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  • 1.
    Genelyte, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    (Ine)quality of life: Lithuanian labor migration to Sweden during the economic crisis and its aftermath, 2008-20132019In: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 79-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article connects micro and macro scales of inequality to Lithuanians decisions to depart to Sweden during the economic crisis with austerity measures and its aftermath (2008-2013). This period revealed unequal opportunities regarding the quality of life that were largely created by the gradual re-commodification of labor as well as unaddressed income and social inequalities which had existed since the 1990s. Nevertheless, macro inequalities did not directly lead to the exit decision. Rather, this was bound to the individuals perception of the leaving opportunity and (possible) quality of life for oneself and ones family across time and space.

  • 2. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Genelyte, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lost in Mobility?: Labour Migration from Baltic Lithuania to Sweden2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to make both theoretical and empirical contributions to the understanding of intra-EU mobility, with a focus on labour migration from Lithuania to Sweden. Inspired by a critical realist perspective, the thesis aims to help to explain the dynamics and individual decision-making behind mass labour emigration from the Baltic states, its socioeconomic consequences and policy responses. Theoretically, the thesis proposes a model that synthesizes a social transformation approach with an extended version of Hirschman’s analytical framework of exit, voice and loyalty. The three empirical articles, based mainly on semi-structured interviews, are situated within this framework. Two of the articles seek to explain the migrants’ decision-making process of stay-exit-entrance in the context of the structural-institutional social changes that followed (1) independence from the Soviet Union in 1990; (2) EU accession in 2004; and (3) the 2008/2009 economic crisis with austerity. The third article brings into the debate the perspective of the sending Baltic countries, in a broader context of the East-West migration debate.   

    The dissertation shows that the consequences of the neoliberal policies of the post-communist and post-crisis transformations, together with the construction of formal migration channels after EU accession, constitute various migrant categories. Individual strategies of actively looking for channels to exit and enter, combining them in different ways at various points of the migratory process and establishing informal social networks are re-constituting who can be and who is a migrant. Furthermore, following the economic crisis and austerity measures, the decision to emigrate extends beyond individual survival strategies, instead becoming bound to an individual’s perception of the (ine)quality of life and pursuit of a better quality of life for oneself and one’s family across time and in different places. Finally, as the interviewed Baltic experts agree, the EU’s policy of the free movement is socially and economically problematic, although the official Baltic states’ policy responses focus primarily on ‘talented’ and ‘needed’ diaspora members’ return or engagement. These policies have proved to be inadequate to address demographic and socioeconomic challenges in part brought about by emigration.

    The structural-institutional conditions, states’ and migrants’ strategies engender mobility as a social norm in the sending countries and promote and constitute the perpetuation of migration of both ‘precarious labour migrants’ and ‘active talented EU mobile citizens’.

    List of papers
    1. Policy Response to Emigration from the Baltics: Confronting ‘The European Elephant in the Room’
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy Response to Emigration from the Baltics: Confronting ‘The European Elephant in the Room’
    2016 (English)In: Labour Mobility in the Enlarged Single European Market / [ed] Jon Erik Dølvik, Line Eldring, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, 32, p. 45-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when migration policy has moved to the centre of national and European policy agendas, the three Baltic states are taking their first steps towards building a cohesive policy response to emigration. This is especially important in the wake of the global financial crisis, which generated an increased outflow from the Baltic states.

    The Baltic states are facing variety of challenges in part caused by this movement of mainly working-age men and women: demographic issues related to an ageing society, labour market challenges and social security system sustainability. Within this context, the discussion of human resource losses is growing in the public sphere in the Baltic states.

    Based on interviews with experts in labour and migration in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and a review of key national policy documents, this article analyses the commonalities among and differences between these three countries’ national responses.

    Despite some variations in the characteristics and extent of emigration from the three countries, the interviewed experts agree that the European Union’s policy of free mobility is socially and economically problematic. As the interviews indicate, there have been strong calls in Latvia and Lithuania for a more cohesive intra-European migration management policy to address current imbalances between EU member states and ensure that the loss of human resources in sending countries is accounted for in the recruitment policies of receiving countries. On another hand, Estonia experiences more circular movement patterns and demonstrates a rather liberal view towards migration issues, seeing a virtue in the (regional) open market.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016 Edition: 32
    Series
    Book Series: Comparative Social Research, ISSN 0195-6310 ; 32
    Keywords
    Labour migration, intra-EU mobility, Baltic states
    National Category
    International Migration and Ethnic Relations
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141963 (URN)978-1-78635-442-6 (ISBN)978-1-78635-441-9 (ISBN)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0338
    Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Genelyte, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Policy Response to Emigration from the Baltics: Confronting ‘The European Elephant in the Room’2016In: Labour Mobility in the Enlarged Single European Market / [ed] Jon Erik Dølvik, Line Eldring, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, 32, p. 45-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when migration policy has moved to the centre of national and European policy agendas, the three Baltic states are taking their first steps towards building a cohesive policy response to emigration. This is especially important in the wake of the global financial crisis, which generated an increased outflow from the Baltic states.

    The Baltic states are facing variety of challenges in part caused by this movement of mainly working-age men and women: demographic issues related to an ageing society, labour market challenges and social security system sustainability. Within this context, the discussion of human resource losses is growing in the public sphere in the Baltic states.

    Based on interviews with experts in labour and migration in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and a review of key national policy documents, this article analyses the commonalities among and differences between these three countries’ national responses.

    Despite some variations in the characteristics and extent of emigration from the three countries, the interviewed experts agree that the European Union’s policy of free mobility is socially and economically problematic. As the interviews indicate, there have been strong calls in Latvia and Lithuania for a more cohesive intra-European migration management policy to address current imbalances between EU member states and ensure that the loss of human resources in sending countries is accounted for in the recruitment policies of receiving countries. On another hand, Estonia experiences more circular movement patterns and demonstrates a rather liberal view towards migration issues, seeing a virtue in the (regional) open market.

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