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  • 1.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Closing Pakistan’s yield gaps through nutrient recycling2018In: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, p. 1-14, article id 00024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving food security will require closing yield gaps in many regions, including Pakistan. Although fertilizer subsidies have facilitated increased nitrogen (N) application rates, many staple crop yields have yet to reach their maximum potential. Considering that current animal manure and human excreta (bio-supply) recycling rates are low, there is substantial potential to increase the reuse of nutrients in bio-supply. We quantified 2010 crop N, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) needs along with bio-supply nutrient availability for Pakistani districts, and compared these values to synthetic fertilizer use and costs. We found that synthetic fertilizer use combined with low bio-supply recycling resulted in a substantial gap between nutrient supply and P and K crop needs, which would cost 3 billion USD to fill with synthetic fertilizers. If all bio-supply was recycled, it could eliminate K synthetic fertilizer needs and decrease N synthetic fertilizer needs to 43% of what was purchased in 2010. Under a full recycling scenario, farmers would still require an additional 0.28 million tons of synthetic P fertilizers, costing 2.77 billion USD. However, it may not be prohibitively expensive to correct P deficiencies. Pakistan already spends this amount of money on fertilizers. If funds used for synthetic N were reallocated to synthetic P purchases in a full bio-supply recycling scenario, crop needs could be met. Most recycling could happen within districts, with only 6% of bio-supply requiring between-district transport when optimized to meet national N crop needs. Increased recycling in Pakistan could be a viable way to decrease yield gaps.

  • 2.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enhancing nutrient recycling from excreta to meet crop nutrient needs in Sweden - a spatial analysis2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 10264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased recycling of nutrient-rich organic waste to meet crop nutrient needs is an essential component of a more sustainable food system. However, agricultural specialization continues to pose a significant challenge to balancing crop nutrient needs and the nutrient supply from animal manure and human excreta locally. For Sweden, this study found that recycling all excreta (in 2007) could meet up to 75% of crop nitrogen and 81% of phosphorus needs, but that this would exceed crop potassium needs by 51%. Recycling excreta within municipalities could meet 63% of crop P nutrient needs, but large regional differences and imbalances need to be corrected to avoid over or under fertilizing. Over 50% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus in excreta is contained in just 40% of municipalities, and those have a surplus of excreta nutrients compared to crop needs. Reallocation of surpluses (nationally optimized for phosphorus) towards deficit municipalities, would cost 192 million USD (for 24 079 km of truck travel). This is 3.7 times more than the total NPK fertilizer value being transported. These results indicate that Sweden could reduce its dependence on synthetic fertilizers through investments in excreta recycling, but this would likely require valuing also other recycling benefits.

  • 3.
    Childers, Daniel L.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    Bois, Paul
    Unistra, France.
    Hartnett, Hilairy E.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ USA; Arizona State Univ, AZ USA.
    McPhearson, Timon
    New Sch, NY USA; Cary Inst Ecosyst Studies, NY USA; Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Sweden.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanchez, Christopher A.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ USA.
    Urban Ecological Infrastructure: An inclusive concept for the non-built urban environment2019In: ELEMENTA-SCIENCE OF THE ANTHROPOCENE, ISSN 2325-1026, Vol. 7, article id 46Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is likely that half of the urban areas that will exist in 2050 have not yet been designed and built. This provides tremendous opportunities for enhancing urban sustainability, and using "nature in cities" is critical to more resilient solutions to urban challenges. Terms for "urban nature" include Green Infrastructure (GI), Green-Blue Infrastructure (GBI), Urban Green Space (UGS), and Nature-Based Solutions (NBS). These terms, and the concepts they represent, are incomplete because they tend to reduce the importance of non-terrestrial ecological features in cities. We argue that the concept of Urban Ecological Infrastructure (UEI), which came from a 2013 forum held in Beijing and from several subsequent 2017 publications, is a more inclusive alternative. In this paper we refine the 2013 definition of UEI and link the concept more directly to urban ecosystem services. In our refined definition, UEI comprises all parts of a city that support ecological structures and functions, as well as the ecosystem services provided by UEI that directly affect human outcomes and wellbeing. UEI often includes aspects of the built environment, and we discuss examples of this "hybrid infrastructure". We distinguish terrestrial, aquatic, and wetland UEI because each type provides different ecosystem services. We present several examples of both "accidental" UEI and UEI that was explicitly designed and managed, with an emphasis on wetland UEI because these ecotonal ecosystems are uniquely both terrestrial and aquatic. We show how both accidental and planned UEI produces unexpected ecosystem services, which justifies recognizing and maintaining both purposeful and serendipitous types of UEI in cities. Finally, we posit that by incorporating both "ecological" and "infrastructure", UEI also helps to bridge urban scientists and urban practitioners in a more transdisciplinary partnership to build more resilient and sustainable cities.

  • 4.
    Cordell, Dana
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University ofTechnology Sydney, Australia.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iwaniec, David
    Georgia State University, USA.
    Bui, Thuy
    Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Vietnam.
    Childers, Daniel
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Dao, Nguyet
    Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Vietnam.
    Dang, Huyen
    Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Vietnam.
    Davidson, Jessica
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Jacobs, Brent
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University ofTechnology Sydney, Australia.
    Kumwanda, Save
    The Malawi Polytechnic Blantyre, Malawi.
    Morse, Tracy
    The Malawi Polytechnic Blantyre, Malawi.
    Nguyen, Viet-Anh
    Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Vietnam.
    Thole, Bernard
    The Malawi Polytechnic Blantyre, Malawi.
    Tilley, Elizabeth
    The Malawi Polytechnic Blantyre, Malawi.
    Transforming Cities: Securing food and clean waterways through phosphorus governance2017In: Transdiciplinary Research and Practice for Sustainability Outcomes / [ed] Dena Fam, Jane Palmer, Chris Riedy, Cynthia Mitchell, Routledge, 2017, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an essential input to crop growth via soil reserves or fertilizer, phosphorus underpins global food security. Without phosphorus, food could not be produced, yet phosphorus is mined from fi nite reserves, most of which are controlled by only a few countries1 (UNEP 2011; Jasinski 2015; Cordell and White 2014). Fertilizer prices are likely to increase as fi nite reserves become critically scarce. Globally, a billion farmers and their families cannot access fertilizer markets and many rely on phosphorus-defi cient soils that produce low crop yields (IFPRI 2003). Moreover, mismanagement along the phosphorus supply chain from mine to fi eld to fork has resulted in massive losses and waste, which largely ends up in waterways, causing nutrient pollution and algal blooms (Bennett, Carpenter and Caraco 2001). The global phosphorus challenge is inherently complex; it is as much about international relations as farm soil fertility. It transcends disciplines, sectors, and scales – from geopolitics to ecology to nutrition. In this chapter, we describe and refl ect upon a new project using a novel transdisciplinary approach to address this phosphorus challenge.

  • 5.
    Harrison, John A.
    et al.
    Washington State Univ, WA 98686 USA.
    Beusen, Arthur H. W.
    Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, Netherlands; Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Fink, Gabriel
    LUBW, Germany.
    Tang, Ting
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, Austria.
    Strokal, Maryna
    Wageningen Univ and Res, Netherlands.
    Bouwman, Alexander F.
    Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, Netherlands; Univ Utrecht, Netherlands; Ocean Univ China, Peoples R China.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vilmin, Lauriane
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Modeling phosphorus in rivers at the global scale: recent successes, remaining challenges, and near-term opportunities2019In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 36, p. 68-77Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and mitigating the effects of phosphorus (P) overenrichment of waters globally, including the evaluation of the global Sustainability Development Goals, requires the use of global models. Such models quantitatively link land use, global population growth and climate to aquatic nutrient loading and biogeochemical cycling. Here we describe, compare, and contrast the existing global models capable of predicting P transport by rivers at a global scale. We highlight important insights gained from the development and application of these models, and identify important near-term opportunities for model improvements as well as additional insight to be gained through new model analysis.

  • 6.
    Iwaniec, David
    et al.
    Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, USA.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Cordell, Dana
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    P-FUTURES: Towards urban food & water security through collaborative design and impact2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 20, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus is essential to food production, but current management practices fail to ensure equitable access to farmers globally and often results in polluted waterways. There is a lack of local and global governance mechanisms to ensure phosphorus is sustainably managed. The P-FUTURES research initiative aims to address this gap by working with stakeholders to explore visions and pathways of social transformation towards food and water security. In the seed phase of the project, academic, civil, industry, and municipal stakeholders interacted as partners in Blantyre (Malawi), Hanoi (Vietnam), Sydney (Australia), and Phoenix (USA) to collaboratively develop a full proposal and build capacity for transformational change. The article offers guidance on the opportunities and challenges of co-developing a research approach and proposal in a transdisciplinary, international setting.

  • 7.
    Liss, Kate
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Mitchell, Matthew
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada / Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    MacDonald, Graham
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Mahajan, Shauna
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Methot, Josee
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada .
    Jacob, Aerin
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Maguire, Dorothy
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Ziter, Carly
    Concordia University; at time of publication McGill University.
    Dancose, Karin
    Concordia University; at time of publication McGill University.
    Martins, Kyle
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Terrado, Marta
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Bennett, Elena
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Variability in ecosystem service measurement: a pollination service case study2013In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 414-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research quantifying ecosystem services (ES) – collectively, the benefits that society obtains from ecosystems –is rapidly increasing. Despite the seemingly straightforward definition, a wide variety of methods are used to measure ES. This methodological variability has largely been ignored, and standard protocols to select measures that capture ES provision have yet to be established. Furthermore, most published papers do not include explicit definitions of individual ES. We surveyed the literature on pollination ES to assess the range of measurement approaches, focusing on three essential steps: (1) definition of the ES, (2) identification of components contributing to ES delivery, and (3) selection of metrics to represent these components. We found considerable variation in how pollination as an ES – a relatively well‐defined service – is measured. We discuss potential causes of this variability and provide suggestions to address this issue. Consistency in ES measurement, or a clear explanation of selected definitions and metrics, is critical to facilitate comparisons among studies and inform ecosystem management.

  • 8.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Natural Resource Science, McGill University, 111 Lackeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada.
    Aggarwal, Rimjhim
    School of Sustainability at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Childers, Daniel L.
    School of Sustainability at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Efficiency Through Proximity: Changes in Phosphorus Cycling at the Urban–Agricultural Interface of a Rapidly Urbanizing Desert Region2012In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 914-927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In tightly coupled socioecological systems, such as cities, the interactions between socio-economic and biophysical characteristics of an area strongly influence ecosystem function. Very often the effects of socioeconomic activities on ecosystem function are unintended, but can impact the sustainability of a city and can have irreversible effects. The food system in its entirety, from production to treatment of human waste, is one of the most important contributors to the way phosphorus (P) cycles through cities. In this article we examined the changes in P dynamics at the urbanï¿œagricultural interface of the Phoenix, Arizona, USA, metropolitan area between 1978 and 2008. We found that the contribution of cotton to harvested P decreased while the contribution of alfalfa, which is used as feed for local dairy cows, increased over the study period. This change in cropping pattern was accompanied by growth in the dairy industry and increased internal recycling of P due to dairy cow manure application to alfalfa fields and the local recycling of biosolids and treated wastewater. The proximity of urban populations with dairies and feed production and low runoff in this arid climate have facilitated this serendipitous recycling. Currently P is not strongly regulated or intentionally managed in this system, but farmers’ behaviors, shaped largely by market forces and policies related to water recycling, unintentionally affect P cycling. This underscores the need to move from unintentional to deliberate and holistic management of P dynamics through collaborations between practitioners and researchers in order to enhance urban sustainability.

  • 9.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Quebec, Canada.
    Bennett, Elena
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Quebec, Canada / McGill School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Facilitators & barriers to organic waste and phosphorus re-use in Montreal2015In: Elementa Science of the Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2325-1026, Vol. 3, p. 1-13, article id 000070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities have the capacity to play a key role in resource and pollution management through their decisions about organic waste. Often overlooked, but nevertheless essential, is the role that cities can play in increasing phosphorus (P) recycling because cities are consumers of large amounts of P-dense food and producers of vast amounts of P-rich waste. Most cities do not take advantage of this potential, seeing P as simply another part of organic waste to be disposed of elsewhere. For example, in Montreal, Canada, only 6% of P in waste is currently recycled. We used semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders (19), participant observation (over 1.5 years), and document review to identify key barriers and facilitators for Montreal to achieve a high level of organic waste recycling through composting. We found that a provincial law mandating 100% recycling of organic matter has great potential to facilitate increased P recycling. However, lack of a shared vision about the role of government, private sector, and citizens in producing high quality compost from waste products is a barrier that inhibits this potential. Cultural inertia, lack of knowledge, and lack of infrastructure also act as barriers to increasing composting in Montreal. Urban agriculture could be a means to overcome some of these barriers as it currently benefits from strong citizen support and is both a consumer and producer of compost. However limited access to potential garden space and training and diversity in desired fertilizer qualities among gardeners somewhat limit this potential. Investing in increasing social capital, and specifically in connecting urban agriculture to waste management objectives, and in linking key stakeholders to co-create shared visions about how to produce high quality compost may act as a stepping stone towards increasing Montreal citizens’ knowledge about, and support for, increasing organic waste and thus P recycling.

  • 10.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Bennett, Elena
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, McGill School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Phosphorus cycling Montreal’s food and urban agriculture systems2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, article id e0120726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities’ P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents’ relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  • 11.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.
    Cordell, Dana
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.
    Ridoutt, Brad
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Clayton South, VIC, Australia / Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Potential impact of dietary choices on phosphorus recycling and global phosphorus footprints: the case of the average Australian city2016In: Frontiers in Nutrition, E-ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 3, p. 1-7, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region’s “phosphorus footprint” – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management.

  • 12.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Cordell, Dana
    University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Ridoutt, Brad
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisa tion, Agriculture and Food, Australia; University of the Free State, South Africa.
    Mohr, Brad
    University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Mapping phosphorus hotspots in Sydney’s organic wastes: a spatially-explicit inventory to facilitate urban phosphorus recycling2018In: Journal of Urban Ecology, E-ISSN 2058-5543, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus is an essential element for food production whose main global sources are becoming scarce and expensive. Furthermore, losses of phosphorus throughout the food production chain can also cause serious aquatic pollution. Recycling urban organic waste resources high in phosphorus could simultaneously address scarcity concerns for agricultural producers who rely on phosphorus fertilisers, and waste managers seeking to divert waste from landfills to decrease environmental burdens. Recycling phosphorus back to agricultural lands however requires careful logistical planning to maximize benefits and minimize costs, including processing and transportation. The first step towards such analyses is quantifying recycling potential in a spatially explicit way. Here we present such inventories and scenarios for the Greater Sydney Basin’s recyclable phosphorus supply and agricultural demand. In 2011, there was 15 times more phosphorus available in organic waste than agricultural demand for phosphorus in Sydney. Hypothetically, if future city residents shifted to a plant-based diet, eliminated edible food waste, and removed animal production in the Greater Sydney Basin, available phosphorus supply would decrease to 7.25 kt of phosphorus per year, even when accounting for population growth by 2031, and demand would also decrease to 0.40 kt of phosphorus per year. Creating a circular phosphorus economy for Sydney, in all scenarios considered, would require effective recycling strategies which include transport outside of the Greater Sydney Basin. These spatially explicit scenarios can be used as a tool to facilitate stakeholders engagement to identify opportunities and barriers for appropriate organic waste recycling strategies.

  • 13.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Science, McGill University, 111 Lackeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9 Canada.
    Hale, Rebecca L.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Iwaniec, David M.
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Cook, Elizabeth M.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Corman, Jessica R.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Galletti, Christopher S.
    School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Childers, Daniel L.
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Phosphorus in Phoenix: a budget and spatial representation of phosphorus in an urban ecosystem2012In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 705-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As urban environments dominate the landscape, we need to examine how limiting nutrients such as phosphorus (P) cycle in these novel ecosystems. Sustainable management of P resources is necessary to ensure global food security and to minimize freshwater pollution. We used a spatially explicit budget to quantify the pools and fluxes of P in the Greater Phoenix Area in Arizona, USA, using the boundaries of the Central Arizonaï¿œPhoenix Long-Term Ecological Research site. Inputs were dominated by direct imports of food and fertilizer for local agriculture, while most outputs were small, including water, crops, and material destined for recycling. Internally, fluxes were dominated by transfers of food and feed from local agriculture and the recycling of human and animal excretion. Spatial correction of P dynamics across the city showed that human density and associated infrastructure, especially asphalt, dominated the distribution of P pools across the landscape. Phosphorus fluxes were dominated by agricultural production, with agricultural soils accumulating P. Human features (infrastructure, technology, and waste management decisions) and biophysical characteristics (soil properties, water fluxes, and storage) mediated P dynamics in Phoenix. P cycling was most notably affected by water management practices that conserve and recycle water, preventing the loss of waterborne P from the ecosystem. P is not intentionally managed, and as a result, changes in land use and demographics, particularly increased urbanization and declining agriculture, may lead to increased losses of P from this system. We suggest that city managers should minimize cross-boundary fluxes of P to the city. Reduced P fluxes may be accomplished through more efficient recycling of waste, therefore decreasing dependence on external nonrenewable P resources and minimizing aquatic pollution. Our spatial approach and consideration of both pools and fluxes across a heterogeneous urban ecosystem increases the utility of nutrient budgets for city managers. Our budget explicitly links processes that affect P cycling across space with the management of other resources (e.g., water). A holistic management strategy that deliberately couples the management of P and other resources should be a priority for cities in achieving urban sustainability.

  • 14.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences and McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada.
    Iwaniec, David
    Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5402, USA.
    Baker, Lawrence
    Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
    Bennett, Elena
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences and McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada.
    Childers, Daniel
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5502, USA.
    Cordell, Dana
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia.
    Grimm, Nancy
    Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5402, USA.
    Grove, J. Morgan
    US Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Nidzgorski, Daniel
    Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
    White, Stuart
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia.
    Urban phosphorus sustainability: Systemically incorporating social, ecological, and technological factors into phosphorus flow analysis2015In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 47, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential fertilizer for agricultural production but is also a potent aquatic pollutant. Current P management fails to adequately address both the issue of food security due to P scarcity and P pollution threats to water bodies. As centers of food consumption and waste production, cities transport and store much P and thus provide important opportunities to improve P management. Substance flow analysis (SFA) is often used to understand urban P cycling and to identify inefficiencies that may be improved on. However, SFAs typically do not examine the factors that drive observed P dynamics. Understanding the social, ecological, and technological context of P stocks and flows is necessary to link urban P management to existing urban priorities and to select local management options that minimize tradeoffs and maximize synergies across priorities. Here, we review P SFA studies in 18 cities, focusing on gaps in the knowledge required to implement P management solutions. We develop a framework to systemically explore the full suite of factors that drive P dynamics in urban systems. By using this framework, scientists and managers can build a better understanding of the drivers of P cycling and improve our ability to address unsustainable P use and waste.

  • 15.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    National Research Council, National Academies of Science, Washington, USA.
    Lin, Jiajia
    National Research Council, National Academies of Science, Washington, USA.
    Harrison, John
    School of the Environment, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA, USA.
    Compton, Jana
    Western Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, USA.
    Linking 2012 terrestrial P inputs to riverine export from watersheds across the United States2017In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 124, p. 177-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have greatly accelerated phosphorus (P) flows from land to aquatic ecosystems, causing eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia. A variety of statistical and mechanistic models have been used to explore the relationship between P management on land and P losses to waterways, but our ability to predict P losses from watersheds often relies on small scale catchment studies, where detailed measurements can be made, or global scale models that that are often too coarse-scaled to be used directly in the management decision-making process. Here we constructed spatially explicit datasets of terrestrial P inputs and outputs across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) for 2012. We use this dataset to improve understanding of P sources and balances at the national scale and to investigate whether well-standardized input data at the continental scale can be used to improve predictions of hydrologic P export from watersheds across the U.S. We estimate that in 2012 agricultural lands received 0.19 Tg more P as fertilizer and confined manure than was harvested in major crops. Approximately 0.06 Tg P was lost to waterways as sewage and detergent nationally based on per capita loads in 2012. We compared two approaches for calculating non-agricultural P waste export to waterways, and found that estimates based on per capita P loads from sewage and detergent were 50% greater than Discharge Monitoring Report Pollutant Loading Tool. This suggests that the tool is likely underestimating P export in waste the CONUS scale. TP and DIP concentrations and TP yields were generally correlated more strongly with runoff than with P inputs or P balances, but even the relationships between runoff and P export were weak. Including P inputs as independent variables increased the predictive capacity of the best-fit models by at least 20%, but together inputs and runoff explained 40% of the variance in P concentration and 46–54% of the variance in P yield. By developing and applying a high-resolution P budget for the CONUS this study confirms that both hydrology and P inputs and sinks play important roles in aquatic P loading across a wide range of environments.

  • 16.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada.
    MacDonald, Graham
    University of Minnesota, Institute on the Environment, 1954 Buford Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
    Haberman, Daniel
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada.
    Nesme, Thomas
    Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1391 ISPA, 33175 Gradignan Cedex, France / INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, 33882 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France.
    Bennett, Elena
    DDepartment of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, QCMcGill School of Environment, McGill University, 3534 University Street, Montreal, QC, CanadaCanada / .
    Feeding the Corn Belt: Opportunities for phosphorus recycling in U.S. agriculture2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 542, no Part B, p. 1117-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of phosphorus (P) is a critical concern for food security. Concentrated mineral P deposits have been the source of almost all new P entering the biosphere. However, this resource is often used inefficiently, raising concerns about both nutrient pollution and future access to fertilizers. One solution to both of these problems is to enhance our ability to capture and recycle P from waste streams. However, the efficacy of doing this has not been rigorously explored. Here, we examine the potential for recycling major P sources in the United States to supply the necessary P for domestic corn (maize) production. Using 2002 population and agricultural census data, we examine the distribution of three key recyclable P sources (human food waste, human excreta, and animal manure) and P demand from grain and silage corn across the country to determine the distance P would need to be transported from sources to replenish P removed from soils in harvested corn plants. We find that domestic recyclable P sources, predominantly from animal manures, could meet national corn production P demands with no additional fertilizer inputs. In fact, only 37% of U.S. sources of recyclable P would be required to meet all P demand from U.S. corn harvested annually. Seventy-four percent of corn P demand could be met by recyclable P sources in the same county. Surplus recyclable P sources within-counties would then need to travel on average 302 km to meet the largest demand in and around the center of the ‘Corn Belt’ region where ~ 50% of national corn P demand is located. We find that distances between recyclable sources and crop demands are surprisingly short for most of the country, and that this recycling potential is mostly related to manure. This information can help direct where recycling efforts should be most-effectively directed.

  • 17.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Natl Acad Sci, DC 20418 USA; Washington State Univ, WA 99164 USA.
    Powers, Steve M.
    Washington State Univ, WA 99164 USA.
    Hale, Rebecca L.
    Idaho State Univ, ID 83209 USA.
    Sayles, Jesse S.
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Oberg, Gunilla
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    MacDonald, Graham K.
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Kuwayama, Yusuke
    Resources Future Inc, DC USA.
    Springer, Nathaniel P.
    Univ Minnesota, MN 55108 USA.
    Weatherley, Anthony J.
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Hondula, Kelly L.
    Univ Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Jones, Kristal
    Univ Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Chowdhury, Rubel B.
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Beusen, Arthur H. W.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands; PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, Netherlands.
    Bouwman, Alexander F.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands; PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, Netherlands.
    Socio-environmental consideration of phosphorus flows in the urban sanitation chain of contrasting cities2018In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1387-1401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how cities can transform organic waste into a valuable resource is critical to urban sustainability. The capture and recycling of phosphorus (P), and other essential nutrients, from human excreta is particularly important as an alternative organic fertilizer source for agriculture. However, the complex set of socio-environmental factors influencing urban human excreta management is not yet sufficiently integrated into sustainable P research. Here, we synthesize information about the pathways P can take through urban sanitation systems along with barriers and facilitators to P recycling across cities. We examine five case study cities by using a sanitation chains approach: Accra, Ghana; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Beijing, China; Baltimore, USA; and London, England. Our cross-city comparison shows that London and Baltimore recycle a larger percentage of P from human excreta back to agricultural lands than other cities, and that there is a large diversity in socio-environmental factors that affect the patterns of recycling observed across cities. Our research highlights conditions that may be "necessary but not sufficient" for P recycling, including access to capital resources. Path dependencies of large sanitation infrastructure investments in the Global North contrast with rapidly urbanizing cities in the Global South, which present opportunities for alternative sanitation development pathways. Understanding such city-specific social and environmental barriers to P recycling options could help address multiple interacting societal objectives related to sanitation and provide options for satisfying global agricultural nutrient demand.

  • 18.
    Metson, Genevieve S.
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada / McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 3534 University Street, Montreal, QC, Canada .
    Elser, James J.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA.
    The role of diet in phosphorus demand2012In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1-10, article id 044043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 50 years, there have been major changes in human diets, including a global average increase in meat consumption and total calorie intake. We quantified how changes in annual per capita national average diets affected requirements for mined P between 1961 and 2007, starting with the per capita availability of a food crop or animal product and then determining the P needed to grow the product. The global per capita P footprint increased 38% over the 46 yr time period, but there was considerable variability among countries. Phosphorus footprints varied between 0.35 kg P capita −1 yr −1 (DPR Congo, 2007) and 7.64 kg P capita −1 yr −1 (Luxembourg, 2007). Temporal trends also differed among countries; for example, while China’s P footprint increased almost 400% between 1961 and 2007, the footprints of other countries, such as Canada, decreased. Meat consumption was the most important factor affecting P footprints; it accounted for 72% of the global average P footprint. Our results show that dietary shifts are an important component of the human amplification of the global P cycle. These dietary trends present an important challenge for sustainable P management.

  • 19.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, QC, Canada.
    Smith, Val
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, USA.
    Cordell, Dana
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
    Vaccari, David
    Department of Civil, Environmental, and Ocean Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, USA.
    Elser, James
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, USA.
    Bennett, Elena
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences and School of the Environment, McGill University, Canada.
    Phosphorus is a key component of the resource demands for meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 46, p. E4906-E4907Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Wyant, Karl A.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State Univeristy, Tempe, USA.
    Childers, Daniel L.
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Introduction to P Sustainability: P is for Philosophy and Process2013In: Phosphorus, Food, and Our Future / [ed] Karl A. Wyant, Jessica R. Corman, and James J. Elser, Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 1-19Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter illustrates and explains the basic principles of sustainability. It provides a sustainability framework to existing issues in phosphorous management. It summarizes human impacts on natural phosphorus cycling and the identification of phosphorus sustainability as a "wicked problem". It describes how a sustainability perspective contributes to shaping appropriate solutions to phosphorus management. It also enumerates the general approach of every chapter in connecting various aspects of human use of phosphorous to a sustainability framework. Introduction to P Sustainability: P is for Philosophy and Process.

  • 21.
    Nesme, Thomas
    et al.
    Univ Bordeaux, France; INRA, France; McGill Univ, Canada.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Natl Acad Sci, DC 20001 USA; Washington State Univ, WA 98686 USA.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    McGill Univ, Canada; McGill Univ, Canada.
    Global phosphorus flows through agricultural trade2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 50, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global phosphorus cycle has been transformed in recent decades through increased use of mineral phosphorus fertilizer in agriculture and losses to water bodies, leading to risks of fossil phosphorus resource depletion and freshwater eutrophication. By moving phosphorus resources across world regions, international trade of agricultural products (food, feed, fiber and fuel) may contribute to these changes in the global phosphorus cycle, including critical nutrient imbalances. However, we lack a comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the role of agricultural trade in the global phosphorus cycle. By combining detailed data on international trade and the phosphorus content of agricultural products, we demonstrate that phosphorus flows through trade increased nearly eight-fold from 0.4 Tg P/yr in 1961 to 3.0 Tg P/yr in 2011, leading to an increase in the fraction of phosphorus taken up by crops that is subsequently exported from 9% in 1961 to 20% in 2011. The P flows in traded agricultural products was equivalent to 27% of the P traded in mineral fertilizers in 2011. Agricultural P flows were mostly driven by trade of cereals, soybeans and feed-cakes, with 28% of global phosphorus traded in human food, 44% in animal feed and 28% in crops for other uses in 2011. We found a strong spatial pattern in traded phosphorus in agricultural products, with most flows originating from the Americas and ending in Western Europe and Asia, with large amounts of phosphorus moving through trade within Western Europe, in strong contrast with the pattern of the mineral P fertilizer trade. We demonstrate that international trade of agricultural products has affected the domestic phosphorus cycle within many countries, making phosphorus exporters susceptible to the volatility of the mineral phosphorus fertilizer market. Overall, these results highlight the importance of trade as key component of the global phosphorus cycle.

  • 22.
    Nesme, Thomas
    et al.
    Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex, France / INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33882 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France / McGill School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Roques, Solene
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Bennett, Elena
    McGill School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada / Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser2016In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, article id 025003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU's decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being 'outsourced' to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the 'virtual P flow' defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully decreased the domestic dependence on mineral P fertiliser, in order to continue to limit global potential mineral P supply depletion and consequences of P losses to waterways the EU may have to think about its trading partners.

  • 23.
    Powers, S. M.
    et al.
    Washington State Univ, WA 99164 USA.
    Chowdhury, R. B.
    Deakin Univ, Australia.
    MacDonald, G. K.
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beusen, A. H. W.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands; PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, Netherlands.
    Bouwman, A. F.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands; PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, Netherlands; Ocean Univ China, Peoples R China.
    Hampton, S. E.
    Washington State Univ, WA 99164 USA.
    Mayer, B. K.
    Marquette Univ, WI 53233 USA.
    McCrackin, M. L.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Vaccari, D. A.
    Stevens Inst Technol, NJ 07030 USA.
    Global Opportunities to Increase Agricultural Independence Through Phosphorus Recycling2019In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 370-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food production hinges largely upon access to phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Most fertilizer P used in the global agricultural system comes from mining of nonrenewable phosphate rock deposits located within few countries. However, P contained in livestock manure or urban wastes represents a recyclable source of P. To inform development of P recycling technologies and policies, we examined subnational, national, and global spatial patterns for two intersections of land use affording high P recycling potential: (a) manure-rich cultivated areas and (b) populous cultivated areas. In turn, we examined overlap between P recycling potential and nation-level P fertilizer import dependency. Populous cultivated areas were less abundant globally than manure-rich cultivated areas, reflecting greater segregation between crops and people compared to crops and livestock, especially in the Americas. Based on a global hexagonal grid (290-km(2) grid cell area), disproportionately large shares of subnational "hot spots" for P recycling potential occurred in India, China, Southeast Asia, Europe, and parts of Africa. Outside of China, most of the remaining manure-rich or pulous cultivated areas occurred within nations that had relatively high imports of P fertilizer (net P import:consumption ratios amp;gt;= 0.4) or substantial increases in fertilizer demand between the 2000s (2002-2006) and 2010s (2010-2014). Manure-rich cultivated grid cells (those above the 75th percentiles for both manure and cropland extent) represented 12% of the global grid after excluding cropless cells. Annually, the global sum of animal manure P was at least 5 times that contained in human excreta, and among cultivated cells the ratio was frequently higher (median = 8.9). The abundance of potential P recycling hot spots within nations that have depended on fertilizer imports or experienced rising fertilizer demand could prove useful for developing local P sources and maintaining agricultural independence.

  • 24.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Bennett, William W.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Berger, Nils
    EuroChem Agro GmbH, Germany.
    Brownlie, Will J.
    Ctr Ecol and Hydrol Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Bruun, Sander
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Christensen, Morten L.
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Cordell, Dana
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    van Dijk, Kimo
    European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform, Belgium.
    Egemose, Sara
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Eigner, Herbert
    AGRANA Res and Innovat Ctr GmbH, Austria.
    Glud, Ronnie N.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Gronfors, Outi
    Kemira Oyj, Finland.
    Hermann, Ludwig
    Proman Management GmbH, Austria.
    Houot, Sabine
    ECOSYS, France.
    Hupfer, Michael
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol and Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Jacobs, Brent
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Korving, Leon
    European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Kjaergaard, Charlotte
    SEGES, Denmark.
    Liimatainen, Henrikki
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Macintosh, Katrina A.
    Queens Univ Belfast, North Ireland; Queens Univ Belfast, North Ireland.
    Magid, Jakob
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Maia, Frederico
    Smallmatek Lda, Portugal.
    Martin-Ortega, Julia
    Univ Leeds, England.
    McGrath, John
    The Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
    Meulepas, Roel
    Wetsus, European centre of excellence for sustainable water technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.
    Murry, Michael
    NVP Energy Ltd, Ireland.
    Schmid Neset, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Neumann, Gunter
    Univ Hohenheim, Germany.
    Nielsen, Ulla G.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Per H.
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    OFlaherty, Vincent
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Qu, Haiyan
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Santner, Jakob
    Univ Nat Resources and Life Sci, Austria.
    Seufert, Verena
    VU University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Spears, Bryan
    Ctr Ecol and Hydrol Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Stringer, Lindsay C.
    Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT Leeds, UK.
    Stutter, Marc
    James Hutton Inst, Scotland.
    Verburg, Peter H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wilfert, Philipp
    IPP Kiel, Germany.
    Williams, Paul N.
    The Queen’s University of Belfast, School of Biological Sciences and the Institute for Global Food Security, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast, BT9 5DL, Northern Ireland.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    New Training to Meet the Global Phosphorus Challenge2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 15, p. 8479-8481Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 25.
    Riskin, Shelby
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA / Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA.
    Small, Gaston
    Department of Biology, University of St. Thomas, USA.
    Mikkelsen, Robert
    IPNI, Western North America Region, California, USA.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Bateman, Anna
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
    Cooper, James
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
    Hanserud, Ola
    Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research (Bioforsk), Norway.
    Haygarth, Philip
    The Lancaster Environment Centerm, Lancaster University, England, UK.
    Laspoumaderes, Cecilia
    Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA, CONICET‐UN, Comahue, Bariloche, Argentina.
    McCrackin, Michelle
    Washington State University-Vancouver, Vancouver, WA / National Research Council, Research Associateship Program, Washington DC, USA.
    Remington, Sonya
    School of Stustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Phosphorus in Urban and Agricultural Landscapes2013In: Phosphorus, Food, Our Futures / [ed] Karl A. Wyant, Jessica R. Corman, and James J. Elser, Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 86-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Tälle, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wiréhn, Lotten
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Ellström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindström, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmid Neset, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synergies and Trade-Offs for Sustainable Food Production in Sweden: An Integrated Approach2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of food can have large impacts on sustainable development in relation to various socio-ecological dimensions, like climate change, the environment, animal welfare, livestock epidemiology, and the economy. To achieve a sustainable food production system in Sweden, an integrated approach that considers all five of these dimensions, and all parts of the food production chain, is necessary. This paper systematically reviewed the literature related to food production in Sweden, especially in association with resource distribution and recycling logistics, and identified potential sustainability interventions and assessed their effects according to the five dimensions. Participation of stakeholders across the food production chain contributed with the focus of the literature search and subsequent synthesis. In general, there were synergies between the sustainability interventions and their effect on climate change and the environment, while there often were trade-offs between effects on the economy and the other dimensions. Few interventions considered effects on animal welfare or livestock epidemiology and few studies dealt with resource distribution and recycling logistics. This indicates that there is a need for future research that considers this in particular, as well as research that considers the whole food production chain and all dimensions at once, and investigates effects across multiple scales.

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