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  • 1.
    Bader, Felix
    et al.
    School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
    Baumeister, Bastian
    Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Berger, Roger
    Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    On the Transportability of Laboratory Results2019Inngår i: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The “transportability” of laboratory findings to other instances than the original implementation entails the robustness of rates of observed behaviors and estimated treatment effects to changes in the specific research setting and in the sample under study. In four studies based on incentivized games of fairness, trust, and reciprocity, we evaluate (1) the sensitivity of laboratory results to locally recruited student-subject pools, (2) the comparability of behavioral data collected online and, under varying anonymity conditions, in the laboratory, (3) the generalizability of student-based results to the broader population, and (4), with a replication at Amazon Mechanical Turk, the stability of laboratory results across research contexts. For the class of laboratory designs using interactive games as measurement instruments of prosocial behavior we find that rates of behavior and the exact behavioral differences between decision situations do not transport beyond specific implementations. Most clearly, data obtained from standard participant pools differ significantly from those from the broader population. This undermines the use of empirically motivated laboratory studies to establish descriptive parameters of human behavior. Directions of the behavioral differences between games, in contrast, are remarkably robust to changes in samples and settings. Moreover, we find no evidence for either anonymity effects nor mode effects potentially biasing laboratory measurement. These results underscore the capacity of laboratory experiments to establish generalizable causal effects in theory-driven designs.

  • 2.
    Ganser, Christian
    et al.
    Institute of Sociology, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Social Influence Strengthens Crowd Wisdom Under Voting2018Inngår i: Advances in Complex Systems, ISSN 0219-5259, Advances in Complex Systems, ISSN 0219-5259, Vol. 21, nr 6-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of groups over individuals in complex decision-making have long interested scientists across disciplinary divisions. Averaging over a collection of individual judgments proves a reliable strategy for aggregating information, particularly in diverse groups in which statistically independent beliefs fall on both sides of the truth and contradictory biases are cancelled out. Social influence, some have said, narrows variation in individual opinions and undermines this wisdom-of-crowds effect in continuous estimation tasks. Researchers, however, neglected to study social-influence effects on voting in discrete choice tasks. Using agent-based simulation, we show that under voting — the most widespread social decision rule — social influence contributes to information aggregation and thus strengthens collective judgment. Adding to our knowledge about complex systems comprised of adaptive agents, this finding has important ramifications for the design of collective decision-making in both public administration and private firms.

  • 3.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Scaling trajectories of cities2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, nr 28, s. 13759-13761Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban scaling research finds that agglomeration effects-the higher-than-expected outputs of larger cities-follow robust "superlinear" scaling relations in cross-sectional data. But the paradigm has predictive ambitions involving the dynamic scaling of individual cities over many time points and expects parallel superlinear growth trajectories as cities populations grow. This prediction has not yet been rigorously tested. I use geocoded microdata to approximate the city-size effect on per capita wage in 73 Swedish labor market areas for 1990-2012. The data support a superlinear scaling regime for all Swedish agglomerations. Echoing the rich-get-richer process on the system level, however, trajectories of superlinear growth are highly robust only for cities assuming dominant positions in the urban hierarchy.

  • 4.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Ganser, Christian
    Department of Sociology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Crowd Wisdom Relies on Agents’ Ability in Small Groups with a Voting Aggregation Rule2017Inngår i: Management science, ISSN 0025-1909, E-ISSN 1526-5501, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 818-828Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, interest in the “wisdom of crowds” effect has gained momentum in both organizationalresearch and corporate practice. Crowd wisdom relies on the aggregation of independent judgments. Theaccuracy of a group’s aggregate prediction rises with the number, ability, and diversity of its members. Weinvestigate these variables’ relative importance for collective prediction using agent-based simulation. We replicatethe “diversity trumps ability” proposition for large groups, showing that samples of heterogeneous agentsoutperform same-sized homogeneous teams of high ability. In groups smaller than approximately 16 members,however, the effects of group composition depend on the social decision function employed: diversity is key onlyin continuous estimation tasks (averaging) and much less important in discrete choice tasks (voting), in whichagents’ individual abilities remain crucial. Thus, strategies to improve collective decision making must adapt to thepredictive situation at hand.

  • 5.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kratz, Fabian
    Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.
    Thou Shalt Recycle: How Social Norms of Environmental Protection Narrow the Scope of the Low-Cost Hypothesis2018Inngår i: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 50, nr 10, s. 1059-1091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the “low-cost hypothesis” (LCH), attitudes explain behavior only if complying with personal convictions requires little effort. Environmental research has seized this argument to explain moderate participation in proenvironmental action against a backdrop of rising environmental awareness. However, evidence for the LCH remains ambiguous, and recent studies have reported contradictory results. Here, we reconcile prior findings on household waste recycling and argue that many environmental behaviors evolved into every day, “normal” practices increasingly encouraged by social norms, and thus slip out of the LCH’s scope. We combine a natural experiment exploiting households’ variation in geocoded walking distances to drop-off recycling sites in Munich, Germany (N=754) with an independent online survey (N=640) measuring local intensities of recycling norms for two distinct waste categories, plastics and glass. Our results suggest that normative change narrows the LCH’s scope to include only environmental action for which normative expectations are weak.

  • 6.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mutgan, Selcan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Urban scaling and the regional divide2019Inngår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id eaav0042Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Superlinear growth in cities has been explained as an emergent consequence of increased social interactions in dense urban environments. Using geocoded microdata from Swedish population registers, we remove population composition effects from the scaling relation of wage income to test how much of the previously reported superlinear scaling is truly attributable to increased social interconnectivity in cities. The Swedish data confirm the previously reported scaling relations on the aggregate level, but they provide better information on the micromechanisms responsible for them. We find that the standard interpretation of urban scaling is incomplete as social interactions only explain about half of the scaling parameter of wage income and that scaling relations substantively reflect differences in cities sociodemographic composition. Those differences are generated by selective migration of highly productive individuals into larger cities. Big cities grow through their attraction of talent from their hinterlands and the already-privileged benefit disproportionally from urban agglomeration.

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