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  • 1.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wärner, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High Temperature Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels for Future Power Plant Applications2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wärner, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Alleima AB, Stragetic research, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Segersäll, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermomechanical Fatigue of Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys2023In: Procedia Structural Integrity, ISSN 2452-3216, Vol. 43, p. 130-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rising global energy consumption and the increase in emissions of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2) causing global warming, make need for more sustainable power generation. This could be accomplished by increasing the efficiency of the biomass-fired power plants, which is achieved by increasing the temperature and pressure. In addition, flexible generation of power is critical if only renewable power generation is to be achieved and this will increase the number of start-and stop cycles. Cyclic condition in a long-term high temperature environment is an operation process that such materials must withstand, in order to satisfy the needs for future power generation.

    Commonly austenitic stainless steel are used for critical components of power plants. Because of future change in operating conditions, further investigations are needed to verify that the demands on safety for cyclic long-term usage is fulfilled. This work includes investigation of two commercial austenitic steels: Esshete 1250 and Sanicro 25. The materials were exposed to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) in strain control under In-Phase and Out-of-Phase conditions and main testing temperature ranges of 100-650°C and 100-800°C respectively. Some of the specimens were pre-aged to simulate prolonged service condition. Mechanical test data were obtained and analysed in order to define the TMF performance of the investigated alloys. The differences in performance were discussed in relation to mechanical and microstructural characterization.

  • 3. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Wärner, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High Temperature Fatigue Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel: Microstructural Evolution during Dwell-Fatigue and Thermomechanical Fatigue2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global energy consumption is increasing and together with global warming from greenhouse gas emission, a need for more environmentally friendly energy production processes is created. Higher efficiency of biomass power plants can be achieved by increasing temperature and pressure in the boiler section, this would increase the generation of electricity along with the reduction in emission of greenhouse gases e.g. CO2. The generation of power must also be flexible to be able to follow the demands of the energy market and this results in a need for cyclic operating conditions with alternating output and multiple start-ups and shut-downs.

    Because of the need for flexibility, higher temperature and higher pressure of future biomass power plants, the demands of improved mechanical properties of the materials used for the components are also increased. Properties like creep strength, maintained structural integrity, thermomechanical fatigue resistance and high temperature corrosion resistance are critical for materials used in the next generation biomass power plants. Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels are known to possess such good high temperature properties and are relatively cheap compared to the nickel-base alloys, which are already used in high temperature cyclic conditions for other applications. The behaviour of austenitic stainless steels subjected to future biomass power plants operating conditions are not yet fully investigated.

    This thesis presents research that includes investigations of the mechanical and microstructural behaviour during high temperature cyclic conditions of austenitic stainless steels. This is done using thermomechanical fatigue testing, dwell-fatigue testing and impact toughness testing at elevated temperatures. Material service degradation as an effect of microstructural evolution is investigated by ageing of some test specimens before testing. Microscopy is used to investigate the connection between the mechanical behaviour and the microstructural deformation- and damage mechanisms of the austenitic stainless steels after testing.

    The results show that creep-fatigue interaction damage, creep damage and oxidation assisted cracking are present during high temperature cyclic conditions. In addition, ageing results in a less favourable microstructural configuration which negatively affects the resistance to high temperature damage mechanisms. An example of this is the lowering of impact toughness due to precipitation and coarsening of detrimental phases of some aged austenitic stainless steels. Moreover, TMF testing of aged austenitic stainless steels induce oxidation assisted cracking and an embrittling effect that cause significant cyclic life decrease. The creep-fatigue interaction behaviour during dwell-fatigue testing of two austenitic stainless steels generates various crack propagation characteristics. The higher alloyed material shows interchanging intra- and intergranular propagation with dynamic recrystallization, while the lower alloyed material shows propagation exclusively along the grain boundaries by the assistance of fatigue induced slip bands interaction with grain boundary precipitates.

    The research of this thesis provides a deeper understanding of the structural integrity, deformation mechanisms, damage mechanisms and fracture mechanisms during high temperature cyclic conditions of austenitic stainless steels. Long term, this is believed to contribute to development of suitable materials used as components of future biomass-fired power plants to achieve sustainable power generation.

    List of papers
    1. Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys
    2018 (English)In: MATEC Web of Conferences 165 , 05001 (2018) / [ed] Henaff, G, EDP Sciences, 2018, Vol. 165Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work includes an investigation of two commercial austenitic steels: UNS S21500 (Esshete 1250) and UNS S31035 (Sandvik Sanicro (TM) 25). The materials were exposed to isothermal strain controlled fatigue with load controlled dwell time at maximum strain. The testing temperature used was 700 degrees C and the test cycles were performed in tension. Mechanical test data were obtained and analysed in order to define creep-fatigue damage diagrams at failure for the investigated austenitic alloys. During the given conditions, Sanicro 25 showed superior creep-fatigue life, suffered less amount of creep elongation for the same amount of strain amplitude and dwell times compared to Esshete 1250. Both alloys showed creep-fatigue interaction damage for specific test configurations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    EDP Sciences, 2018
    Series
    MATEC Web of Conferences, ISSN 2261-236X
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148182 (URN)10.1051/matecconf/2018165505001 (DOI)000478990600046 ()
    Conference
    Fatigue 2018 , 12th International Fatigue Congress, 27 May-1 June 2018, Poitiers, France
    Note

    Funding Agencies|AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish Energy Agency through Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2021-12-17
    2. Thermomechanical Fatigue Behaviour of Aged Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermomechanical Fatigue Behaviour of Aged Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, no 127, p. 509-521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demands for efficiency and flexibility result in more severe operating conditions for the materials used in critical components of biomass power plants. These operating conditions involve higher temperature ranges, more pronounced environmental effects and cyclic operations. Austenitic stainless steels have shown to possess promising high temperature properties which makes them suitable as candidates for critical components in biomass power plant. However, their behaviour under such conditions is not yet fully understood. This work investigates three commercial austenitic alloys: Esshete 1250, Sanicro 25 and Sanicro 31HT. The alloys were subjected to in-phase (IP) thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing under strain-control in the temperature range of 100–800 °C. Both virgin and pre-aged TMF specimens were tested in order to simulate service degradation resulting from long-term usage. The results show that the pre-aged specimens suffered shorter TMF-life compared to the virgin specimens. The scanning electron microscopy methods electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to analyse and discuss active failure and deformation mechanisms. The difference in TMF-life produced by the two testing conditions was attributed to an embrittling effect by precipitation, reduced creep properties and oxidation assisted cracking.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Thermomechanical fatigue, austenitic alloys, pre-ageing
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159644 (URN)10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2019.06.012 (DOI)000482492600046 ()2-s2.0-85068255817 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish Energy Agency through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]

    Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2021-06-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Fracture and Damage Behavior in an Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel During LCF, TMF and CF
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fracture and Damage Behavior in an Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel During LCF, TMF and CF
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: ECF22 - LOADING AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2018, Vol. 13, p. 843-848Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future advanced ultra-supercritical power plant will be run at higher temperature and pressure. New materials will be used to meet the requirements. However, the structure integrity of these materials needs to be evaluated. Sanicro 25 is a newly developed advanced austenitic heat resistant stainless steel with the aim to be used in future 700 degrees C or 650 degrees C power plants to replace part of Ni based alloys. This paper provides an overview on the fracture and damage behavior in this material during LCF, TMF and CF. The cyclic hardening and fatigue life during LCF, TMF and CF will be discussed. The influence of prolonged service degradation has been analyzed by the use of pre-aged material for TMF and CF loading conditions. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Peer-review under responsibility of the ECF22 organizers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
    Series
    Procedia Structural Integrity, ISSN 2452-3216
    Keywords
    AUSC power plant; austenitic heat resistant stainless steel; Sanicro 25; low cycle fatigue; thermomechanical fatigue; creep-fatigue interaction
    National Category
    Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155626 (URN)10.1016/j.prostr.2018.12.161 (DOI)000459860900138 ()
    Conference
    22nd European Conference on Fracture (ECF) - Loading and Environmental Effects on Structural Integrity
    Note

    Funding Agencies|AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish Energy Agency through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; IPMinfra [LM2015069]; IPMinfra through project CEITEC 2020 of MEYS, Czech Rep [LQ1601]

    Available from: 2019-03-20 Created: 2019-03-20 Last updated: 2021-05-21
    4. Structural Integrity and Impact Toughness of Austenitic Stainless Steels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural Integrity and Impact Toughness of Austenitic Stainless Steels
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, International Congress on Mechanical Behavior of Materials , 2019, p. 270-275Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    International Congress on Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2019
    Keywords
    Austenitic stainless steels, long-term ageing, impact toughness, fracture mechanisms
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162679 (URN)978-1-922016-65-2 (ISBN)9781713805946 (ISBN)
    Conference
    13th International Conference on the Mechanical Behaviour of Materials (ICM13), 11-14 June 2019, Melbourne, Australia
    Available from: 2019-12-16 Created: 2019-12-16 Last updated: 2021-07-20
    5. Microstructural Evolution During High Temperature Dwell-fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural Evolution During High Temperature Dwell-fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steels
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 143, article id 105990Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructural evolution related to the mechanical response from isothermal dwell-fatigue testing at 700 °C of two austenitic steels, Esshete 1250 and Sanicro 25, is reported. Coherent Cu-precipitates and incoherent Nb-carbides were found to impede dislocation motion, increase hardening and improving the high temperature properties of Sanicro 25. Sparsely placed intergranular Cr- and Nb-carbides made Esshete 1250 susceptible to creep damage and intergranular crack propagation, mainly from interaction of the carbides and fatigue induced slip bands. Dynamic recrystallization of the plastic zone at the crack tip appeared to affect crack propagation of Sanicro 25 by providing an energetically privileged path.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2021
    Keywords
    creep-fatiuge interaction, high temperature austenitic alloys, high-resolution microscopy, dynamic recrystallization of crack tip plastic zone
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-171872 (URN)10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.105990 (DOI)000597143700003 ()2-s2.0-85095446912 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish Energy Agency through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]

    Available from: 2020-12-10 Created: 2020-12-10 Last updated: 2021-05-21Bibliographically approved
    6. Influence of Ageing on Thermomechanical Fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Ageing on Thermomechanical Fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steels
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Procedia Structural Integrity / [ed] Elsevier, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 23, p. 354-359Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Thermomechanical fatigue, Austenitic stainless steels, Ageing, Barrelling effect
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161737 (URN)10.1016/j.prostr.2020.01.112 (DOI)
    Conference
    9th International Conference on Materials Structures and Micromechanics of Fracture, MSMF9, in Brno, Czech Republic, June 26-28, 2019
    Available from: 2019-11-08 Created: 2019-11-08 Last updated: 2021-05-21
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 4. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Wärner, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High-Temperature Fatigue Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel: Influence of Ageing on Thermomechanical Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Interaction2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global energy consumption is increasing and together with global warming from greenhouse gas emission, create the need for more environmental friendly energy production processes. Higher efficiency of biomass power plants can be achieved by increasing temperature and pressure in the boiler section and this would increase the generation of electricity along with the reduction in emission of greenhouse gases e.g. CO2. The power generation must also be flexible to be able to follow the demands of the energy market, this results in a need for cyclic operating conditions with alternating output and multiple start-ups and shut-downs.

    Because of the demands of flexibility, higher temperature and higher pressure in the boiler section of future biomass power plants, the demands on improved mechanical properties of the materials of these components are also increased. Properties like creep strength, thermomechanical fatigue resistance and high temperature corrosion resistance are critical for materials used in the next generation biomass power plants. Austenitic stainless steels are known to possess such good high temperature properties and are relatively cheap compared to the nickel-base alloys, which are already operating at high temperature cyclic conditions in other applications. The behaviour of austenitic stainless steels during these widened operating conditions are not yet fully understood.

    The aim of this licentiate thesis is to increase the knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high temperature cyclic conditions for austenitic stainless steels. This is done by the use of thermomechanical fatigue- and creepfatigue testing at elevated temperatures. For safety reasons, the effect of prolonged service degradation is investigated by pre-ageing before mechanical testing. Microscopy is used to investigate the microstructural development and resulting damage behaviour of the austenitic stainless steels after testing. The results show that creep-fatigue interaction damage, creep damage and oxidation assisted cracking are present at high temperature cyclic conditions. In addition, simulated service degradation resulted in a detrimental embrittling effect due to the deterioration by the microstructural evolution.

    List of papers
    1. Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys
    2018 (English)In: MATEC Web of Conferences 165 , 05001 (2018) / [ed] Henaff, G, EDP Sciences, 2018, Vol. 165Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work includes an investigation of two commercial austenitic steels: UNS S21500 (Esshete 1250) and UNS S31035 (Sandvik Sanicro (TM) 25). The materials were exposed to isothermal strain controlled fatigue with load controlled dwell time at maximum strain. The testing temperature used was 700 degrees C and the test cycles were performed in tension. Mechanical test data were obtained and analysed in order to define creep-fatigue damage diagrams at failure for the investigated austenitic alloys. During the given conditions, Sanicro 25 showed superior creep-fatigue life, suffered less amount of creep elongation for the same amount of strain amplitude and dwell times compared to Esshete 1250. Both alloys showed creep-fatigue interaction damage for specific test configurations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    EDP Sciences, 2018
    Series
    MATEC Web of Conferences, ISSN 2261-236X
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148182 (URN)10.1051/matecconf/2018165505001 (DOI)000478990600046 ()
    Conference
    Fatigue 2018 , 12th International Fatigue Congress, 27 May-1 June 2018, Poitiers, France
    Note

    Funding Agencies|AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish Energy Agency through Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2021-12-17
    Download full text (pdf)
    High-Temperature Fatigue Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel: Influence of Ageing on Thermomechanical Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Interaction
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 5.
    Wärner, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structural Integrity and Impact Toughness of Austenitic Stainless Steels2019In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, International Congress on Mechanical Behavior of Materials , 2019, p. 270-275Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Wärner, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermomechanical Fatigue Behaviour of Aged Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys2019In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, no 127, p. 509-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demands for efficiency and flexibility result in more severe operating conditions for the materials used in critical components of biomass power plants. These operating conditions involve higher temperature ranges, more pronounced environmental effects and cyclic operations. Austenitic stainless steels have shown to possess promising high temperature properties which makes them suitable as candidates for critical components in biomass power plant. However, their behaviour under such conditions is not yet fully understood. This work investigates three commercial austenitic alloys: Esshete 1250, Sanicro 25 and Sanicro 31HT. The alloys were subjected to in-phase (IP) thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing under strain-control in the temperature range of 100–800 °C. Both virgin and pre-aged TMF specimens were tested in order to simulate service degradation resulting from long-term usage. The results show that the pre-aged specimens suffered shorter TMF-life compared to the virgin specimens. The scanning electron microscopy methods electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to analyse and discuss active failure and deformation mechanisms. The difference in TMF-life produced by the two testing conditions was attributed to an embrittling effect by precipitation, reduced creep properties and oxidation assisted cracking.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Thermomechanical Fatigue Behaviour of Aged Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys
  • 7.
    Wärner, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys2018In: MATEC Web of Conferences 165 , 05001 (2018) / [ed] Henaff, G, EDP Sciences, 2018, Vol. 165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work includes an investigation of two commercial austenitic steels: UNS S21500 (Esshete 1250) and UNS S31035 (Sandvik Sanicro (TM) 25). The materials were exposed to isothermal strain controlled fatigue with load controlled dwell time at maximum strain. The testing temperature used was 700 degrees C and the test cycles were performed in tension. Mechanical test data were obtained and analysed in order to define creep-fatigue damage diagrams at failure for the investigated austenitic alloys. During the given conditions, Sanicro 25 showed superior creep-fatigue life, suffered less amount of creep elongation for the same amount of strain amplitude and dwell times compared to Esshete 1250. Both alloys showed creep-fatigue interaction damage for specific test configurations.

  • 8.
    Wärner, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Microscopic Evaluation of Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Heat Resistant Austenic Alloys2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Wärner, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. AB Sandvik Materials Technology R and D Center, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High Temperature Fatigue of Aged Heavy Section Austenitic Stainless Steels2022In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates two austenitic stainless steels, Sanicro 25 which is a candidate for high temperature heavy section components of future power plants and Esshete 1250 which is used as a reference material. The alloys were subjected to out-of-phase (OP) thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing under strain-control in the temperature range of 100 ∘C to 650 ∘C. Both unaged and aged (650 ∘C, 3000 h) TMF specimens were tested to simulate service degradation resulting from long-term usage. The scanning electron microscopy methods electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to analyse and discuss active failure and deformation mechanisms. The Sanicro 25 results show that the aged specimens suffered increased plastic straining and shorter TMF-life compared to the unaged specimens. The difference in TMF-life of the two test conditions was attributed to an accelerated microstructural evolution that provided decreased the effectiveness for impeding dislocation motion. Ageing did not affect the OP-TMF life of the reference material, Esshete 1250. However, the structural stability and its resistance for cyclic deformation was greatly reduced due to coarsening and cracking of the strengthening niobium carbide precipitates. Sanicro 25 showed the higher structural stability during OP-TMF testing compare with the reference material.

  • 10.
    Wärner, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Influence of Ageing on Thermomechanical Fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steels2019In: Procedia Structural Integrity / [ed] Elsevier, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 23, p. 354-359Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Wärner, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Jinghao
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Microstructural Evolution During High Temperature Dwell-fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steels2021In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 143, article id 105990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructural evolution related to the mechanical response from isothermal dwell-fatigue testing at 700 °C of two austenitic steels, Esshete 1250 and Sanicro 25, is reported. Coherent Cu-precipitates and incoherent Nb-carbides were found to impede dislocation motion, increase hardening and improving the high temperature properties of Sanicro 25. Sparsely placed intergranular Cr- and Nb-carbides made Esshete 1250 susceptible to creep damage and intergranular crack propagation, mainly from interaction of the carbides and fatigue induced slip bands. Dynamic recrystallization of the plastic zone at the crack tip appeared to affect crack propagation of Sanicro 25 by providing an energetically privileged path.

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