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  • 1.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Innovation capability building in emerging economies through joint venture: Case of Turkish automotive industry2015Ingår i: Gerpisa colloquium, Paris (2015), 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    International R&D collaboration in high tech - the challenges of jet fighter development partnerships in2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In core OECD countries, the defense industry is a preferred sector for government-supported development of advanced R&D and engineering capabilities, which are then diffused to civilian applications, e.g. airplanes and power turbines. This profile of government involvement and high tech makes defense system development attractive also for emerging economies, where policy makers strive to upgrade independent R&D capabilities. Within the defense sector, fighter jets are a particular demanding area in terms of system complexity, long life-cycle and extreme operational conditions. Also, fighter programs require large investments for long period of time: typically 10-20 years. Products are tightly integrated with all subsystems developed for a particular use. In contrast to consumer durables such as white goods, new entrants cannot start with reverse engineering and assembly to gradually move up the technology frontier, but have to compete with world leaders directly. Moreover, the global aerospace industry is an oligopolistic sector with cut-throat competition and very high switching costs for customers.

    This paper seeks the answers of the following questions: Which are the main factors leading up to the formation of new types of international partnerships in jet fighter development? A second question is: Which are the specific challenges related to such partnerships involving firms both from established and emerging economies? In order to answer these research questions Turkish jet fighter program is used as a case study.

    The paper shows that the chances to succeed are highly uncertain in this sector dominated by USA. Although Turkey developed some level of R&D capability in previous defence R&D programs, the complexity of jet fighter development poses new challenges. Previous experiences indicate that technical capabilities are not sufficient, equally important is the formation of local management capabilities. During the pre-development (concept) phase, Turkey chose to collaborate with Swedish Saab. The paper discusses several challenges in this type of collaboration for the future program development, concerning intra- as well as inter-organizational management, i. e. both the organization of the technical development projects, and the design of appropriate industry governance structures.

  • 3.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Division of Business Administration at Zirve University, Gaziantep, Turkey.
    Mobile communications in Turkey: from first mover advantages to management capabilities2011Ingår i: Info, ISSN 1463-6697, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 72-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Several studies of the telecommunications industry have focused on government regulation and structural conditions, suggesting that initial order of entry and network effects create strong first-mover advantages for GSM companies. This paper seeks to change the focus to managerial capabilities and to investigate how an early mover on the Turkish market manages the phase of vigorous competition following the early-regulated period.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a case study of one leading firm in the context of the Turkish telecommunications market development. The most important sources for data are Telepati Telekom Journal, Turkcell Annual Reports, Telecommunications Authority of Turkey's publications, the reports of investment institutions, web pages of operators, and previous publications about the Turkish telecom industry.

    Findings – The paper finds that the early mover, Turkcell, has used a mix of differentiated marketing strategies, innovative and diversified product development and increased service quality to defend its position in an era of increased competition with new operators, a high number of pre-paid customers and number portability.

    Originality/value – On the basis of this case, the paper argues that studies of the telecommunications industry need to expand their analyses of industry structures to also include firm-specific strategies and management capabilities.

  • 4.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Scientific misconduct at an elite medical institute: The role of competing institutional logics and fragmented control2019Ingår i: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 428-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of revealed fraud and dishonesty in academia is on the rise, and so is the number of studies seeking to explain scientific misconduct. This paper builds on the concepts of competing logics and institutional fields to analyze a serious case of medical and scientific misconduct at a leading research institute, Karolinska in Sweden, home to the Nobel Prize in Medicine.

    By distinguishing between a market-oriented, a medical and an academic logic, the study analyzes how various actors − executives, research leaders, co-authors, journal editors, medical doctors, science bloggers, investigative journalists and documentary filmmakers − sustained or tried to expose the misconduct. Despite repeated warnings from patient-responsible doctors and external academic reviewers, Karolinska protected the surgeon, Paolo Macchiarini, until a documentary film at the Swedish national public TV exposed the fraud which led to public inquiries and proposals for a new national ethics legislation.

    The analysis illustrates the power of a market-oriented logic focused on brand and image at the research institute and at a leading journal, but also the perseverance of the logics of scientific scrutiny and medical care among practicing doctors and independent academics although the carriers of these logics were less well organized than the carriers of the market-oriented logic. Furthermore, the analysis shows the problem of fragmented control in the academic institutional field. The discussion of remedies compares the Karolinska case, where media actors were instrumental in sanctioning the perpetrators, with a similar instance of medical misconduct at Duke in the US where the government agency (ORI) intervened and shows the limitations of both types of actors. The conclusion highlights the importance of studying misconduct management and institution-building in different fields to develop effective remedies.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-04-18 13:03
  • 5.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The challenge of knowledge acquisition and integration in emerging economy firms2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge-based theories of the firm have inspired a rich literature on the search, transfer and integration of knowledge in advanced economies. This paper builds on theories on boundaries and knowledge integration to analyze an important new subject: firms in emerging economies and their strategies for acquiring and integrating external knowledge and break with their past as local low-cost manufacturers. Studies within this area, we propose, may also provide fresh perspectives on the general discourse on knowledge integration across boundaries.  We start with the empirical context, emerging economies and technological catch-up, with a focus on Turkey. Then we present case studies of firm strategies to overcome external knowledge boundaries, adopted by two of Turkey´s industry leaders. These strategies are analyzed using Carlile´s (2004) framework on knowledge boundaries. We conclude by briefly reviewing the difficulties faced by the studied firms, and what these difficulties may tell us about different types of boundaries. 

  • 6.
    Bernat, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Accumulating technological capabilities through R&D projects: studies on the Brazilian defence industry2018Ingår i: International journal of technological learning, innovation and development, ISSN 1753-1942, E-ISSN 1753-1950, Vol. 10, nr 3/4, s. 203-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging economy firms (EEFs) have striven to accumulate technological capabilities and promote indigenous innovation for technology upgrading and catching-up. By assuming that R&D projects affect firm capabilities, this study investigated how EEFs can accumulate technological capabilities through R&D activities. A technological-capability framework was proposed with the dimensions of organisational structure, innovation processes, practice, resources and entrepreneurial leadership. The framework guided an exploratory case study of three R&D projects in the Brazilian defence industry: the thrust vector control (TVC), software-defined radio (SDR) and radar projects. The TVC project utilised existing firm capabilities, whereas the SDR and radar projects needed to develop their capabilities from scratch. Different paths were adopted to accumulate technological capabilities and deliver the projects’ outcomes. It was found that a balance between the dimensions may positively impact the rate at which technology capabilities are accumulated. Theoretical contributions and practical implications for EEFs are also discussed. 

  • 7.
    Bernat, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Strategic alignment of technology: Organising for technology upgrading in emerging economy firms2019Ingår i: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 145, s. 295-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology upgrading plays a crucial role in the catching-up process of emerging economy firms (EEFs) that aim to develop technological capabilities and move from imitation to innovation. The literature on emerging economies has mainly focused on how EEFs overcome the lack of technological knowledge at initial stages of catching-up while neglecting organisational issues that arise at later stages. The purpose of this study was to explore organisational activities performed by EEFs that are innovating at advanced stages of catching-up. Two Brazilian firms, namely Petrobras and WEG, were selected to be studied and to provide evidence for the research. The results indicate that both firms have systematically monitored their environments to look for windows of opportunity and have consistently invested in learning mechanisms to overcome shortcomings in knowledge. Furthermore, an activity for aligning strategy and technology was found to be key for optimising the technology upgrading process and for maximising its results.

  • 8.
    Bernat, Steran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Capability Lifecycle Management Practices: Case of a Brazilian Company2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Capability transformation occupies a central role in providing competitive advantages to firms facing rapidly changing environments. To track capability transformation, the existing literature proposes a capability lifecycle model that includes founding, development, and maturity stages and identifies several possible capability transformations such as retirement, retrenchment, replication, renewal, redeployment, and recombination. Monitoring can be used to check significant changes in the complex environment that includes political, economic, social, and technological fields and initiate capability transformation by adapting firms to new environmental conditions ahead of the competition. Learning mechanisms such as tacit accumulation of past experience and explicit knowledge articulation can also be employed to guide the capability evolution to capability innovation. This paper explores the transformation of capabilities in one Brazilian firm by looking for processes used to monitor and evaluate the environment and identifying learning mechanisms utilized during the capability transformation process. Results indicate that the firm has systematic monitoring activities in place and consistently applies learning mechanisms to support capability transformation. Recommendations for managerial and organizational processes concerning monitoring and organizational learning on the firm level are also developed

  • 9.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Student Learning Experiences Concerning Enterprise & Societal Context in CDIO-based Education2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The CDIO Syllabus includes a section dealing with Enterprise, Societal and Environmental Context (Section 4) that was extended in 2011, which implies its growing importance. The goals and content of this section differ from those of the core engineering sections and include awareness of the impact of engineering on society and environment as well as management of people and resources. It may be challenging to teach and learn these topics within the timeframe of already dense educational programs. In this paper we present both the ways of incorporating this section into curricula and a survey of student learning experiences using engineering programs at Linköping University, Sweden, as the empirical setting. Our study covers five engineering programs: Applied Physics & Electrical Engineering; Computer Science and Engineering; Engineering Biology; Industrial Engineering & Management; and Mechanical Engineering. The results show that some of the programs incorporate Section 4 topics mainly through project courses where student teams work on specified assignments within their programs’ focus area (such as software) while training their project management skills and gaining insights into business and societal context. Other programs, especially Industrial Engineering & Management, include several courses where Section 4 topics are learned through lectures, seminars, experiential learning and less extensive group assignments. The results from our survey of students’ learning experiences show that students vary in their evaluation with regard to section 4 topics, with for example Mechanical Engineering students valuing their program higher than others when it comes to their learning about responsibilities of engineers to the society. Industrial Engineering & Management students on the other hand value their program higher than others concerning learning of topics such as business context. We also show that extra-curricular activities in the form of active engagement in students clubs at the university are beneficial for developing leadership abilities during engineering education.

  • 10.
    Borah, Dhruba Jyoti
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Drivers for a successful acquisition: The case of Jaguar Land Rover’s acquisition by Tata2015Ingår i: Gerpisa colloquium, Paris (2015), 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive management literature stated that Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) was not successful under Ford ownership. Recent JLR‟s reports and automotive publications highlight that JLR has been successful under Tata ownership. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the various factors behind Tata-JLR‟s success by investigating the post-acquisition strategies adopted by Tata for JLR. This paper uses qualitative study primarily based on interviews with top management portfolio holders from Ford, JLR and Tata as well as industry experts to study the differences in post-acquisition strategies adopted by the two owners. The findings show that separation strategy, market expansion, and increased investments are the major drivers behind the success of Tata‟s acquisition. Time of the acquisition (2008) has come out as a surprising success factor in this research. The study reveals that Ford used organizational integration strategy, which limited the quality of decision making of JLR management team. On the other hand, Tata has implemented separation strategy and empowered decentralized decision making to JLR‟s managers. This study also brings out a comparison of level of task integration between Jaguar Land Rover and its owners with the help of patent analysis

  • 11.
    da Silva, Luiz Eduardo
    Department of Science and Technology (DCT), Brazilian Army, Brazil.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Collaboration in international technology transfer: the role of knowledge boundaries and boundary objects2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms increasingly use choose collaborative arrangements to get access to the most recent and advanced technologies instead of trying to develop them in-home. Several emerging economies use such arrangements particularly in the defense industry as a vehicle for technology transfer to the local industry. The effectiveness of technology transfer, however, is affected by many factors. This paper analyzes international technology transfer as a challenge of inter-firm collaboration and a challenge of cross-boundary knowledge management, and highlights the role of boundary objects to mitigate problems of knowledge boundaries such transfers. Building on a comparative case study of two international technology transfer projects, the paper contributes to the understanding of how collaboration problems can affect the transfer of knowledge across knowledge boundaries and how the use of appropriate boundary objects may improve collaboration management and the knowledge transfer. 

  • 12.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Factors impacting firm failure and technological development: A study of three emerging-economy firms2019Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 98, s. 462-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies examine the successful globalization and technological development of emerging-economy firms. However, few discuss why some other emerging-economy firms do not develop sufficient technological capabilities, and thus, fail in domestics and global markets. Consequently, the understanding of emerging-economy firm diversity is limited. By analyzing the failure of three firms in two major industries in Turkey, this study identifies a complex set of factors contributing to this outcome. These factors include political risk, macroeconomic regime, national technology policies, and industry dynamics, as well as firm-related factors such as ownership, strategic intent, and the approach to, and current stage of, technology capability development. The results indicate that some of these factors support firm success in the short term but discourage learning and technological capability building, and thus, cause firm failures in the long term. Thus, the study illustrates the importance of studying emerging-economy firms from an extended contextual and temporal perspective.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-03-14 12:02
  • 13.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Antecedents of firm performance in emerging economies: Business groups, strategy, industry structure, and state support2014Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 67, nr 10, s. 2212-2223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A rich literature has investigated the antecedents of firm performance in developed economies, resulting in a consensus view that firm resources and strategy are the key determinants. Several arguments, however, suggest that in emerging economies other factors are more important for firm performance. This study analyzes the impact of firm strategy and industry structure as well as business group membership and state support on firm performance in an advanced emerging economy, Turkey. Using a data set compiled from a selection of the 1000 largest manufacturing firms in this country, the study employs several regression models to identify the main determinants of firm performance as measured by productivity and net profit margin. In contrast to studies of developed economies, the investigation finds that firm-related factors (competitive strategies) do not significantly influence performance; instead factors related to industry structure and business group membership are the strongest determinants of firm performance; further, state support interacts with business group membership and is positively related to productivity.

  • 14.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Back to the Merton ideals? Corporate fraud, scientific dishonesty, and the need to reform academic institutions and identity2013Ingår i: 35th DRUID Celebration Conference 2013, proceeding, Druid Web , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, plagiarism and data manipulation have been dealt with as serious issues in science and medicine.  Reluctantly, academic dishonesty and manipulation are also becoming important issues in social sciences, with prestigious journals recently retracting several published and highly cited papers. This paper provides statistics on retracted papers during the last 12 years in management and economics as reported in several comprehensive databases, Ebsco Business Source Premier, Emerald, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, Springer, Taylor & Francis Online and  Wiley Online Library and analyzes which, if any,  explicit policies journals have formulated in this area. Drawing on recent analyses of persistent corporate fraud, the paper discusses the role of similar mechanisms for the non-discovery of academic fraud, such as institutional endorsement and ascription, fragmented control and mimetic herding. This analysis is related to current forms of academic identity construction, where publications outlets and numbers trump substance, and referencing is more important than reading or reflecting.  The paper ends with a menu of possible remedies, from journal policies and the practices of employment committees to the everyday actions of individual academics.

  • 15.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    From Licensing to Innovation: Alternative Ways of Capability Building at Firms in Emerging Economies2013Ingår i: R&D Management Conference's Proceeding, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the rapid economic development in East Asia have generated several models how industries in latecomer economies may upgrade from low-end manufacturing to full-blown product development capabilities.  With the exception of some Korea and Taiwan’s firms, however, there are few studies of the innovation journey of specific firms and the challenges, managerial efforts and uncertainties involved in linking to and learning from international knowledge centers. Moreover, the alternative ways suggested in the literature to acquire knowledge for innovation, need to be analyzed and compared from a firm and management perspective.

    This paper analyzes the strategic options confronting emerging economy firms which aspire to succeed in global competition. Using in-depth studies of two company cases in Turkey, one in white goods and one in the automotive industry, the paper details the combination of efforts and investments required to move up the technology ladder from license-based domestic businesses to independent, internationally competitive capabilities on par with global innovation leaders.  The paper shows the critical value of long-term ownership structures for independent capability building but also indicates the difficulty of building brand value commensurate with technological achievements.  Further, the paper demonstrates the limits of the alternative way, joint venture agreements, where MNEs tend to retain exclusive control of key technologies and product decisions.  Here the paper suggests that coordinated private and Government efforts might be needed to position local partner firms as global centers of “niche” excellence within the multinational configuration.

  • 16.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    International R&D collaboration in high tech - the challenges of jet fighter development partnerships in emerging economies2015Ingår i: Handbook of Research on Driving Competitive Advantage through Lean and Disruptive Innovation: Advances in Business Strategy and Competitive Advantage (ABSCA) / [ed] Latif Al-Hakim, Xiaobu Wu, Andy Koronios and Yongyi Shou, Hershey, USA: IGI Global, 2015Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter seeks the answers to the following research question: Which are the challenges related to high tech R&D collaboration involving firms both from established and emerging economies? To answer this question, the Turkish jet fighter program is used as a case study. The study shows the chances to succeed are highly uncertain in this sector dominated by USA. Although Turkey acquired some level of R&D capability in previous defense R&D programs, the complexity of jet fighter development poses new challenges. Previous experiences indicate that technical capabilities are not sufficient, equally important is the formation of management capabilities. During the pre-development (concept) phase, Turkey chose to collaborate with Swedish Saab. The paper discusses several challenges in this type of collaboration for a full-scale jet fighter development program- These challenges concern intra- as well as inter-organizational management, the organization of the technical development projects, and the design of appropriate industry governance structures.

  • 17.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Joint ventures or independence? Alternative ways of R&D capability building at emerging economy firms2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the rapid economic development in East Asia suggest several factors which influence how industries inlatecomer economies can utilize external knowledge to upgrade from low-end manufacturing to full-blown productdevelopment capabilities. A main aspect in this process is the learning and capability development at the level of firms.However, there are few studies of the innovation journey of specific latecomer firms and the challenges, managerialefforts and uncertainties involved in accessing and learning from international knowledge centers. Specifically, thevarious ways to acquire knowledge for innovation suggested in the literature need to be examined.This paper analyzes the strategic options confronting latecomer firms which aspire to succeed in global competition.Based on in-depth studies in two Turkish industries, white goods and automotive, the paper details the combination ofefforts and investments required to move up the technology ladder from license-based domestic businesses tointernationally competitive capabilities. Two principal ways of acquiring innovation proficiency are compared:independent capability building versus international joint ventures. The paper shows the power of the former, but alsoindicates the difficulty of fostering brand value commensurate with technological achievements. Further the analysisreveals the reasons for and the limits of the alternative way, joint venture agreements, where MNEs tend to retainexclusive control of core technologies. The discussion section suggests that in sectors where independent capabilitybuilding is implausible; it might be possible to position local firms as global niche centers of excellence withinmultinational configurations, if private and government efforts are skilfully coordinated.

  • 18.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Misconduct, Marginality and Editorial Practices in Management, Business, and Economics Journals2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikel-id e0159492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The paper presents data on the two problems of misconduct and marginality in management, business and economics (MBE) journals and their practices to combat these problems.

    Design

    Data was collected in three phases. First, all publicly retracted papers in MBE journals were identified through keywords searches in 7 major databases (n = 1329 journals). Second, a focused survey was distributed to editors involved in such retractions (n = 64; response rate = 28%). Finally, a survey was administered to all active journals in the seven databases to collect data on editors’ perceptions and practices related to the two problems (n = 937, response rate = 31.8%). Frequency analyses, cross tabulations, and qualitative analyses of open answers were used to examine the data.

    Results

    184 retracted papers in MBE journals were identified in 2005–2015 (no retraction was found before 2005). From 2005–2007 to 2012–2015, the number of retractions increased by a factor ten with an all-time high in 2015. The survey to journals with reported retractions illustrates how already a few cases of suspected misconduct put a strain on the editorial workload. The survey to all active journals revealed that 42% of the respondents had started to use software to screen all submitted papers, and that a majority recognized the problem of marginality, as indicated by salami-style submissions. According to some editors, reviewers easily spot such submissions whereas others argued that authors may submit thinly sliced papers in parallel to several journals, which means that this practice is only discovered post-publication. The survey question on ways to support creative contributions stimulated a rich response of ideas regarding editorial vision, engaged boards and developmental approaches. The study uses data from three specialized fields, but its findings may be highly relevant to many journals in the social sciences.

  • 19.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Struggling with knowledge boundaries and stickiness: case studies of innovating firms in an emerging economy2017Ingår i: Managing knowledge integration across boundaries / [ed] Fredrik Tell, Christian Berggren, Stefano Brusoni, Andrew Van de Ven, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, s. 139-154Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the efforts of firms in emerging economies to acquire the advanced knowledge needed to build internationally competitive innovation capabilities. Two studies of innovator firms in Turkey are analysed using Carlile´s framework of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic boundaries. The findings show how firms use external collaboration to overcome semantic boundaries related to interpretive ambiguity, and international windows of opportunity to bypass pragmatic, interest-related knowledge boundaries.

  • 20.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Trust Building for Technological Collaboration” R&D management conference2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature on technological collaboration, trust between the partners involved plays a major role for the outcome. The current study analyzes trust and attitudes to collaboration in a technology transfer project between two high-technology firms—one located in a developed economy, the other in an emerging economy. Compared with previous research the study has a two major benefits: equal access to participants on both sides; and a longitudinal design which will make it possible to understand the dynamics of trust, attitudes and emergent actions.

    This paper presents preliminary findings from the first stage of the transfer project and is based on a survey administered to 93 engineers from both firms. The survey collected data on trust propensity, trustworthiness (competence, integrity and benevolence), image of the other party and personal expectations and analyzed how these factors influence attitudes to collaboration. Preliminary findings confirm that trust propensity, perceived competence and benevolence, image of the other party and personal expectations all have an impact on attitudes to collaboration. Perceived integrity, however, did not show any correlation to attitudes to collaboration, which implies that managers on both sides will need time and effort to demonstrate their capabilities in this area to each other.

  • 21.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Borah, Dhruba Jyoti
    Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, UK.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Separation or Integration for Successful Acquisition?: A Comparative Study of Established and Emerging Economies' Firms2018Ingår i: Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, ISSN 1927-033X, E-ISSN 1927-033X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the post-acquisition practices of established economy firms argue that integration is one of the most important factors that drives acquisition performance. Recent research suggests that firms from emerging economies may use different approaches in their acquisitions. However, there is a lack of studies of the post-acquisition strategies of emerging economy firms. This study presents an in-depth case study of the strategy of an emerging economy firm from a large business group after its acquisition of a classical brand-name company in a developed economy. Moreover, this strategy and its performance outcomes is compared with the strategy of the acquired firm´s previous owner, an established MNE from a leading OECD country. The study reveals that the emerging economy firm, Tata Motors, pursued a consistent separation strategy in all the investigated areas – human resource management, new product development, production, and marketing. Moreover, this separation strategy turned out to be much more successful than the integration strategy pursued by the previous owner, Ford Motors.

  • 22.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lau, Marco Chi Keung
    Newcastle Business School, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK .
    Suvankulov, Farrukh
    Zirve University, Gaziantep, Turkey .
    Determinants of firm competitiveness: Case of the Turkish textile and apparel industry2014Ingår i: Journal of the Textile Institute, ISSN 0040-5000, E-ISSN 1754-2340, Vol. 105, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores different determinants of competitiveness in the booming textile and apparel industry of Turkey. By using focus groups, survey data, and explanatory factor analysis, we have identified 27 competitive items grouped into eight constructs. According to Turkish managers, the competitiveness of textile and apparel firm is heavily determined by product differentiation, efforts across foreign markets, and availability of government incentives. In contrast to existing studies, we find little evidence that networking in different forms, such as close relationship politicians and state employees, clustering, and participating in the industry associations, have a major impact on a firm competitiveness.

  • 23.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    et al.
    Zirve University, IIBF, Gaziantep, Turkey.
    Tuncay-Celikel, Asli
    Isik University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Limits of R&D Internationalization and the Importance of Local Initiatives: Turkey as a Critical Case2011Ingår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 39, nr 8, s. 1347-1357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of Randamp;D in East Asia has triggered the notion of a new innovation geography, where Randamp;D is no longer a privilege of the traditional OECD countries. What does this mean for mid-sized emerging economies, without the scale advantages and bargaining power of India or China? This paper uses Turkey as a case to examine the continual unevenness of international Randamp;D investments. By analyzing opportunities and limitations for local initiatives in the telecommunications, pharmaceutical, and automotive industries the paper finds that active private capital, a sufficient scale of production, and focused public policies are needed to attract international Randamp;D.

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