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  • 1.
    Toczé, Klervie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Functional Reactive Programming as programming model for telecom server software2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the use of the functional reactive programming (FRP) framework reactive-banana in a prototype which simulates a part of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station: the Radio Resource Control connection setup procedure. The investigated problem is to determine whether using this FRP framework leads to an implementation with suitable performance and improved maintainability compared to the current implementation. Enhancing the maintainability of the base station software enables quicker and more efficient maintenance activities, which lead to an improved customer satisfaction. Moreover, it means that less programmers need to work on maintenance, so they can work on developing new products instead.

    In order to compare the use of the FRP paradigm to the one currently used in the base station implementation, the object-oriented programming (OOP) paradigm, a second prototype using this paradigm was also implemented. Having two prototypes implementing the same designed reference model (which is a simplified version of the Radio Resource Control connection setup procedure) enables a relevant comparison of the two paradigms. The two prototypes were then compared in terms of performance and maintainability. The maintainability evaluation consisted in using both software metrics and experts’ assessment, as this has been proven to be the most efficient way to evaluate software maintainability. Four experts were asked to fill in a questionnaire after reviewing the code of the two implementations.

    The comparison of the two prototypes indicates that the FRP prototype is more maintainable than the OOP one, but the OOP prototype has better performances than the FRP one. Moreover, the performance of the FRP prototype during the conducted tests indicates that such an implementation of the FRP paradigm is not suitable for a real base station.

  • 2.
    Toczé, Klervie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Latency-aware Resource Management at the Edge2020Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing diversity of connected devices leads to new application domains being envisioned. Some of these need ultra low latency or have privacy requirements that cannot be satisfied by the current cloud. By bringing resources closer to the end user, the recent edge computing paradigm aims to enable such applications.

    One critical aspect to ensure the successful deployment of the edge computing paradigm is efficient resource management. Indeed, obtaining the needed resources is crucial for the applications using the edge, but the resource picture of this paradigm is complex. First, as opposed to the nearly infinite resources provided by the cloud, the edge devices have finite resources. Moreover, different resource types are required depending on the applications and the devices supplying those resources are very heterogeneous. This thesis studies several challenges towards enabling efficient resource management for edge computing.

    The thesis begins by a review of the state-of-the-art research focusing on resource management in the edge computing context. A taxonomy is proposed for providing an overview of the current research and identify areas in need of further work.

    One of the identified challenges is studying the resource supply organization in the case where a mix of mobile and stationary devices is used to provide the edge resources. The ORCH framework is proposed as a means to orchestrate this edge device mix. The evaluation performed in a simulator shows that this combination of devices enables higher quality of service for latency-critical tasks.

    Another area is understanding the resource demand side. The thesis presents a study of the workload of a killer application for edge computing: mixed reality. The MR-Leo prototype is designed and used as a vehicle to understand the end-to-end latency, the throughput, and the characteristics of the workload for this type of application. A method for modeling the workload of an application is devised and applied to MR-Leo in order to obtain a synthetic workload exhibiting the same characteristics, which can be used in further studies. 

  • 3.
    Toczé, Klervie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Taxonomy for Management and Optimization of Multiple Resources in Edge Computing2018Ingår i: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, artikel-id 7476201Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Edge computing is promoted to meet increasing performance needs of data-driven services using computational and storage resources close to the end devices at the edge of the current network. To achieve higher performance in this new paradigm, one has to consider how to combine the efficiency of resource usage at all three layers of architecture: end devices, edge devices, and the cloud. While cloud capacity is elastically extendable, end devices and edge devices are to various degrees resource-constrained. Hence, an efficient resource management is essential to make edge computing a reality. In this work, we first present terminology and architectures to characterize current works within the field of edge computing. Then, we review a wide range of recent articles and categorize relevant aspects in terms of 4 perspectives: resource type, resource management objective, resource location, and resource use. This taxonomy and the ensuing analysis are used to identify some gaps in the existing research. Among several research gaps, we found that research is less prevalent on data, storage, and energy as a resource and less extensive towards the estimation, discovery, and sharing objectives. As for resource types, the most well-studied resources are computation and communication resources. Our analysis shows that resource management at the edge requires a deeper understanding of how methods applied at different levels and geared towards different resource types interact. Specifically, the impact of mobility and collaboration schemes requiring incentives are expected to be different in edge architectures compared to the classic cloud solutions. Finally, we find that fewer works are dedicated to the study of nonfunctional properties or to quantifying the footprint of resource management techniques, including edge-specific means of migrating data and services.

  • 4.
    Toczé, Klervie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    ORCH: Distributed Orchestration Framework using Mobile Edge Devices2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FOG AND EDGE COMPUTING (ICFEC), IEEE , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the emerging edge computing architecture, several types of devices have computational resources available. In order to make efficient use of those resources, deciding on which device a task should execute is of great importance. Existing works on task placement in edge computing focus on a resource supply side consisting of stationary devices only. In this paper, we consider the addition of mobile edge devices. We explore how mobile and stationary edge devices can augment the original task placement problem with a second placement problem: the placement of the mobile edge devices. We propose the ORCH framework in order to solve the joint problem in a distributed manner and evaluate it in the context of a spatially-changing load. Our implementation of the combined task and edge placement algorithms shows a normalized 83% delay-sensitive task completion rate compared to a perfect edge placement strategy.

  • 5.
    Toczé, Klervie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Where Resources meet at the Edge2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (CIT), IEEE , 2017, s. 302-307Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Edge computing is a recent paradigm where network nodes are placed close to the end users, at the edge of the network. Efficient management of resources within this configuration is crucial due to scarcity and geographical spreading of edge resources. We begin by a brief description of the edge paradigm, the most generic edge architecture, and the terminology associated to it. Then, we propose and elaborate on a preliminary taxonomy for edge resource management, together with a substantial review of works in the area. Finally, we identify some research challenges.

  • 6.
    Toczé, Klervie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schmitt, Norbert
    University of Würzburg; Germany.
    Brandic, Ivona
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Aral, Atakan
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Towards Edge Benchmarking: A Methodology for Characterizing Edge Workloads2019Ingår i: In Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W),, IEEE, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The edge computing paradigm has recently attracted research efforts coming from different application domains. However, evaluating an edge platform or algorithm is impeded by the lack of suitable benchmarks. We propose a methodology for characterizing edge workloads from different application domains. It is a first step towards defining workloads to be included in a future edge benchmarking suite. We evaluate the methodology on three use cases and find that defining a common and standard set of workloads is plausible.

  • 7.
    Toczé, Klervie
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vasilevskaya, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sandahl, Patrik
    Ericsson AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Maintainability of Functional Reactive Programs in a Telecom Server Software2016Ingår i: SAC '16 Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, s. 2001-2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is claimed to be a good choice for event handling applications. Current object- oriented telecom applications are known to suffer from additional complexity due to event handling code. In this paper we study the maintainability of FRP programs in the tele- com domain compared to traditional object-oriented programming (OOP), with the motivation that higher maintainability increases the service quality and decreases the costs. Two implementations of the same procedure are created: one using Haskell and the reactive-banana FRP frame- work and one using C++ and the OOP paradigm. Four software experts each with over 20 years of experience and three development engineers working on a product subject to study were engaged in evaluations, based on a questionnaire involving five different aspects of maintainability. The evaluations indicate a higher maintainability profile for FRP compared with OOP. This is confirmed by a more detailed analysis of the code size. While performance was not a main criteria, a preliminary evaluation shows that the OOP prototype is 8-10 times faster than the FRP prototype in the current (non-optimised) implementations.

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