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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A System Perspective on Energy End-Use Measures in a District Heated Region: Renovation of Buildings and Hydronic Pavement Systems2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A district heating and cooling (DHC) system can be a viable piece of the puzzle in the efforts of reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially if the DHC system include combined heat and power (CHP) plants which enable electricity production from renewable resources. This is set forth in national energy targets and sustainable development goals (SDGs), adopted by the United Nations in 2015. Moreover, improved energy efficiency and energy savings are important factors in fulfilling the national targets of decreased energy intensity as well as reducing the use of fossil fuels.

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the impacts of two energy end-use measures in a DHC network and their consequences on the efforts towards sustainable development. The end-use measures studied are (1) renovation of a multifamily building stock and (2) the use of a hydronic pavement system (HPS) including analysis of different control strategies. The end-use measures are assessed in terms of energy use and efficiency, use of renewable and fossil resources, and local and global GHG emissions. Lastly, it is analyzed how the results relate to national energy targets and SDGs. By using simulation and optimization models, several scenarios of end-use measures are analyzed in the two studies. In the first study, six scenarios are analyzed, as the renovation packages include measures on the envelope, ventilation and conversion from district heating to ground source heat pump. In the second study three scenarios are analyzed, where the HPS are operated all-time at a temperature below 4°C or are shut down at temperatures below -10°C or at temperatures below -5°C.

    The results of the study regarding the renovation of a multifamily building stock indicate a future reduction in heat demand. All scenarios show energy savings of the studied building, which ranged from 11% to 56%. All scenarios show a reduction in local GHG emissions, as well as reduced fossil fuel use. Although the largest reduction was found in the use of renewable resources. From a global perspective on GHG emissions, the scenarios with district heating out-performed measures with heat pump solutions in the studied system. Moreover, the study point to positive impacts on the efforts towards SDGs.

    To mitigate the reduced heat demand from the renovation of the building stock, an HPS may be used. The results show mostly renewable resources were used for the HPS. The use of HPS was found to generate a positive impact on global GHG emissions. A control strategy that shuts down the HPS at temperatures below -10°C would result in 10% energy saving and would maintain acceptable performance of the HPS. Furthermore, it would reduce the use of fossil fuel and reduce local GHG emissions by 25%. Moreover, an HPS may contribute to SDGs.

    It is concluded that energy end-use measures of renovating a multifamily building stock are vital in the work towards an improved energy intensity. However, these measures result in a decreased demand for heat in the DHC network. This can then lead to reduced electricity production from renewable resources in the CHP plants, which in turn have a negative impact on the global GHG emissions. By finding new applications, like HPS, the infrastructure of DHC networks could be utilized efficiently and serve as one piece of the puzzle that is the efforts towards sustainable development.

    List of papers
    1. The Impact on System Performance When Renovating a Multifamily Building Stock in a District Heated Region
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact on System Performance When Renovating a Multifamily Building Stock in a District Heated Region
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2199Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 90% of multifamily buildings utilize district heat and a large portion is in need of renovation. The aim is to analyze the impact of renovating a multifamily building stock in a district heating and cooling system, in terms of primary energy savings, peak power demands, electricity demand and production, and greenhouse gas emissions on local and global levels. The study analyzes scenarios regarding measures on the building envelope, ventilation, and substitution from district heat to ground source heat pump. The results indicate improved energy performance for all scenarios, ranging from 11% to 56%. Moreover, the scenarios present a reduction of fossil fuel use and reduced peak power demand in the district heating and cooling system ranging from 1 MW to 13 MW, corresponding to 4–48 W/m2 heated building area. However, the study concludes that scenarios including a ground source heat pump generate significantly higher global greenhouse gas emissions relative to scenarios including district heating. Furthermore, in a future fossil-free district heating and cooling system, a reduction in primary energy use will lead to a local reduction of emissions along with a positive effect on global greenhouse gas emissions, outperforming measures with a ground source heat pump.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2019
    Keywords
    district heating, multifamily buildings, renovation, primary energy use, energy system modeling, greenhouse gas emissions
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157080 (URN)10.3390/su11082199 (DOI)000467752200012 ()2-s2.0-85065422245 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Analyzing the Performance and Control of a Hydronic Pavement System in a District Heating Network
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing the Performance and Control of a Hydronic Pavement System in a District Heating Network
    2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 2078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A hydronic pavement system (HPS) is an alternative method to clear snow and ice, which avoids the use of salt, sand, and fossil fuel in conventional snow clearance, and minimizes the risk of accidents. The aim is to analyze the performance of different control strategies for a 35,000 m2 HPS utilizing heat from a district heating and cooling (DHC) system. The key performance indicators are (1) energy performance of the HPS, and (2) primary energy use, (3) electricity production and (4) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the DHC system. The methodology uses a simulation model of the HPS and an optimization model of the DHC system. Three operational strategies are analyzed: A reference scenario based on the current control strategy, and scenarios where the HPS is shut down at temperatures below −10 °C and −5 °C. The study shows that the DHC return temperature is suitable for use. By operational strategies, use during peak demand in the DHC system can be avoided, resulting in reduced use of fossil fuel. Moreover, the energy use of the HPS could be reduced by 10% and the local GHG emissions by 25%. The study emphasizes that the HPS may have positive effects on global GHG emissions, as it enables electricity production from renewable resources.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Basel: MDPI, 2019
    National Category
    Energy Systems Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157189 (URN)10.3390/en12112078 (DOI)000472635900045 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth; Tekniska verken AB; E. ON Sweden AB; Stangastaden AB; AB Lejonfastigheter; Fastighets AB L E Lundberg; Akademiska Hus AB

    Available from: 2019-06-04 Created: 2019-06-04 Last updated: 2019-07-18Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Division of Building, Energy and Environment Technology, Department of Technology and Environment, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analyzing the Performance and Control of a Hydronic Pavement System in a District Heating Network2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 2078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydronic pavement system (HPS) is an alternative method to clear snow and ice, which avoids the use of salt, sand, and fossil fuel in conventional snow clearance, and minimizes the risk of accidents. The aim is to analyze the performance of different control strategies for a 35,000 m2 HPS utilizing heat from a district heating and cooling (DHC) system. The key performance indicators are (1) energy performance of the HPS, and (2) primary energy use, (3) electricity production and (4) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the DHC system. The methodology uses a simulation model of the HPS and an optimization model of the DHC system. Three operational strategies are analyzed: A reference scenario based on the current control strategy, and scenarios where the HPS is shut down at temperatures below −10 °C and −5 °C. The study shows that the DHC return temperature is suitable for use. By operational strategies, use during peak demand in the DHC system can be avoided, resulting in reduced use of fossil fuel. Moreover, the energy use of the HPS could be reduced by 10% and the local GHG emissions by 25%. The study emphasizes that the HPS may have positive effects on global GHG emissions, as it enables electricity production from renewable resources.

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ödlund (Trygg), Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Impact on System Performance When Renovating a Multifamily Building Stock in a District Heated Region2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2199Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 90% of multifamily buildings utilize district heat and a large portion is in need of renovation. The aim is to analyze the impact of renovating a multifamily building stock in a district heating and cooling system, in terms of primary energy savings, peak power demands, electricity demand and production, and greenhouse gas emissions on local and global levels. The study analyzes scenarios regarding measures on the building envelope, ventilation, and substitution from district heat to ground source heat pump. The results indicate improved energy performance for all scenarios, ranging from 11% to 56%. Moreover, the scenarios present a reduction of fossil fuel use and reduced peak power demand in the district heating and cooling system ranging from 1 MW to 13 MW, corresponding to 4–48 W/m2 heated building area. However, the study concludes that scenarios including a ground source heat pump generate significantly higher global greenhouse gas emissions relative to scenarios including district heating. Furthermore, in a future fossil-free district heating and cooling system, a reduction in primary energy use will lead to a local reduction of emissions along with a positive effect on global greenhouse gas emissions, outperforming measures with a ground source heat pump.

  • 4.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar Region: Ett forskningsprojekt för ökad samverkan mellan energi- och fastighetsbolag. Etapp 2 2016-20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är i samverkan mellan energibolag och slutanvändare som effektiva energisystem kan skapas. Med ett systemperspektiv mellan tillförsel- och användarsidan inom energisystemet kan forskningsprojektet Hållbar Region bidra med en pusselbit till framtidens energisystem, med ökad energieffektivitet och minskad klimatpåverkan som resultat.

    Forskningsprojektets syfte är att genom samverkan mellan universitet, energi- och fastighetsbolag arbeta för att skapa en hållbar och resurseffektiv region. Detta delvis genom att utbyta kunskap kring utmaningar och på så vis öka förståelsen för varandras verksamheter, både inom och mellan branscherna.

    Under etapp 1 utvecklades simulerings- och optimeringsmodeller gällande renoveringspaket av fastigheter och energisystemet. Arbetet fortskrider löpande med ytterligare beräkningar och scenarioanalyser. Under etapp 2 har många delstudier genomförts och som vardera ger input och kunskap för vidare utveckling. Några av resultaten uppkomna under etapp 2 är:

    Betong bättre än trä?

    En fallstudie påvisar att ett flerbostadshus med betongstomme har lägre miljöpåverkan än en liknande huskropp av träkonstruktion. Se mer i avsnitt 5.1

    Vikten av utökad och förbättrad kundkontakt!

    En studie av den framtida värmemarknaden visar på vikande efterfrågan. Nya tillämpningsområden, ökad och förbättrad kommunikation är viktiga aspekter för att möta utmaningen. Se mer i avsnitt 5.2

    Tillvarata överskottsvärme!

    Studien undersöker alternativ för att nyttiggöra överskottsvärme i fjärrvärmenätet, som möjliggörs genom samarbete med närliggande verksamheter. Att nyttogöra värmen genom en absorptionsdriven värmepump är det som förordas. Se mer i avsnitt 5.3

    Beräkningar av primärenergifaktorer!

    En studie analysera premiärenergifaktorer för svensk fjärrvärme utifrån flertalet perspektiv och metoder. De beräknade faktorerna blir betydande mindre än Boverkets. Se mer i avsnitt 5.4

    Prismodellens roll för incitament till energieffektivisering!

    Flertalet prismodeller analyseras utifrån ett klimatperspektiv. En modell med säsongsvarierande prissättning förordas och där effektuttaget lyfts fram som en nyckel. Se mer i avsnitt 5.5

    Nyttan av en dynamisk framledningstemperatur!

    Studien undersöker effekt- och flödesutjämnande körstrategier för att möta dygns- och säsongsvariationer av efterfrågan på värme. Studien påvisar ökad elverkningsgrad och ett högre temperaturspann möjliggör bättre effekt- och flödesutjämning. Se mer i avsnitt 5.6

  • 5.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar Region Etapp 1: Energibolag och fastighetsbolag i samverkan2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Projekt Hållbar region har som syfte att visa hur energibolag och fastighetsbolag tillsammans kan driva utvecklingen till en hållbar och resurseffektiv region med minskad primärenergianvändning och minskad klimatpåverkan för fastighetsägare och energibolag. Projektet drivs av Linköpings universitet i nära samarbete med projektets partner och består av forskning av det sammansatta energisystemet av energibolag och större fastighetsbolag. Utifrån olika framtida scenarioalternativ studeras olika åtgärders effekt på pimärenergi och klimatpåverkan för det totala regionala energisystemet.

    Partner

    Under etapp 1 av projektet har, utöver Linköpings universitet, två energibolag samt fem större fastighetsägare varit aktiva inom projektet. Dessa är:

    • Akademiska Hus 
    • E.ON Sverige AB
    • Fastighets AB L E Lundbergs
    • Lejonfastigheter AB
    • AB Stångåstaden
    • Tekniska verken i Linköping AB
    • ÖrebroBostäder AB

    Genomförande

    Projektet har genomförts med gemensamma workshops samt med systemoptimering av det sammankopplade fjärrvärmesystemet av både tillförsel och efterfrågan. Modelleringar har utförs i programmen OPERA, IDA ICE och MODEST. Workshoparna har fungerat som kreativa övningar där utmaningar och behov identifieras och där sedan tidiga projektresultat har spridits och diskuterats. I workshoparna har det underlag som legat till grund för projektets frågeställningar itereras och förfinas kontinuerligt. Beräkningar har sedan utförts genom systemoptimeringar av frågeställningar baserat på det underlag som framkommit vid workshoparna. I samtliga workshopar har representanter från partner inom projektet deltagit.

    Resultat

    Resultatet från projektet kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:

    • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt introduktion av FTX i de fjärvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien (fall 3) leder till halverat fjärrvärmebehov och ökade utsläpp av globala CO2eq med ca 1 300 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt FTX i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna leder till minskat elbehov med 38% och minskade utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 13 000 ton för en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de fjärrvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien minskar effektbehovet med 28%.
    • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna minskar effektbehovet med 37%.
    • Byte av värmekälla från fjärrvärme till värmepump leder till ökade globaka utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 22 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Byte från fjärrvärme till värmepump i de fastigheter som genomfört både klimatåtgärder samt introducerat FTX ökar de globala utsläppen av CO2eq med ca 8 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Om 500 000 nya fastigheter, med en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 50 000 000 m2, byggs enligt BBRs krav på nära-nollenergibyggnader innebär uppvärmning med fjärrvärme istället för uppvärmning med värmepump att kraftbalansen förbättras med motsvarande ca 1 900 GWh/år.
    • 1 kWh fjärrvärme har inte samma värde som 1 kWh el. För att ta hänsyn till att el är en mer högvärdig energibärare bör en primärenergifaktor på 2,5 användas för el. När primärenergi inkluderas i jämförelse mellan att värma en fastighet med fjärrvärme eller med värmepump leder alternativet med fjärrvärme till en lägre energianvändning, och följaktligen till lägre globala emissioner av CO2eq.

    Fortsatt arbete - etapp 2

    Projekt Hållbar region fortsätter med en etapp 2 där fokus kommer att ligga på tjänstedrivna affärsmodeller samt studier av hinder och drivkrafter för att genomföra identifierade lönsamma åtgärder för energibolag och fastighetsägare.

1 - 5 of 5
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