s love affair with attitudes2016In: Discursive psychology: Classic and contemporary issues / [ed] Tileaga, C. & Stokoe, E., London: Routledge, 2016, p. 101-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Nottingham Trent University, UK.
    Good for ‘You’: Generic and Individual Healthy Eating Advice in Family Mealtimes2004In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 535-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy eating is one of the main concerns for health organizations in the UK, and has been widely promoted in recent decades. Yet despite the amount of nutritional information available, levels of obesity, heart disease and other food-related diseases remain high. Existing research in this area often uses individual accounts of consumption to examine the reasons why people may not be eating ‘healthily’. An alternative way to approach this issue is to examine how healthy eating advice is constructed and used in everyday interaction. This research uses tape-recorded family mealtimes to examine instances where nutritional advice is embedded and managed in conversational activities. A distinction between generic and individually focused healthy eating talk is illustrated, and the implications for further research are discussed.

  • 43.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Group interaction through a lens: A proposal for an evidence-based training tool for tutors of small group and problem-based learning2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Graham Hills Building, Glasgow, UK.
    Managing blame and identity in weight management2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Graham Hills Building, Glasgow, UK.
    Managing blame in NHS weight management treatment: Psychologising weight and ‘obesity’2009In: Journal of Community and Applied Social Phychology, ISSN 1052-9284, E-ISSN 1099-1298, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 374-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weight management services in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) are on the increase, partly due to rising rates of patients classified as ‘obese’. Those attending such services are held accountable, on some level, for their weight, although this issue is rarely addressed in clinical research in this area. By contrast, critical social research on ‘obesity’ considers blame a prominent issue though has yet to examine this in situ, in interactions between patients and health professionals. This paper uses discursive psychology to examine how blame is managed in the turn‐by‐turn interaction in group meetings within NHS weight management treatment. The data corpus comprises of digital audio recordings of 27 discussion‐based group meetings between patients and practitioners in a specialist weight‐management service in central Scotland. The analysis focuses on those moments in which patients appear to resist the notion that they are responsible for their weight gain. Such moments are typically managed by patients in one of two ways: By denying having performed the blameworthy activity, or locating the blame as outside of individual control. Both strategies, however, rely on an individualistic concept of weight that reifies the medical model, while at the same time, troubling that model and its efficacy. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these discursive practices and their relevance within the field.

  • 46.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    On the accountability of changing bodies: Using discursive psychology to examine embodied identities in different research settings2014In: Qualitative psychology journal, ISSN 2326-3598, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 144-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    dentity is typically understood as something that individuals “have” or own, an essential part of one’s psychological state that guides how we behave and how we fit into society. By contrast, the discursive psychological (DP) approach treats identity as an ongoing, active construction that is primarily achieved through discourse and social interaction. This paper documents the DP approach to identities, focusing specifically on embodied identities, and demonstrates the potential of DP for making sense of identities and embodiment in different research settings. Data are taken from three research contexts: (a) video and audio-recorded, everyday family mealtime interactions in England and Scotland, (b) audio recordings of weight management groups within the National Health Service (NHS) in Scotland, and (c) video-recorded interviews involving people with alopecia and their use of wigs in Scotland. In each of these settings, bodies were oriented to as predominantly stable and consistent, with references to changing bodies—such as changing food preferences, changing weight or body size, and changing hair color—as marked and accountable in each interaction. This paper contributes to a growing body of research that argues that bodies are not separate from discourse, and rather than examining “body talk” and embodied identity work, can illuminate not only identity research but also the potential of discursive approaches to psychology and interaction.

  • 47.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Producing infant food preferences during weaning: the role of language and gesture in parent-child interaction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Speaking the unspeakable : disgust as assessment in family mealtime interaction2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Psychology Division, York House, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham, UK.
    Talking about taste: Using a discursive psychological approach to examine challenges to food evaluations2004In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with developing the interdisciplinary nature of food research, and with examining eating practices as they occur in everyday situations. The aim is to demonstrate how discursive approaches may contribute to eating research using a specific analytical example. A discursive psychological approach is used to examine mealtime conversations from 10 families with the analysis focusing on how food evaluations are challenged in interaction—for example, asking someone to justify what they think is ‘wrong’ with the food. Data are presented with 7 examples of the 30 challenges that were found within the data corpus. The analysis demonstrates how people may be held accountable for their expressed taste preferences when being challenged, and how this contributes to our understanding of eating as primarily an individual and embodied experience. It is argued that a specific and detailed analysis of eating interactions provides an alternative way of conceptualising food evaluations as discursive rather than mentalistic concepts. A discursive approach also opens up practical ways in which the social and familial aspects of eating may be examined as they occur as part of food practices.

  • 50.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Talking taste2010Conference paper (Other academic)
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