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  • 1.
    Abbasy, Leila
    et al.
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Mohammadzadeh, Arezoo
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development of a reliable bioanalytical method based on prostate specific antigen trapping on the cavity of molecular imprinted polymer towards sensing of PSA using binding affinity of PSA-MIP receptor: A novel biosensor2020In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 188, article id 113447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, electrically-conducting poly [Toluidine Blue (PTB)] was applied as artificial receptor. It was organized by molecular imprinting approaches and via electrochemical technique for the sensitive monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The protein-imprinted PTB was electropolymerized in a pre-formed glutaraldehyde-cysteamine (GA-Cys A) matrix on the surface of gold electrode, which significantly boosted the stability against degradation of the Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP) on the surface of pre-modified gold electrode. Moreover, the MIP bio-receptor ability towards protein recognition was explored by some electrochemical techniques. The binding affinity of MIP system was considerably upper than that of non-imprinted polymer (NIP) system, indicating the success of the method in generating imprinted materials that was specifically use to PSA protein. The incubation of the MIP modified electrode in various concentration of PSA (from 1-60 μg/L) resulted in the increase of the Fe (CN)63-/4- redox peak current. The bio-device also showed linear response from 1-60 μg/L and LLOQ of 1 μg/L by using DPV technique, leading to PSA monitoring in clinical samples. The proposed MIP-based biosensor was satisfactorily applied to the determination of PSA in human plasma samples. Therefore, the developed bio-device provides a new approach for sensitive, simple, rapid, and cost-effective monitoring of 1 μg/L of PSA. Notably, this approach could appear as an appropriate candidate for point-of-care (POC) use in clinical and biomedical analyses.

  • 2.
    Bahavarnia, Farnaz
    et al.
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Pashazadeh-Panahi, Paria
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    DNA based biosensing of Acinetobacter baumannii using nanoparticles aggregation method2020In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 6, no 7, article id e04474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the main cause of nosocomial infections in blood, urinary tract, wounds and in lungs leading to pneumonia. Apart from its strong predilection to be the cause of serious illnesses in intensive care units. Herein, we present a specific and sensitive approach for the monitoring of Acinetobacter baumannii genome based on citrate capped silver nanoparticles (Cit-AgNPs) using spectroscopic methods. In this study, (5' SH-TTG TGA ACT ATT TAC GTC AGC ATG C3') sequence was used as a probe DNA (pDNA) of Acinetobacter baumannii. Then, complementary DNA (cDNA) was used for hybridization. After the hybridization of pDNA with cDNA, target DNA (5' GCA TGC TGA CGT AAA TAGTTC ACA A 3') was recognized and detected using turn-on fluorescence bioassay. After the hybridization of pDNA with cDNA, the target DNA was successfully measured in optimum time of 2 min by spectrophotometric techniques. Moreover, the selectivity of designed bioassay was evaluated in the presence of two mismatch sequences and excellent differentiation was obtained. 1 Zepto-molar (zM) of low limit of quantification (LLOQ) was achieved by this genosensor. The present study paved the way for quick (2 min) and accurate detection of Acinetobacter baumannii, which can be a good alternative to the traditional methods. Current study proposed a novel and significant diagnostic test towards Acinetobacter baumannii detection based on silver nanoparticles aggregation which has the capability of being a good alternative to the traditional methods. Moreover, the proposed genosensor successfully could be applied for the detection of other pathogens.

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  • 3.
    Lazouskaya, Maryna
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Estonia; Ctr Food & Fermentat Technol, Estonia.
    Vetik, Iuliia
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Estonia.
    Uppuluri, Kiranmai
    Inst Microelect & Photon, Poland.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Scheler, Ott
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Estonia.
    Cleaning Procedure for the Screen-Printed RuO2 pH Electrodes2022In: 2022 IEEE SENSORS, IEEE , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen-printed RuO2 pH electrodes are suitable for pH determination not only in water samples but also in different food matrixes, e.g., beverages, juices and milk. Nevertheless, the application of the screen-printed RuO2 electrodes in milk is impossible without covering the electrodes with a protective Nafion membrane that prevents the contamination of the pH-sensitive area of the electrode with sample residues. However, not much attention has been paid to the cleaning procedure of Nafion-covered screen-printed RuO2 electrodes (RuO2-Nf). In this paper, we show that cleaning the electrodes by soaking them in the solution of 5% pepsin in 0.1 M HCl allows restoring the electrode to its initial state for measuring pH in food samples.

  • 4.
    Mehri, Parina
    et al.
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Pashazadeh-Panahi, Paria
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An innovative genosensor for the monitoring of Leishmania spp sequence using binding of pDNA to cDNA based on Cit-AgNPs2020In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 6, no 8, article id e04638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leishmaniasis considered as the most crucial epidemic-prone diseases according to the World Health Organization. Early diagnoses and therapy of Leishmania infection is a great challenge since, it has no symptom and is resistance to drugs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for sensitive and precise detection of this pathogen. In this study, a new method was developed for optical biosensing of Leishmania spp sequence based on hybridization of Citrate capped Ag nanoparticles bonded to specific single stranded DNA probe of Leishmania spp. Aggregation of the Citrate capped Ag nanoparticles in the existence or lack of a cDNA sequence of Leishmania, cause eye catching and considerable significant alter in the UV–vis. The obtained low limit of quantification (LLOQ) of was achieved as 1ZM. Based on experimental results in optimum conditions, quick bioanalysis of Leishmania spp sequence was performed (2 min). So, this probe can be used for the clinical diagnosis of this pathogen and infection disease. © 2020 The Author(s) Analytical chemistry; Nanotechnology, Nanostructure; Affinity binding; Leishmaniasis; Spectrophotometer; Spectrofluorimetric; Biosensing © 2020 The Author(s)

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  • 5.
    Ngok, Sreymean
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mustafa, Elfatih Mohammed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Royal Univ Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical, synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction for sensing application2024In: NANO SELECT, ISSN 2688-4011, article id e2300155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature hydrothermal methods have been utilized to synthesize Hematite/Zinc oxide alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction nanorods grown on FTO glass substrates while monitoring the effect of different concentrations of urea on the morphology of the composite nano-heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of the alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO different samples. UV-visible spectroscopy was used for the characteristic absorbance versus wavelength of alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction which shows an absorption edge from 400 to 560 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied to study of chemical composition of the alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO and the obtained information demonstrated a pure phase alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO has been achieved. The best efficiency among urea concentrations for the best composite nano-heterojunction sample was achieved when using 0.2 M of urea. The electrochemical properties of the composite nano-heterojunction were investigated using a three-electrode electrochemical cell. Estimation of the electrochemical area shows that both the composite nano-heterojunction and the bare alpha-Fe2O3 have similar values. This confirms that the enhanced electrochemical property of the composite nano-heterojunction is due to a synergetic effect as expected.

  • 6. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    (Nano)materials for electrochemical sensing applications in different fields2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care and the medical industry, environmental monitoring and food sector are just a few examples of human’s major concerns. Design and analytical applications of (bio)sensors and sensing (nano)materials in these fields which have drawn tremendous attention by scientific community, require multidisciplinary knowledge in materials, transducers, and measurement methodologies. Among different types of transducers, electrochemical transducers have gained a lot of interest due to their simplicity, ease of fabrication and integration, selectivity, and sensitivity. Application of sensing materials, in particular nanomaterials, provide several improvements for analytical sensing such as selectivity, sensitivity, robustness, and fast response. Therefore, different nanomaterials due to their excellent characterization are exploited as key instruments for the design of high-performant analytical assays in various fields.

    Considering this established nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensing applications as alternatives to conventional methods in various fields, in this thesis, we synthesized and characterized some (nano)materials such as gold nanostars (AuNSs), iron oxide/zinc oxide (α-Fe2O3/ZnO) nanocomposite for sensing applications in environmental monitoring. We fabricated screen printed Ruthenium (IV) oxide (RuO2-Nf) pH electrodes and applied them for continuous pH monitoring in milk and during milk coagulation. Although the results indicated the applicability of the RuO2-Nf electrodes for continuous pH measurement in milk as a replacement of traditional glass electrode, they are not suitable for more viscous samples. Later we investigated the cleaning procedure for these pH electrodes, and we showed that soaking them in the solution of 5% pepsin in 0.1 M HCl restores the electrodes to their initial state for pH measurement in food samples. In another work we developed a molecular imprinted polymer-based biosensor for successful detection of prostate-specific antigen. At the end we investigated the effect of pH on the growth of pathogenic bacteria using electrical impedance spectroscopy.

    List of papers
    1. Cleaning Procedure for the Screen-Printed RuO2 pH Electrodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cleaning Procedure for the Screen-Printed RuO2 pH Electrodes
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: 2022 IEEE SENSORS, IEEE , 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen-printed RuO2 pH electrodes are suitable for pH determination not only in water samples but also in different food matrixes, e.g., beverages, juices and milk. Nevertheless, the application of the screen-printed RuO2 electrodes in milk is impossible without covering the electrodes with a protective Nafion membrane that prevents the contamination of the pH-sensitive area of the electrode with sample residues. However, not much attention has been paid to the cleaning procedure of Nafion-covered screen-printed RuO2 electrodes (RuO2-Nf). In this paper, we show that cleaning the electrodes by soaking them in the solution of 5% pepsin in 0.1 M HCl allows restoring the electrode to its initial state for measuring pH in food samples.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2022
    Series
    IEEE Sensors, ISSN 1930-0395
    Keywords
    ruthenium oxide; screen printing; pH electrodes; cleaning procedure
    National Category
    Other Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-192029 (URN)10.1109/SENSORS52175.2022.9967177 (DOI)000918629700160 ()9781665484640 (ISBN)9781665484657 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE Sensors Conference, Dallas, TX, oct 30-nov 02, 2022
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Commission [H2020-MSCA-ITN-2018-813680]; Tallinn University of Technology development program [2014-2020.4.01.16-0032]

    Available from: 2023-03-02 Created: 2023-03-02 Last updated: 2023-11-17
    2. Development of a reliable bioanalytical method based on prostate specific antigen trapping on the cavity of molecular imprinted polymer towards sensing of PSA using binding affinity of PSA-MIP receptor: A novel biosensor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a reliable bioanalytical method based on prostate specific antigen trapping on the cavity of molecular imprinted polymer towards sensing of PSA using binding affinity of PSA-MIP receptor: A novel biosensor
    2020 (English)In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 188, article id 113447Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, electrically-conducting poly [Toluidine Blue (PTB)] was applied as artificial receptor. It was organized by molecular imprinting approaches and via electrochemical technique for the sensitive monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The protein-imprinted PTB was electropolymerized in a pre-formed glutaraldehyde-cysteamine (GA-Cys A) matrix on the surface of gold electrode, which significantly boosted the stability against degradation of the Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP) on the surface of pre-modified gold electrode. Moreover, the MIP bio-receptor ability towards protein recognition was explored by some electrochemical techniques. The binding affinity of MIP system was considerably upper than that of non-imprinted polymer (NIP) system, indicating the success of the method in generating imprinted materials that was specifically use to PSA protein. The incubation of the MIP modified electrode in various concentration of PSA (from 1-60 μg/L) resulted in the increase of the Fe (CN)63-/4- redox peak current. The bio-device also showed linear response from 1-60 μg/L and LLOQ of 1 μg/L by using DPV technique, leading to PSA monitoring in clinical samples. The proposed MIP-based biosensor was satisfactorily applied to the determination of PSA in human plasma samples. Therefore, the developed bio-device provides a new approach for sensitive, simple, rapid, and cost-effective monitoring of 1 μg/L of PSA. Notably, this approach could appear as an appropriate candidate for point-of-care (POC) use in clinical and biomedical analyses.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2020
    Keywords
    Binding affinity, Biomacromolecules, Biomedical analysis, Biosensor, Encapsulation, Prostate cancer.
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-168893 (URN)10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113447 (DOI)000556785200040 ()32623317 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:  Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Available from: 2020-09-02 Created: 2020-09-02 Last updated: 2023-11-17
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  • 7.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical genosensor based on gold nanostars for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 DNA2022In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 14, no 16, p. 1562-1570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which has been issued as a major threat to public health worldwide due to fatal contamination of water and food. Thus, its rapid and accurate detection has tremendous importance in environmental monitoring and human health. In this regard, we report a simple and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor by targeting Z3276 as a genetic marker in river water. The surface of the designed gold electrode was functionalized with gold nanostars and an aminated specific sensing probe of E. coli O157:H7 to fabricate the genosensor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were applied for electrochemical characterization and detection. The synthesized gold nanostars were characterized using different characterization techniques. The fabricated DNA-based sensor exhibited a high selective ability for one, two, and three-base mismatched sequences. Regeneration, stability, selectivity, and kinetics of the bioassay were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the fabricated genosensor exhibited a linear response range of 10(-5) to 10(-17) mu M in the standard sample and 7.3 to 1 x 10(-17) mu M in water samples with a low limit of quantification of 0.01 zM in water samples. The detection strategy based on silver plated gold nanostars and DNA hybridization improved the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for E. coli O157:H7 detection in real water samples without filtration. The detection assay has the advantages of high selectivity, sensitivity, low amounts of reagents, short analysis time, commercialization, and potential application for the determination of other pathogenic bacteria.

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  • 8.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Recent Progress on the Electrochemical Biosensing of Escherichia coli O157:H7: Material and Methods Overview2020In: Biosensors, ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 54Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coliO157:H7 (E. coliO157:H7) is a pathogenic strain ofEscherichia coliwhich has issued as a public health threat because of fatal contamination of food and water. Therefore, accurate detection of pathogenicE. coliis important in environmental and food quality monitoring. In spite of their advantages and high acceptance, culture-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry, ATP bioluminescence, and solid-phase cytometry have various drawbacks, including being time-consuming, requiring trained technicians and/or specific equipment, and producing biological waste. Therefore, there is necessity for affordable, rapid, and simple approaches. Electrochemical biosensors have shown great promise for rapid food- and water-borne pathogen detection. Over the last decade, various attempts have been made to develop techniques for the rapid quantification ofE. coliO157:H7. This review covers the importance ofE. coliO157:H7 and recent progress (from 2015 to 2020) in the development of the sensitivity and selectivity of electrochemical sensors developed forE. coliO157:H7 using different nanomaterials, labels, and electrochemical transducers.

  • 9.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lazouskaya, Maryna
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Estonia; Ctr Food & Fermentat Technol, Estonia.
    Pajcin, Ivana
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Petrovic, Bojan
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Grahovac, Jovana
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Simic, Mitar
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stojanovic, Goran M.
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Monitoring the effect of pH on the growth of pathogenic bacteria using electrical impedance spectroscopy2023In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 20, article id 101425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    pH value is a significant environmental factor controlling the bacterial growth, activity and affecting their metabolic properties. In the present study, the effect of the different pH values (5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) of the cultivation medium on the growth rate of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 134,909/2 were studied. Plate count method and spectrophotometric measurement of optical density of the cultivation broth were used to assess growth of the pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy measurement was applied to monitor the impedance change caused by the bacterial growth and activity at different pH values. Although the results showed that the initial pH did not completely inhibit the growth of the bacteria, the bacterial growth varied with the pH change showing the interference of pH with cell metabolism. Based on the results, the optical density of the cultivation broth measured spectrophotometrically for E. coli and B. cereus has shown good correlation with cell number determined by the plate count method in each phase of bacterial cultivation. Moreover, the results indicated that for E. coli and B. cereus the impedance value of the bacteria and the medium decreased from the beginning of the experiment till its end after 96 h from the start The impedance value during the first 24 h increased for P. aeruginosa, and then was decreasing until the end of the experiment. Nevertheless, the change in the resistance of the bacteria and the medium was proportionate to the change in cell number. For E. coli and B. cereus the resistance was decreasing with the growth of the bacteria. The linear dependency between the impedance and cell number was observed at low frequencies around 10-100 Hz. For P. aeruginosa, the resistance was increasing during the first 24 h and was decreasing afterwards. Furthermore, the resistance for P. aeruginosa was decreasing with the increase in cell number. Nonetheless, the impedance of the medium with P. aeruginosa was in linear dependency on the logarithm of cell number with the best R2 at high frequencies (0.1-1 MHz).

  • 10.
    Si, Peng
    et al.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solanki, Shipra
    Delhi Technol Univ, India; Delhi Technol Univ, India.
    Pandey, Chandra Mouli
    Delhi Technol Univ, India.
    Gupta, Rajinder K.
    Delhi Technol Univ, India.
    Malhotra, Bansi D.
    Delhi Technol Univ, India.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    de la Zerda, Adam
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Gold nanomaterials for optical biosensing and bioimaging2021In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 2679-2698Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are highly compelling nanomaterials for biomedical studies due to their unique optical properties. By leveraging the versatile optical properties of different gold nanostructures, the performance of biosensing and biomedical imaging can be dramatically improved in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, speed, contrast, resolution and penetration depth. Here we review recent advances of optical biosensing and bioimaging techniques based on three major optical properties of AuNPs: surface plasmon resonance, surface enhanced Raman scattering and luminescence. We summarize the fabrication methods and optical properties of different types of AuNPs, highlight the emerging applications of these AuNPs for novel optical biosensors and biomedical imaging innovations, and discuss the future trends of AuNP-based optical biosensors and bioimaging as well as the challenges of implementing these techniques in preclinical and clinical investigations.

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